ग़यासुद्दीन तुग़लक़  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Disamb2.jpg tugalaq ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- tugalaq
gayasuddin tugalaq ka maqabara, tugalakabad

gazi malik ya tugalaq gazi, gayasuddin tugalaq (1320-1325 ee.) ke nam se 8 sitambar, 1320 ko dilli ke sinhasan par baitha. ise tugalaq vnsh ka snsthapak bhi mana jata hai. isane kul 29 bar mngol akraman ko viphal kiya. sultan banane se pahale vah qutubuddin mubarak khilaji ke shasan kal men uttar-pashchimi simant prant ka shaktishali garvanar niyukt hua tha. vah dilli saltanat ka pahala sultan tha, jisane apane nam ke sath 'gazi' (kafiron ka vadh karane vala) shabd joda tha.

arthik sudhar

sultan ne arthik sudhar ke antargat apani arthik niti ka adhar snyam, sakhti evn narami ke madhy sntulan (rasm-e-miyan) ko banaya. usane lagan ke roop men upaj ka 1/10 ya 1/12 hissa hi lene ka adesh jari karaya. gayasuddin ne madhyavarti zamidaron vishesh roop se mukaddam tatha khooton ko unake purane adhikar lauta die, jisase unako vahi sthiti prapt ho gayi, jo balaban ke samay men prapt thi. gayasuddin ne amiron ki bhoomi punah lauta di. usane sinchaee ke lie kune evn naharon ka nirman karavaya. sambhavatah nahar ka nirman karavane vala gayasuddin pratham sultan tha. alauddin khilaji ki kathor niti ke viruddh usane udarata ki niti apanayi, jise barani ne 'rasmemiyan' athava 'madhyapnthi niti' kaha hai.

udar vyakti

gayasuddin tugalaq ki dak vyavastha shreshth thi. nyay vyavastha ke antargat gayasuddin ne ek nyay vibhag ka nirman karavaya. usamen dharmik sahishnuta ka abhav tha. usane alauddin khilaji dvara chalaee gayi dagane tatha chehara pratha ko prabhavi tariqe se lagoo kiya. vah dani svabhav ka hone ke sath janakalyanakari karyon ko karane men dilachaspi rakhata tha. barani ke anusar sultan apane sainikon ke sath putravat vyavahar karata tha. usaki sena men gij, turk, mngol, roomi, tajik, khurasani, mevati evn doab ke rajapoot sainik shamil the. usaki mahattvapoorn vijay nimnalikhit thin-

  1. varngal v telngana ki vijay (1324 ee.)
  2. tirahuti vijay, mngol vijay (1324 ee.) adi.

vijay abhiyan

tugalaq vnsh
shasak kal
gayasuddin tugalaq 1320-1325 ee.
muhammad bin tugalaq 1325-1351 ee.
firoj shah tugalaq 1351-1388 ee.
gayasuddin tugalaq dvitiy 1389 ee.
aboobakr 1389-1390 ee.
nasiruddin mahamoodashah 1390-1394 ee.
nasarat shah tugalaq 1395-1398 ee.
mahamood tugalaq 1399-1413 ee.

1321 ee. men gayasuddin ne varngal par akraman kiya, kintu vahan ke kakatiy raja pratap rudradev ko parajit karane men vah asaphal raha. 1323 ee. men dvitiy abhiyan ke antargat gayasuddin tugalaq ne shahazade 'jauna khan' (muhammad bin tugalaq) ko dakshin bharat men saltanat ke prabhutv ki pun:sthapana ke lie bheja. jauna khan ne varngal ke kakatiy evn madura ke pandy rajyon ko vijit kar dilli saltanat men shamil kar liya. is prakar sarvapratham gayasuddin ke samay men hi dakshin ke rajyon ko dilli saltanat men milaya gaya. in rajyon men sarvapratham varngal tha. gayasuddin tugalaq poornatah samrajyavadi tha. isane alauddin khilaji ki dakshin niti tyagakar dakshini rajyon ko dilli saltanat men shamil kar liya.

gayasuddin jab bngal men tha, tabhi soochana mili ki, joona khan (muhammad bin tugalaq) nizamuddin auliya ka shishy ban gaya hai aur vah use raja hone ki bhavishyavani kar raha hai. nizamuddin auliya ko gayasuddin tugalaq ne dhamaki di to, auliya ne uttar diya ki, "hunooj dilli door ast, arthath dilli abhi bahut door hai. hindoo janata ke prati gayasuddin tugalaq ki niti kathor thi. gayasuddin tugalaq sngit ka ghor virodhi tha. barani ke anusar alauddin khilaji ne shasan sthapit karane ke liye jahan raktapat v atyachar ki niti apanaee, vahin gayasuddin ne char varshon men hi use bina kisi kathorata ke snbhav banaya.

rajasv sudhar

apani satta sthapit karane ke bad gayasuddin tugalaq ne amiron tatha janata ko protsahit kiya. shuddh roop se turki mool ka hone ke karan is kary men use koee vishesh kathinaee nahin huee. gayasuddin ne krishi ko protsahan dene ke lie kisanon ke hiton ki or dhyan diya. usane ek varsh men ikta ke rajasv men 1/10 se 1/11 bhag se adhik ki vriddhi nahin karane ka adesh diya. usane sinchaee ke lie naharen khudavayin tatha bag banavayen.

sarvajanik sudhar

janata ki suvidha ke lie apane shasan kal men gayasuddin ne qilon, pulon aur naharon ka nirman karaya. saltanat kal men dak vyavastha ko sudridh karane ka shrey gayasuddin tugalaq ko hi jata hai. ‘barani’ ne dak-vyavastha ka vistrit varnan kiya hai. sharirik yatana dvara rajakiy rin vasooli ko usane pratibndhit kar diya, lekin hindoo janata ke prati usaki kathor niti yathavat bani rahi. usane hinduon ka dhan jama karane ki agya ka nishedh kiya.

dharmik kary

gayasuddin ek kattar sunni musalaman tha. islam dharm men usaki gahari astha aur usake siddhanton ka vah savadhanipoorvak palan karata tha. usane musalaman janata par islam ke niyamon ka palan karane ke lie dabav dala. usane any dharmon ke prati bhi sahishnuta ki niti apanaee thi.

nirman kary

sthapaty kala ke kshetr men gayasuddin ne vishesh roop men ruchi li. apane shasan kal men usane tugalaqabad namak ek durg ki ninv rakhi.

mrityu

jab gayasuddin tugalaq bngal abhiyan se laut raha tha, tab lautate samay tugalaqabad se 8 kilomitar ki doori par sthit afaganapur men ek mahal (jise usake ladake joona khan ke nirdesh par ahamad ayaj ne lakadiyon se nirmit karavaya tha) men sultan gayasuddin ke pravesh karate hi vah mahal gir gaya, jisamen dabakar usaki march, 1325 ee. ko mutyri ho gayi. is ghatana ke samay shekh rukanuddin mahal men maujood tha, jise uloog khan ne namaz padhane ke bahane us sthan se hata diya tha. gayasuddin tugalaq ka maqabara tugalaqabad men sthit hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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