क़ुतुबुद्दीन ऐबक  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

qutubuddin aibak
Tomb-Of-Qutb-Ud-Din-Aibak.jpg
poora nam kutubuddin aibak
janm bhoomi turkistan
mrityu tithi 1210 ee.
mrityu sthan lahaur
shasan kal 1206 ee. se 1210 ee. tak
rajyabhishek joon, 1206 ee., lahaur
dharmik manyata islam
yuddh tarain ka yuddh muhammad gori ki or se, chhndavad ka yuddh
nirman 'kuvvat-ul-islam', dilli; 'dhaee din ka jhopada', ajamer ; kutubaminar.
maqabara kutubuddin aibak ka maqabara lahaur men
adyatan‎

kutubuddin aibak (1206-1210 ee.) ek turk janajati ka vyakti tha. aibak ek turki shabd hai, jisaka arth hota hai- “chandrama ka devata”. kutubuddin ka janm turkistan men hua tha. bachapan men hi vah apane parivar se bichhud gaya aur use ek vyapari dvara nishapur ke bazar men le jaya gaya, jahan 'qazi fakharuddin ajiz koofi' (jo imam aboo hanif ke vnshaj the) ne use kharid liya. qazi ne apane putr ki bhanti aibak ki paravarish ki tatha usake lie dhanurvidya aur ghudasavari ki suvidhaen upalabdh karaeen. kutubuddin aibak balyakal se hi pratibha ka dhani tha. usane shighr hi sabhi kalaon men kushalata prapt kar li. usane atyant surile svar men quran padhana sikh liya, isalie vah 'quran khan' (quran ka path karane vala) ke nam se prasiddh ho gaya. kuchh samay bad qazi ki bhi mrityu ho gayi. usake putron ne use ek vyapari ke hathon bech diya, jo use gazani le gaya, jahan use muhammad gori ne kharid liya aur yahin se usaki jivanacharcha ka ek naya adhyay arambh hua, jisane ant men use dilli ke sinhasan par baithaya.

buddhiman aur svamibhakt

apani eemanadari, buddhimani aur svamibhakti ke bal par kutubuddin ne muhammad gori ka vishvas prapt kar liya. gori ne usake samast prashnsaniy gunon se prabhavit hokar use 'amir-e-akhoor' (astabalon ka pradhan) niyukt kiya, jo us samay ek mahattvapoorn pad tha. is pad par rahate hue aibak ne gor, bamiyan aur gazani ke yuddhon men sultan ki seva ki. 1192 ee. men aibak ne tarain ke yuddh men kushalatapoorvak bhag liya. tarain ke dvitiy yuddh ke bad muhammad gori ne aibak ko bharat ke pradeshon ka soobedar niyukt kar diya. gori ke vapas jane ke bad aibak ne ajamer, merath adi sthanon ke vidrohon ko dabaya. 1194 men muhammad gori aur kannauj ke shasak jayachandr ke bich hue yuddh men aibak ne apane svami ki or se mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaee. 1197 ee. men aibak ne gujarat ki rajadhani anhilavad ko loota tatha vahan ke shasak bhimadev ko dandit kiya. 1202 ee. men usane bundelakhand ke raja paramardidev ko parast kiya tatha kalinjar, mahoba aur khajuraho par adhikar kar liya. 1205 ee. usane khokkhar ke viruddh muhammad gori ka hath bntaya. is prakar aibak ne muhammad gori ki sainik yojanaon ko ek moortaroop diya. isalie bharatiy turk adhikariyon ne use apana pradhan svikar kiya.

das jivan se mukti

muhammad gori ki mutyu ke bad choonki usaka koee putr nahin tha, isalie lahaur ki janata ne muhammad gori ke pratinidhi kutubuddin aibak ko lahaur par shasan karane ka nimntran diya. aibak ne lahaur pahunch kar joon, 1206 ee men apana rajyabhishek karavaya. sihansanaroodh hone ke samay aibak ne apane ko ‘malik evn sipahasalar’ ki padavi se sntushth rakha. usane apane nam se n to koee sikka jari karavaya aur n kabhi 'khutaba' (upadesh ya prashnsatmak rachana) padhavaya. kuchh samay bad muhammad gori ke uttaradhikari gayasuddin balaban ne aibak ko sultan svikar kar liya. aibak ko 1208 ee. men dasata se mukti mil gee.

shasak ka pad

sinhasan par baithane ke samay aibak ko muhammad gori ke any uttaradhikari 'gayasuddin muhammad', 'tajuddin eldauj' evn 'nasiruddin qabacha' ke vidroh ka samana karana pada. in vidrohiyon ko shant karane ke lie aibak ne vaivahik sambandhon ko adhar banaya. usane tajuddin eldauj (gazani ka shasak) ki putri se apana vivah, nasiruddin kubacha (multan evn sindh ka shasak ) se apani bahan ka vivah tatha iltutamish se apani putri ka vivah kiya. in vaivahik sambandhon ke karan eldauj tatha kubacha ki or se vidroh ka khatara kam ho gaya. kalantar men gori ke uttaradhikari gayasuddin ne aibak ko sultan ke roop men svikar karate hue 1208 ee. men sinhasan, chhatr, rajakiy pataka evn nakkara bhent kiya. is tarah aibak ek svatantr shasak ke roop men turki rajy ka snsthapak bana.

shasan kal vibhajan

kutubuddin aibak ke shasan kal ko tin bhagon men banta ja sakata hai-

  • 1191 se 1206 ee. ki avadhi ko sainik gatidhiyon ki avadhi kaha ja sakata hai. is samay aibak ne uttari bharat men gori dvara vijit pradeshon par shasan kiya.
  • 1206 se 1208 ee. tak ki avadhi, jise usake rajanitik karyon ki avadhi mana ja sakata hai, men aibak ne gori ke bharatiy saltanat men malik evn sipahasalar, ki haisiyat se kary kiya.
  • 1208 se 1210 ee. ki avadhi men usaka adhikansh samay ‘dilli saltanat’ ki rooparekha banane men bita.

aibak ne gori ki mutyu ke bad svatntr hue badayoon ko punah jita aur iltutamish ko vahan ka prashasak niyukt kiya. aibak apani asamayik mrityu ke karan kalinjar aur gvaliyar ko punah apane adhikar men nahin la saka. is samay usane svatantr bharatiy pradesh par svatantr shasak ke roop men shasan kiya.

shasan kshetr

tarain ke yuddh ke bad muijjuddin gazani laut gaya aur bharat ke vijit kshetron ka shasan apane vishvaniy gulam qutubuddin aibak ke hathon men chhod diya. prithviraj ke putr ko ranathambhaur saunp diya gaya jo terahavin shatabdi men shaktishali chauhanon ki rajadhani bana. agale do varshon men aibak ne, oopari doab men merath, baran tatha koil (adhunik aligadh) par qabza kiya. is kshetr ke shaktishali dor-rajapooton ne aibak ka muqabala kiya, lekin ashchary ki bat hai ki gahad valon ko turki akraman se sabase adhik nuqasan ka khatara tha aur unhonne n to dor-rajapooton ki koee sahayata ki aur n hi turkon ko is kshetr se bahar nikalane ka koee prayas hi kiya. muijjuddin 1194 ee. men bharat vapas aya. vah pachas hazar ghudasavaron ke sath yamuna ko par kar kannauj ki or badha. itava zile men kannauj ke nikat chhndavad men muijjuddin aur jayachandr ke bich bhishan ladaee huee. bataya jata hai ki jayachandr jit hi gaya tha jab use ek tir laga aur usaki mrityu ho gee. usake marane ke sath hi sena ke bhi panv ukhad ge. ab muijjuddin banaras ki or badha aur us shahar ko tahas-nahas kar diya. usane vahan ke mandiron ko bhi nahin chhoda. yadyapi is kshetr ke ek bhag par tab bhi gahadavalon ka shasan raha aur kannauj jaise kee gadh, turkon ka virodh karate rahe tathapi bngal ki sima tak ek bada bhoobhag unake qabze men a gaya. tarain aur chhndavad ke yuddhon ke parinamasvaroop uttar bharat men turki samrajy ki ninv padi. is shasan ki jaden mazaboot karana kathin kam tha aur lagabhag 50 varshon tak turk isaka prayas karate rahe. muijjuddin 1206 ee. tak jivit raha. is avadhi men usane dilli ki dakshin sima ki suraksha ke lie bayana tatha gvaliyar ke qilon par qabza kiya. usake bad aibak ne chndel shasakon se kalinjar, mahoba tatha khajuraho ko chhin liya.

doab ko apana adhar banakar turkon ne asapas ke kshetron par akraman arambh kar diya. aibak ne gujarat tatha anhilavad ke shasak bhim dvitiy ko parajit kiya aur kee nagaron men lootapat machaee. yahan yadyapi ek musalaman shasak ko niyukt kiya gaya tha par use shighr hi gaddi se utar diya gaya. isase pata chalata hai ki turk itane door daraz kshetron men shasan karane ke layaq shakti nahin bane the.

danashil vyakti

aibak ko apani udarata evn dani pravriti ke karan ‘lakhabakhsh’ ('lakhon ka dani' arthath 'lakhon ka dan karane vala') kaha gaya hai. itihasakar 'minahaj' ne usaki danashilata ke karan hi use 'hatim dvitiy' ki sngya di hain. farishta (yatri) ke anusar us samay keval kisi danashil vyakti ko hi aibak ki upadhi di jati thi. bachapan men hi aibak ne quran ke adhyayon ko knthasth kar liya tha aur atyant surile svar men isaka uchcharan karata tha is karan aibak ko 'quran khan' kaha jata tha. sahity evn sthapaty kala men bhi aibak ki dilachaspi thi. usake darabar men vidvanh hasan nizami evn fakhr-e-mudabbir ko snrakshan prapt tha. hasan nizami ne 'taj-ul-masir' ki rachana ki thi.

nirman kary

fakhr-e-aibak ne dilli men 'kuvvat-ul-islam' (vishnu mandir ke sthan par) tatha ajamer men 'dhaee din ka jhopada' (snskrit vidyalay ke sthan par) nam masjidon ka nirman karavaya. kutubaminar, jise ‘shekh khvaja kutubuddin bakhtiyar kaki’ ki smriti men banaya gaya hai, ke nirman kary ko prarambh karavane ka shrey kutubuddin aibak ko jata hai. ek manyata ke anusar kaha jata hai ki, aibak ke shasakal men bakari aur sher ek hi ghat par pani pite the.

mrityu

apane shasan ke 4 varsh bad 1210 ee. men lahaur men chaugan (polo) khelate samay ghode se girane ke karan aibak ki mrityu ho gee. kutubuddin aibak ka maqabara lahaur men hai.



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

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