चंगेज़ ख़ाँ  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

chngez khan ek bahut hi vir aur sahasi mngol saradar tha. san 1211 aur 1236 ee. ke bich bharat ki sarahad par ek bada bhnyakar badal utha. yah badal mngolon ka tha, jisaka neta chngez khan tha. chngez khan apane ek dushman ka pichha karata hua theth sindhu nadi tak aya tha. vah sindhu nadi se age nahin badha aur vahin par ruk gaya, jisase usake dvara hone vali sambhavit barbadi se bharat bach gaya. isake qarib do sau varsh bad chngez ke vnsh ka ek doosara adami taimoor bharat men mar-kat aur barabadi lekar aya. lekin bahut se mngolon ne bharat par chhapa marane aur theth lahaur tak bhi a dhamakane ki adat-si dal li. kabhi-kabhi ye atnk phailate aur sultanon tak ko bhi dara dete the ki ve dhan dekar apana pind chhudate the. hazaron mngol pnjab men hi bas gaye the.

janm

mngoliya ke ye khanabadosh mard aur aurat bade mazaboot the. kasht jhelane ki inhen adat thi aur ye log uttari eshiya ke lambe chaude maidanon men tambuon men rahate the. lekin inaka sharirik bal aur kasht jhelane ka muhavara inake zyada kam n ate, agar inhonne ek yogy saradar n paida kiya hota, jo bada anokha vyakti tha. yah vahi vyakti tha, jo chngez khan ke nam se mashahoor hai. chngez khan sanh 1155 ee. men paida hua tha. usaka vastavik nam 'timoochin' tha. chngez khan jab balyavastha se hi gujar raha tha, tabhi isaka pita yegusi-bagatur isako bachcha chhodakar mar gaya. 'bagatur' mngol amiron ka lokapriy nam hua karata tha. isaka arth hai 'vir'. sambhavat: urdoo bhasha ka 'bahadur' shabd isi se nikala hai.

bachapan

halanki chngez das varsh ka chhota ladaka hi tha aur usaka koee madadagar nahin tha. phir bhi vah mehanat karata chala gaya aur akhir men kamayab hua. vah qadam-qadam age badhata gaya, yahan tak ki ant men mngolon ki badi sabha 'kurulataee' ne adhiveshan karake use apana 'khan mahan' ya 'kagan' ya samrat chuna. isase kuchh sal pahale use chngez ka nam diya ja chuka hai.

mahan ya kagan

chngez jab 'mahan' ya 'kagan' bana, us samay usaki umr 51 varsh ki ho chuki thi. yah javani ki umr nahin thi aur is umr par pahunchakar zyadatar adami shanti aur aram chahate hain. lekin usake lie to yah vijay yatra ke jivan ki shuruat thi. yah gaur karane ki bat hai, kyonki zyadatar mahanh vijetaon ne mulkon ko jitane ka kam javani men hi poora kiya hai. isase ham yah natija bhi nikal sakate hain ki chngez ne javani ke josh men eshiya ko nahin raund dala tha. vah adhed umr ka ek hoshiyar aur savadhan adami tha aur har bade kam ko hath men lene se pahale us par vichar aur usaki taiyari kar leta tha.

khanabadosh mngol

mngol log khanabadosh the. shaharon aur shaharon ke rng-dhng se bhi unhen nafarat thi. bahut se log samajhate hain ki choonki ve khanabadosh the, isalie jngali rahe honge, lekin yah khyal galat hai. shahar ki bahut si kalaon ka unhen alabatta gyan nahin tha, lekin unhonne zindagi ka apana ek alag tariqa dhal liya tha aur unaka sngathan bahut hi guntha hua tha. ladaee ke maidan men agar unhonne mahanh vijay prapt kin to adhik snkhya hone ke karan nahin, balki anushasan aur sngathan ke karan aur isaka sabase bada karan to yah tha ki unhen chngez jaisa jagamagata senani mila tha. isamen koee shak nahin ki itihas men chngez jaisa mahanh aur pratibha vala sainik neta doosara koee nahin hua hai. sikandar aur sijar isake samane nachiz nazar ate hain. chngez n sirf khud bahut bada sipahasalar tha, balki usane apane bahut se fauji afasaron ko talim dekar hoshiyar nayak bana diya tha. apane vatan se hazaron mil door hote hue bhi, dushmanon aur virodhi janata se ghire rahate hue bhi, ve apane se zyada tadad ki faujon se ladakar un par vijay prapt karate the.

vijay yatra ki taiyariyan

chngez ne badi savadhani ke sath apani vijay yatra ki taiyariyan kin. usane apani fauj ko ladaee ki talim di. sabase zyada isane apane ghodon ko sikhaya tha aur is bat ka khas intazam kiya tha ki ek ghoda marane ke bad doosara ghoda turant hi sipahiyon ke pas pahunch sake, kyonki khanabadoshon ke lie ghodon se zyada mahattv ki chiz aur koee nahin hoti hai. in sab taiyariyon ke bad usane poorv ki taraf koonch kiya aur uttar chin aur mnchooriya ke kin-samrajyon ko qarib-qarib khatm kar diya aur peking par bhi qabza kar liya. usane koriya jit liya. maloom hota hai ki dakshini sungon ko usane apana dost bana liya tha. in sungon ne kin logon ke khilaf usaki madad bhi ki thi. bechare yah nahin samajhate the ki inake bad unaki bhi bari ane vali hai. chngez ne bad men sungon ko bhi jit liya tha.

kharazam aur chngez

in vijayon ke bad chngez aram kar sakata tha. aisa maloom hota hai ki pashchim par hamala karane ki usaki ichchha nahin thi. vah kharazam ke shah se mitrata ka sambandh rakhana chahata tha, lekin yah ho nahin paya. ek purani kahavat hai, jisaka matalab hai ki devata jise nasht karana chahate hain, use pahale pagal kar dete hain. kharazam ka badashah apani hi barabadi par tula hua tha aur use poora karane ke lie jo kuchh mumakin tha, usane kiya. usake ek sabe ke haqim ne mngol saudagaron ko qatl kar diya. chngez phir bhi sulah chahata tha aur usane yah sndesh lekar rajadoot bheje ki us gavarnar ko saza di jae. lekin bevaqooph shah itana ghamndi tha aur apane ko itana bada samajhata ki usane in rajadooton ki beijjati ki aur unako marava dala. chngez ke lie ise baradasht karana namumakin tha, lekin usane jaldabazi se kam nahin liya. usane savadhani se taiyari ki aur tab pashchim ki taraf apani fauj ke sath koonch ka dnka baja diya. is koonch ne, jo sanh 1219 ee. men shuroo hua, eshiya ki or kuchh had tak yoorop ki ankhen is naye atnk ki taraf khol din, jo bade bhari belan ki tarah shaharon aur karodon adamiyon ko berahami ke sath kuchalata hua chala a raha tha. kharazam ka samrat mit gaya. bukhara ka bada shahar, jisamen bahut mahal the aur das lakh se zyada abadi thi, jalakar rakh kar diya. rajadhani samaraknd barbad kar di gee. aur usaki das lakh ki abadi men sirf pachas hazar log hi zinda bache. hirat, balakh aur doosare bahut se gulazar shahar nasht kar diye ge. karodon adami mar dale ge. jo kalaen aur dastakariyan varshon se madhy eshiya men phal-phool rahi thin, gayab ho geen. eeran aur madhy eshiya men sabhy jivan ka khatma sa ho gaya. jahan se chngez guzara, vahan virana ho gaya.

kharazam ka yuddh

kharazam ke badashah ka ladaka jalaluddin is toofan ke khilaf bahaduri se lada. vah pichhe hatate-hatate sindh nadi tak chala gaya aur jab yahan bhi is par zor ka dabav pada to kahate hain ki ve ghode par baitha hua, tis phut niche sindh nadi men kood pada aur tairakar is par nikal aya. use dilli darabar men ashray mila. chngez ne vahan tak usaka pichha karana fizool samajha. selajook turkon ki aur bagadad ki khushaqismati thi ki chngez ne inako bina chhede chhod diya aur vah roos ki taraph badh gaya. usane kif ke graid dyook ko harakar qaid kar liya. phir vah hisiyon ya tngaton ke balave ko dabane ke lie poorv ki taraph laut gaya.

mrityu

chngez sanh 1227 ee. men bahattar varsh ki umr men mar gaya. usaka samrajy pashchim men kale samudr se poorv men prashant mahasagar tak phaila hua tha. usamen ab bhi kafi tezi thi aur vah din-b-din badh hi raha tha. isaki rajadhani abhi tak mngoliya men karakuram nam ka ek chhota sa qasba tha. khanabadosh hote hue bhi chngez bada hi yogy sngathan karane vala tha aur usane buddhimani ke sath apani madad ke lie yogy mntri mukarrar kar rakhe the. usaka itani tezi ke sath jita hua samrajy usake marane par toota nahin.

itihas-lekhakon ki nazar men chngez

  • arab aur eerani itihas-lekhakon ki nazar men chngez ek danav hai, use unhonne 'khuda ka qahar' kaha hai. use bada zalim adami bataya gaya hai. isamen shak nahin ki vah bada zalim tha. lekin usake jamane ke doosare bahut se shasakon men aur usamen koee zyada farq nahin tha. bharat men afagan badashah, kuchh chhote paimane par, isi tarah ke the. jab gazani par afaganon ne sanh 1150 ee. men qabza kiya to purane khoon ka badala lene ke lie in logon ne us shahar ko loot aur jala tak diya. sat dinon tak 'loot-mar, barabadi aur mar-kat jari rahi. jo mard mila, use qatl kar diya gaya. tamam striyon aur bachchon ko qaid kar liya gaya. mahamoodi badashahon (yani sultan mahamood ke vnshajon) ke mahal aur imaraten, jinaka duniya men koee sani nahin tha, nasht kar diye ge.' musalamanon ka apane biradar musalamanon ke sath yah salook tha. isake, aur yahan bharat men jo kuchh afagan badashahon ne kiya usake, aur madhy eshiya aur eeran men chngez ki vinashapoorn karravaee ke, darajon men koee farq nahin tha. chngez kharazam khasataur par naraz tha, kyonki shah ne us rajadoot ko qatl karava diya tha. usake lie to yah khooni jhagada tha. aur jagahon par bhi chngez ne khoob satyanash kiya tha, lekin utana nahin, jitana madhy eshiya men.
  • shaharon ko yon barabad karane ke pichhe chngez ki ek aur bhavana bhi thi. usaki khanabadoshi ki tabiyat thi aur vah qasbon aur shaharon se nafarat karata tha. vah khule maidanon men rahana pasnd karata tha. ek dapha to chngez ko khyal hua ki chin ke tamam shahar barabad kar diye jaen to achchha hoga. lekin khushaqismati kahiye ki usane aisa kiya nahin. usaka vichar tha ki sabhyata aur khanabadoshi ki zindagi ko mila diya jay, lekin n to yah sambhav tha aur n hai.
  • chngez khan ke nam se shayad yah khyal ho ki vah musalaman tha, lekin vah musalaman nahin tha. yah ek mngol nam hai. mazahab ke mamale men chngez bada udar tha. usaka apana mazahab agar kuchh tha to shamabad tha, jisamen 'avinashi nile akash' ki pooja hoti thi. vah chin ke 'tao dharm' ke pnditon se aksar khoob gyan-charcha kiya karata tha. lekin vah khud shama-mat par hi qayam raha aur jab kathinaee men hota, tab akash ka hi ashray liya karata tha.
  • chngez ko mngolon ki sabha ne 'khan-mahan' chuna tha. yah sabha asal men samanton ki sabha thi, janata ki nahin, aur yon chngez is firake ka samanti saradar tha.
  • vah padha-likha nahin tha aur usake tamam anuyayi bhi usi ki tarah the. shayad vah bahut dinon tak yah bhi nahin janata tha ki likhane jaisi bhi koee chiz hoti hai.
  • sndesh zabani bheje jate the aur amataur par chhand men roopakon ya kahavaton ke roop men hote the. tajjub to yah hai ki zabani sndeshon se kis tarah itane b़de samrajy ka karabar chalaya jata tha. jab chngez ko maloom hua ki vah vadi phayedamand chiz hai aur usane apane putron aur mukhy saradaron ko ise sikhane ka hukm diya. usane yah bhi hukm diya tha ki mngolon ka purana rivazi qanoon aur usaki apani uktiyan bhi likh dali jaen. murad yah thi ki yah rivazi qanoon sada-sarvada ke lie 'aparivartanashal qanoon' hai, aur koee ise bhng nahin kar sakata tha. badashah ke lie bhi isaka palan karana zaroori tha. lekin yah 'aparivartanashil qanoon' ab aprapy hai aur ajakal ke mngolon ko n to isaki koee yad hai aur n hi isaki koee parampara hi baqi rahi hai.

chngez khan ka uttaradhikari

  • chngez khan ki mrityu ke bad usaka ladaka ogataee 'khan-mahan' hua. chngez aur us zamane ke mngolon ke muqabale men vah dayavan aur shantipriy svabhav ka tha. vah kaha karata tha ki "hamare kagan chngez ne badi mehanat se hamare shahi khanadan ko banaya hai. ab vaqt a gaya hai ki ham apane logon ko shanti den, khushahal banayen aur unaki musibaton ka kam karen."


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