मुहम्मद बिन तुग़लक़  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Disamb2.jpg tugalaq ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- tugalaq

gayasuddin tugalaq ki mrityu ke bad usaka putr 'joona khan', muhammad bin tugalaq (1325-1351 ee.) ke nam se dilli ki gaddi par baitha. isaka mool nam 'uloog khan' tha. rajamundari ke ek abhilekh men muhammad tugalaq (jauna ya joona khan) ko duniya ka khan kaha gaya hai. sambhavatah madhyakalin sabhi sultanon men muhammad tugalaq sarvadhik shikshit, vidvanh evn yogy vyakti tha. apani sanak bhari yojanaon, kroor-krityon evn doosare ke sukh-dukh ke prati upeksha ka bhav rakhane ke karan ise 'svapnashil', 'pagal' evn 'rakt-pipasu' kaha gaya hai. barani, sarahindi , nizamuddin, badayoonni evn farishta jaise itihasakaron ne sultan ko adharmi ghoshit kiya gaya hai.

pad vyavastha

sinhasan par baithane ke bad tugalaq ne amiron evn saradaron ko vibhinn upadhiyan evn pad pradan kiya. usane tatar khan ko 'baharam khan' ki upadhi, malik qabool ko 'imad-ul-mulk' ki upadhi evn 'vazir-e-mumalik' ka pad diya tha, par kalantar men use 'khanejahan' ki upadhi ke sath gujarat ka haqim banaya gaya. usane malik arooyaj ko khvaja jahan ki upadhi ke sath ‘shahana-e-imarat’ ka pad, maulana gayasuddin ko (sultan ka adhyapak) 'kutulug khan' ki upadhi ke sath 'vakil-e-dar' ki padavi, apane chachere bhaee firoj shah tugalaq ko 'nayab barabak' ka pad pradan kiya tha.

gunavan vyakti

muhammad bin tugalaq dilli ke sabhi sultanon men sarvadhik kushagr, buddhi sampann, dharm-nirepaksh, kala-premi evn anubhavi senapati tha. vah arabi bhasha evn farasi bhasha ka viddhan tatha khagolashastr, darshan, ganit, chikitsa, vigyan, tarkashastr adi men parngat tha. alauddin khilaji ki bhanti apane shasan kal ke prarambh men usane, n to khalifa se apane pad ki svikriti li aur n ulema varg ka sahayog liya, yadyapi bad me aisa karana pada. usane nyay vibhag par ulema varg ka ekadhipaty samapt kiya. qazi ke jis phaisale se vah sntusht nahin hota tha, use badal deta tha. sarvapratham muhammad tugalaq ne hi bina kisi bhedabhav ke yogyata ke adhar par padon ka avntan kiya. nasl aur varg-vibhed ko samapt karake yogyata ke adhar par adhikariyon ko niyukt karane ki niti apanayi. vastut: yah us shasak ka durbhagy tha ki, usaki yojanaen saphalatapoorvak kriyanvit nahin huee. jisake karan yah itihasakaron ki alochana ka patr bana.

dilli saltanat

muhammad tugalaq ke sinhasan par baithate samay dilli saltanat kul 23 pranton men bnta thi, jinamen mukhy the - dilli, devagiri, lahaur, multan, saramuti, gujarat, avadh, kannauj, lakhanauti, bihar, malava, jajanagar (udisa), dvarasamudr adi. kashmir evn baloochistan dilli saltanat men shamil nahin the. dilli saltanat ki sima ka sarvadhik vistar isi ke shasanakal men hua tha. parantu isaki kroor niti ke karan rajy men vidroh arambh ho gaya. jisake phalasvaroop dakshin men ne svatntr rajy ki sthapana huee aur ye kshetr dilli saltanat se alag ho ge. bngal bhi svatntr ho gaya. rajyarohan ke bad muhammad tugalaq ne kuchh navin yojanaon ka nirman kar unhen kriyanvit karane ka prayatn kiya. jaise -

  1. doab kshetr men kar vriddhi (1326-27 ee.)
  2. rajadhani parivartan (1326-27 ee.)
  3. sanketik mudra ka prachalan (1329-30 ee.)
  4. khurasan evn karachil ka abhiyan adi.

doab kshetr men kar vriddhi

apani pratham yojana ke dvara muhammad tugalaq ne doab ke oopajaoo pradesh men kar ki vriddhi kar di (snbhavatah 50 pratishat), parantu usi varsh doab men bhaynkar akal pad gaya, jisase paidavar prabhavit huee. tugalaq ke adhikariyon dvara zabaran kar vasoolane se us kshetr men vidroh ho gaya, jisase tugalaq ki yah yojana asaphal rahi. muhammad tugalaq ne krishi ke vikas ke lie ‘amir-e-kohi’ namak ek navin vibhag ki sthapana ki. sarakari karmachariyon ke bhrashtachar, kisanon ki udasinata, bhoomi ka achchha n hona ityadi karanon se krishi unnati sambandhi apani yojana ko tin varsh pashchath samapt kar diya. muhammad bin tugalaq ne kisanon ko bahut kam byaj par rin (sonathar) upalabdh karaya.

rajadhani parivartan

tugalaq ne apani doosari yojana ke antargat rajadhani ko dilli se devagiri sthanantarit kiya. devagiri ko “kuvvatul islam” bhi kaha gaya. sultan kutubuddin mubarak khilaji ne devagiri ka nam 'kutubabad' rakha tha aur muhammad bin tugalaq ne isaka nam badalakar daulatabad kar diya. sultan ki is yojana ke lie sarvadhik alochana ki gee. muhammad tugalaq dvara rajadhani parivartan ke karanon par itihasakaron men bada vivad hai, phir bhi nishkarshatah kaha ja sakata hai ki, devagiri ka dilli saltanat ke madhy sthit hona, mngol akramanakariyon ke bhay se surakshit rahana, dakshin-bharat ki sampannata ki or khinchav adi aise karan the, jinake karan sultan ne rajadhani parivartit karane ki bat sochi. muhammad tugalaq ki yah yojana bhi poornatah asaphal rahi aur usane 1355 ee. men daulatabad se logon ko dilli vapas ane ki anumati de di. rajadhani parivartan ke parinamasvaroop dakshin men muslim snskriti ka vikas hua, jisane antatah bahamani samrajy ke uday ka marg khola.

sanketik mudra ka prachalan

tisari yojana ke antargat muhammad tugalaq ne sanketik v pratikatmak sikkon ka prachalan karavaya. sikke snbndhi vividh prayogon ke karan hi edavard tamas ne use ‘dhanavanon ka rajakumar’ kaha hai. muhammad tugalaq ne 'dokani' namak sikke ka prachalan karavaya. barani ke anusar sambhavatah sultan ne rajakosh ki riktata ke karan evn apani samrajy vistar ki niti ko saphal banane hetu sanketik mudra ka prachalan karavaya. sanketik mudra ke antargat sultan ne snbhavatah pital (farishta ke anusar) aur tanba (barani ke anusar) dhatuon ke sikke chalaye, jisaka mooly chandi ke rupaye taka ke barabar hota tha. sikka dhalane par rajy ka niyntran nahin rahane se anek jali takasal ban gaye. lagan jali sikke se diya jane laga, jisase arthavyavasatha thapp ho gee. sanketik mudra chalane ki prerana chin tatha eeran se mili. vahan ke shasakon ne in yojanaon ko saphalatapoorvak chalaya, jabaki muhammad tugalaq ka prayog viphal raha. sultan ko apani is yojana ki asaphalata par bhayanak arthik kshati ka samana karana pada.

khurasan evn karachil abhiyan

chauthi yojana ke antargat muhammad tugalaq ke khurasan evn karachil vijay abhiyan ka ullekh kiya jata hai. khurasan ko jitane ke lie muhammad tugalaq ne 3,70,000 sainikon ki vishal sena ko ek varsh ka agrim vetan de diya, parantu rajanitik parivartan ke karan donon deshon ke madhy samajhauta ho gaya, jisase sultan ki yah yojana asaphal rahi aur use arthik roop se hani uthani padi. karachil abhiyan ke antargat sultan ne khusaro malik ke netritv men ek vishal sena ko pahadi rajyon ko jitane ke lie bheja. usaki poori sena jngali raston men bhatak gee, ibn batoota ke anusar antatah keval tin adhikari hi bachakar vapas a sake. is prakar muhammad tugalaq ki yah yojana bhi asaphal rahi. sambhavatah 1328-29 ee. ke madhy mngol akramanakari taramasharin chagataee ne ek vishal sena ke sath bharat par akraman kar multan, lahaur se lekar dilli tak ke pradeshon ko raund dala. aisa mana jata hai ki, sultan muhammad tugalaq ne mngol neta ko ghoos dekar vapas kar diya tha. is niti ke karan sultan ko alochana ka shikar banana pada. isake bad phir kabhi muhammad tugalaq ke samay men bharat par mngol akraman nahin hua. apani mahattvakankshi asaphal yojanaon ke karan muhammad tugalaq ko ‘asaphalataon ka badashah’ kaha jata hai.

mahattvapoorn vidroh

muhammad bin tugalaq ke shasan kal men sabase adhik (34) vidroh hue, jinamen se 27 vidroh akele dakshin bharat men hi hue. sultan muhammad tugalaq ke shasan kal men hue kuchh mahattvapoorn vidrohon ka saransh nimnalikhit hain-
pratham vidroh 1327 ee. men tugalaq ke chachere bhaee sultan gurashasp ne kiya, jo gulabarga ke nikat sagar ka soobedar tha. vah sultan dvara buri tarah se parajit kiya gaya. muhammad tugalaq ke viruddh sindh tatha multan ke soobedar baharam aeeba oorph kishloo khan ne 1327-1328 ee. men vidroh kiya. saiyad jalaluddin hasanashah ka malabar vidroh 1334-1335 ee. men kiya gaya. bngal ka vidroh (1330-1331 ee.) pramukh hain. bngal ke vidroh ko yadyapi prarnbh men daba liya gaya tha, kintu 1340-1341 ee. ke lagabhag shamsuddin ke netritv men bngal dilli saltanat se alag ho gaya. 1337-1338 ee. men kada ke soobedar nizam bhaee ka vidroh, 1338-1339 ee. men bidar ke soobedar, nusarat khan ka vidroh, 1339-1340 ee. men gulabarga ke alishah ka vidroh adi bhi muhammad tugalaq ke viruddh kiye gaye vidrohon men pramukh hain. is tarah ke vidrohon ka sultan ne saphalatapoorvak daman kiya. muhammad tugalaq ke shasanakal men hi dakshin men 1336 ee. men 'harihar' evn 'bukka' namak do bhaeeyon ne svatntr ‘vijayanagar’ ki sthapana ki. afriki yatri ibn batoota ko 1333 ee. men muhammad ne apane rajadoot ke roop men chin bheja. ibn batoota ne apani pustak ‘rehala’ men muhammad tugalaq ke samay ki ghatanaon ka varnan kiya hai. muhammad tugalaq dharmik roop men sahishnu tha. jain vidvanh evn snt 'jinaprabhu soori' ko darabar men bulakar samman pradan kiya. muhammad bin tugalaq dilli saltanat ka pratham sultan tha, jisane hindoo tyoharon (holi, dipavali) men bhag liya. dilli ke prasiddh soofi shekh 'shihabuddin' ko 'divan-e-mustakharaj' niyukt kiya tatha shekh 'mueejuddin' ko gujarat ka garvanar tatha 'saiyyad kalamuddin amir kiramani' ko sena men niyukt kiya. shekh 'nizamuddin chirag-e-dilli' sultan ke virodhiyon men ek the.

mrityu

apane shasan kal ke antim samay men jab sultan muhammad tugalaq gujarat men vidroh ko kuchal kar targi ko samapt karane ke lie sindh ki or badha, to marg men thatta ke nikat gondal pahunchakar vah gnbhir roop se bimar ho gaya. yahan par sultan ki 20 march, 1351 ko mrityu ho gee. usake marane ke par itihasakar badayoonni ne kaha ki, “saltan ko usaki praja se aur praja ko apane sultan se mukti mil gee.” isami ne sultan muhammad bin tugalaq ko islam dharm ka virodhi bataya hai. daau. eeshvari prasad ne usake bare men kaha hai ki, “madhy yug men rajamukut dharan karane valon men muhammad tugalaq, niahsndeh yogy vyakti tha. muslim shasan ki sthapana ke pashchath dilli ke sinhasan ko sushobhit karane vale shasakon men vah sarvadhik viddhan evn susnskrit shasak tha.” usane apane sikkon par “al sultan jilli allah”, “sultan eeshvar ki chhaya”, sultan eeshvar ka samarthak hai, adi vaky ko ankit karavaya. muhammad bin tugalaq ek achchha kavi aur sngit premi bhi tha.


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