हेमू  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hemoo
hemachandr vikramadity
poora nam hemachandr vikramadity
any nam hemoo
janm 1501 ee.
janm bhoomi alavar, rajasthan
pita/mata ray pooranamal
upadhi vikramadity
shasan dilli
rajyabhishek 7 aktoobar, 1556 ee.
yuddh panipat ka dvitiy yuddh
snbndhit lekh sherashah soori, humayoon, akabar, bairam khan
vishesh lagabhag tin shatabdiyon tak dilli par muslim shasan ke bad hemoo hi vah hindoo tha, jisane dilli par adhikar kiya.
any janakari hemoo sherashah soori ka yogy divan, koshadhyaksh aur senanayak tha. sherashah ki saphalata men usaki prabndh kushalata aur virata ka sabase bada hath raha tha. arthik soojh−boojh men usake saman koee doosara vyakti nahin tha.

hemachandr vikramadity (snkshipt nam- 'hemoo') bharat ka antim hindoo raja tha. 'bharatiy itihas ke vir purushon men vah gina jata hai. "madhyakalin bharat ka nepoliyan" kaha jane vala hemoo apani asadharan pratibha ke bal par ek sadharan vyapari se pradhanamntri evn senadhyaksh ki padavi tak pahuncha tha. yah aitihasik saphar usane ek ajey mahanayak ke roop men poora kiya tha. usake apar parakram tatha virata ke karan hi use 'vikramadity' ki upadhi mili thi. hemoo sherashah soori ka yogy divan, koshadhyaksh aur senanayak tha. sherashah ki saphalata men usaki prabndh kushalata aur virata ka sabase bada hath raha tha. arthik soojh−boojh men usake saman koee doosara vyakti nahin tha. hemoo ne apana antim yuddh prasiddh panipat ke maidan men lada. yah yuddh vah mugal senapati bairam khan ki kootanitik chal se har gaya. ankh men ek tir lag jane se hemoo ki sena bikhar gee aur use har ka samana karana pada.

janm tatha parichay

hemoo ka janm ek brahman parivar men 1501 ee. men alavar, rajasthan men hua tha. usake pita ka nam ray pooranamal tha, jo us vaqt purohit the. bad ke samay men mugalon dvara purohiton ko pareshan karane ki vajah se ray pooranamal revadi, hariyana men akar namak ka vyavasay karane lage. apani chhoti ayu se hi hemoo sherashah soori ke lashkar ko anaj evn poteshiyam naitret[1] upalabdh karane ke vyavasay men pita ka hath bntane lage the. san 1540 ee. men sherashah soori ne badashah humayoon ko hara kar qabul laut jane ko vivash kar diya tha. hemoo ne usi vaqt revadi men dhatu se vibhinn tarah ke hathiyar banane ke kam ki niv rakh di thi, jo aj bhi revadi men pital, tanba, ispat ke bartan ke adi banane ke kam ke roop men jari hai.[2]

uchch pad v lokapriyata

sherashah soori ki varsh 1545 men mrityu ho jane ke bad islamashah soor ne usaki gaddi snbhali. islamashah ne hemoo ki prashasanik kshamata ko pahachan liya aur use vyapar evn vitt snbadhi karyon ke lie apana niji salahakar niyukt kar liya. hemoo ne bhi apani yogyata ko siddh kiya aur islamashah soor ka vishvasapatr ban gaya. islamashah hemoo se har masale par ray leta tha. hemoo ke kam se prasann hokar usane hemoo ko "daroga-e-chauki" bana diya aur uchch pad pradan kiya. bad men islamashah ki mrityu ke bad usake barah varsh ke alp vayask putr firojashah ko usi ke chacha ke putr adilashah soori ne mar diya aur rajagaddi par qabza kar liya. adilashah ne hemoo ko apana vajir niyukt kiya. adilashah ayyash aur sharabi vyakti tha. use shasan ki bilkul bhi paravah nahin thi. is samay sampoorn afagan shasan prabandh hemoo ke hi hath men a gaya tha. sena ke bhitar se bhi hemoo ka virodh hua, kintu usane apane sare virodhiyon ko parajit kar shant kar diya. us samay tak hemoo ki sena ke afagan sainik, jiname se adhikatar ka janm bharat men hi hua tha, apane ap ko bharat ka rahavasi manane lag ge the aur ve mugal shasakon ko videshi manate the. isi vajah se hemoo hindoo evn afagan donon men kafi lokapriy ho gaya tha.

dilli par adhikar

humayoon, jo ki pahale 1540 ee. men sherashah soori dvara hara kar khaded diya gaya tha, usane dubara hamala karake sherashah soori ke bhaee ko yuddh men parast kiya aur dilli par adhikar kar liya. is samay afagan saradar apas men hi sngharsh kar rahe the, aur hemoo bngal men avyavastha ko door karane men vyast tha. lekin isi samay sat mahine ke bad humayoon ki mrityu ho gee. ab hemoo ne dilli ki taraf rukh kiya aur raste men bngal, bihar, uttar pradesh evn madhy pradesh ki kee riyasaton ko fateh kiya. agara men mugal senanayak iskndar khan uzbeg ko jab pata chala ki hemoo unaki taraf a raha hai to vah bina yuddh kiye hi maidan chhod kar bhag gaya. 7 aktoobar, 1556 ee. men hemoo ne taradi beg khan (mugal) ko hara kar dilli par vijay hasil ki. yahin hemoo ka rajyabhishek hua aur use vikramadity ki upadhi se navaja gaya. lagabhag tin shatabdiyon ke muslim shasan ke bad pahali bar koee hindoo dilli ka raja bana. bhale hi hemoo ka janm brahman samaj men hua aur usaka palan-poshan bhi poore dharmik tarike se hua tha, kintu vah sabhi dharmon ko saman manata tha. isilie usaki sena ke afagan adhikari usaki poori ijzat karate the aur isalie bhi kyoki vah ek kushal senanayak sabit ho chooka tha.[2]

mugalon se yuddh

panipat ke yuddh se pahale akabar ke kee senapati use hemoo se yuddh karane ke lie mana kar chuke the, halanki bairam khan, jo akabar ka snrakshak bhi tha, usane akabar ko dilli par niyntran ke lie hemoo se yuddh karane ke lie prerit kiya. jab hemoo ka mugalon se yuddh hua to pashchim se bairam khan ke netritv men akabar ne use roka. 5 navambar, 1556 ee. men panipat ke maidan men hemoo aur mugal sena men yuddh hua. panipat ke prasiddh maidan men hemoo ki vishal sena ke samane mugal sena tuchchh thi. svayn hemoo 'havaee' namak ek vishal hathi par savar hokar sainy snchalan kar raha tha. mugal sena men dahashat thi. bairam khan ne akabar ko surakshit sthan par chhoda aur vah svayn sena lekar age badha.

parajay

yuddh ke maidan men hemoo ne apane 1500 hathiyon ko madhy bhag men badhaya. isase mugal sena men gadabadi phail gee aur aisa jan pada ki hemoo ki sena mugalon ko raund degi. ek samay aise lagane laga ki hemoo ki vijay nishchit hai, kintu isi samay bairam khan ki kootaniti chal gee aur usane yuddh ka pasa palat diya. bairam khan ne apane kuchh chune hue sainikon ko hemoo ki ankh ko nishana banane ka adesh diya. sainikon ne yahi kiya aur hemoo ki ek ankh men tir laga aur vah hathi se niche gir gaya. sena men bhagadad mach gee. hemoo ka mahavat usake hathi 'havaee' ko bhagakar le ja raha tha, kintu mugal sainikon ne use pakad liya. hemoo ko giraphtar karake akabar ke samane laya gaya, tab bairam khan ne akabar se kaha ki- "hajarat ise marakar 'gazi' ki upadhi dharan karen". lekin akabar is kary ke lie raji nahin hua, tab bad men bairam khan ne hi hemoo ka sir dhad se alag kar diya.[2]

hemoo ki haveli

bharat ke antim hindoo samrat aur panipat ki doosari ladaee ke nayak hemachandr vikramadity ki 600 varsh purani haveli vartaman men jarjar hal men hai. revadi ke kutubapur muhalle men sthit is haveli ki halat dayaniy hai. itihas ki yah dharohar samapt hone ke kagar par hai. hemoo ko "madhy kal ka naipoliyan" kaha jata hai. usake gauravapoorn pahaloo ki tamam smritiyan is haveli se judi hain. dhaee mnjili haveli prachin kalatmak karigiri ki jiti-jagati misal hai. kalatmak mukhyadvar, naqqashi se saji divaren tatha durlabh pattharon par akarshak karigiri anayas hi prabhavit karati hai. andar pravesh karate hi vargakar chauk svagat karata hai. charon or kalatmak naqqashi man moh leti hai. baramade v kaksh ki vishalata se kabhi rahi isaki bhavyata ka andaja sahaj ki lagaya ja sakata hai. pratham tal par kul milakar chhote-bade ek darjan kaksh evn char dalan hain. ek kakshanuma rasoee pratit hoti hai. isamen do-tin tahakhane bhi hain, jinhen ab saphaee ke bad daravaze lagakar bnd kar diya gaya hai. dilachasp pahaloo yah hai ki pratham tal par kahin koee khidaki najar nahin ati, jabaki pahale isake age v pichhe angan bhi hote the. aisa snbhavat: suraksha paksh ko lekar kiya gaya hoga. is tis phuti haveli ka pratham tal lagabhag nau sau se ek hazar varsh purana bataya jata hai.

is aitihasik haveli ka dvitiy tal khas prakar ki eenton se bana hai, jinhen 'lakhauri' eenten kaha jata hai. panch inch lnbi, sadhe tin inch chaudi tatha dedh inch moti eenton ki kalatmak chinaee men purtagali shaili ke praman maujood hain. yah jirnoddhar kary 1540 ee. ka hai. is tal par bane do vargakar sabhagar dhyan khinchate hain, jinamen se ek ki chhat gir chuki hai tatha doosara haaul aj bhi thik sthiti men hai. sabase oopar ka tal khula hua hai, kintu isaki char divari sat-ath phut suraksha kavach pratit hoti hai. solahavin shatabdi ke mahanatam hindoo yoddha kahe jane vale hemoo ke pita ray pooranamal san 1516 ee. men rajasthan ke alavar se revadi akar kutubapur mohalle men rahane lage the.[3]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. gan pavadar hetu
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 hemoo ko janate hain ap (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 10 joon, 2013.
  3. hemoo vikramadity ki haveli (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 10 joon, 2013.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah