इस्पात  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Icon-edit.gif is lekh ka punarikshan evn sampadan hona avashyak hai. ap isamen sahayata kar sakate hain. "sujhav"

ispat shabd moolat: purtagali bhasha ke shabd 'speda' ‌(espada) ko roopantarit kar hindi men liya gaya hai. jisaka karan hindi athava snskrit men isaka samanarthi shabd ka n hona hai. yah lohe ko vibhinn prakar se parishkrit roop ka nam hai aur anek dhatuon ka mishran bhi hai. ispat shabd ka prayog lohe ke anek roopon ke lie hota hai. ispat shabd itane vividh prakar ke paraspar atyadhik bhinn gunon vale padartho ke lie prayukt hota hai ki is shabd ki thik-thak paribhasha karana vastut: asnbhav hai. parntu vyavaharat: ispat se lohe tatha karban ki mishradhatu hi samajhi jati hai.

prapti

ispat men karban ki matra sadharanat: 2 pratishat se adhik nahin hoti. ayask se adhik se adhik dhatu prapt karane ke lie avakarak vastu, karban, bahutayat se milaee jati hai. karban bad men ichchhit matra tak aksikaran ki kriya dvara nikal diya jata hai. isase sath ke doosare tatvon ka bhi, jinaka avakaran hua rahata hai aur jo aksikaraniy hote hain, aksikaran ho jata hai. kisi any tatv ki apeksha karban, lohe ke gunon ko adhik prabhavit karata hai; isase advitiy vistar men vibhinn gun prapt hote hain. vese to kee any sadharan tatv bhi milae jane par lohe tatha ispat ke gunon ko bahut badal dete hain, parntu inamen karban hi pradhan mishradhatukari tatv hai. yah lohe ki kathorata tatha pushtata samanupatik matra men badhata hai, visheshakar uchit ushma upachar ke uparant.

dhatukarmik vyavahar men 'vishuddh dhatu' shabd ka upayog aise vyaparik mel ki dhatu ke lie bhi hota hai jisamen pradhanat: ve hi gun (jaise, rng vidyutachalukata ityadi) hote hain jo shuddh rasayanik dhatu men hote hain. inamen shesh jo ashuddhata hoti hai ya to use door karana kathin hota hai, athava dhatu men koee vishesh gun prapt karane ke lie use jan boojhakar milaya jata hai. is prakar milae jane vale tatvon ko mishradhatukari tatv kahate hain.

snrachana tattv

sadharan ispat men, chahe vah jis vidhi dvara banaya gaya ho, karban tatha mainganiz 0.10 se 1.50 pratishat, silikan 0.20 se 0.25 pratishat, gndhak tatha faausaphoras 0.01 se 0.10 pratishat tatha tanba, eluminiyam aur arasenik nyoon matra men upasthit rahate hain. pray: haidrojan, aauksijan tatha naitrojan bhi alp matra men rahate hain. is jati ke ispat kee prakar ke kam men ate hain. yadyapi sabhi ispat mishradhatu hi hain, tathapi sadharan bolachal men ispat ko ek saral (amishr) dhatu hi mana jata hai. oopar die hue vishleshan se yadi kisi tatv ki matra adhik ho, athava ispat men doosare tatv, jaise nikal, kromiyam, vainediyam, tngstan, malibdinam, taiteniyam adi bhi hon, jo samanyat: ispat men nahin hote, to vishesh ya mishr dhatviy ispat banata hai. yantrik gunon ki vriddhi ke lie hi samanyat: yah milavat ki jati hai. ispat ki kuchh visheshataen, jo mishradhatukari tatvon dvara prabhavit hoti hain, is prakar hain:

yantrik gunon men vriddhi
  1. taiyar ispat ki pushtata men vriddhi
  2. kisi nimnatam kathorata ya pushtata par chimadepan (tafanes) athava sughatyata (plaistisiti) men vriddhi.
  3. us adhikatam motaee men vriddhi jise bujhakar vanchhit sima tak kada kiya ja sakata ho.
  4. bujhakar kathorikaran ki kshamata men kami.
  5. thndi riti se kathorikaran ki dar men vriddhi.
  6. kharadane ityadi ki kriya sugamata se kar sakane ke vichar se kadaee ko surakshit rakhakar sughatyata men kami.
  7. ghisav-pratirodh athava katane ke samarthy men vriddhi.
  8. ichchhit kathorata prapt karate samay ainthane ya chatakane men kami.
  9. oonche ya nimn tap par bhautik gunon men unnati.
chubnkiy gunon men vriddhi
  1. prarnbhik chunbakashilata (parmiebiliti) tatha adhikatam preran (indakshan) men vriddhi.
  2. prasahi (koarsiv) bal, mndayan (histerosis) tatha vidyuth‌ (vat) hani men kami (chunbakiy arth men komal loha).
  3. prasahi bal tatha chunbakiy sthayitv (rimenens) men vriddhi.
  4. sabhi prakar ke chubnkiy gunon men kami.
rasayanik nishkriyata men vriddhi
  1. ardr vatavaran men moracha lagane men kami.
  2. uchch tap par bhi rasayanik kriyashilata men kami.
  3. rasayanik vastuon dvara akraman men kami.

loha do prakar ke ati upayogi samamapiy (aisometrik) ravon ke roop men rahata hai:

  1. ailfa loha, jisake thos ghol ko 'ferait' kahate hain.
  2. gama loha, jisaka thos ghol 'aausatenait' hai.

shuddh lohe ka ailfa roop lagabhag 910° sen. se kam tap par rahata hai; adhik tap par gama roop rahata hai. in donon roopon ke lohon men vividh mishradhatukari tatvon ko ghulanashilata ati bhinn hai. ==rasayanik visheshataen==

  • vyaparik karban-ispat, dhatu-karmik vichar se, lauh karabaid ka pherait men ek vikshepan (disparshan) hai, jisamen lauh karabaid ka anupat karban ki matra par nirbhar rahata hai.
  • karban ispat ke mote tukadon ko aisi vidhiyon tatha daron se ek sima tak thnda kiya ja sakata hai ki pherait men simentait ke snbhav vitaranon men se koee bhi vitaran upalabdh ho jae. snrachana tatha ushma upachar ke vichar se karban ispat ke apekshakrit aise chhote namoone saralata se chune ja sakate hain jinamen sadharan tap par pray: mahattam yantrik gun hon.
  • akathorikrit ispat ke do avayavon men doosara karabaid kala (fez) hai. karabaid ki matra, jo karban ke anupat par nirbhar rahati hai, ispat ke gunon ko badalati hai. vikshepan (disparshan) men karabaid ke kanon ke roop tatha usaki sookshmata se yah aur bhi adhik badalati hai.
  • ispat ko kathor karane men tatha pani chadhate samay, mishradhatukari tatv ki upasthiti ant men prapt padarth ko ekadam badal sakati hai. phalat: snrachana aur isalie ispat ke gun, jo isi par atyadhik adharit hain, aaustenait ki snrachana tatha dane ke pariman par nirbhar hain.
  • bujhae hue ispat karban ke matranusar vibhinn kathorata vale hote hain. kathorata ke lie keval karban par hi nirbhar hone men ispat ko ekaek bujhana padata hai. isase ya to doosari buraiyan utpann ho sakati hai athava bahut bhitar tak kathorikaran nahin ho pata hai. kuchh uchch mishradhatviy ispaton men sadharan tap par hi apekshakrit dhire dhire thnda kar, yah kathorikaran kuchh anshon men prapt kiya ja sakata hai.
  • bujhae hue tatha kathorikrit ispaton men antarik tanav hota hai, jo phir se garam karake door kiya jata hai. is kriya ko pani chadhana (tenparing) kahate hain.

mishradhatukari tatvon ka prabhav

aaustenait roopantaran men karban ke atirikt any mishradhatukari tatv samanyat: susti paida karate hain. kobalt chhod any tatvon ki upasthiti men bujhane par adhik gaharaee tak kathorikaran hota hai. sadharanataya sabhi mishradhatviy ispaton tatha bahut se karaban-ispaton men ichchhit gunon ka achchha snyog uchit ushmaupachar se prapt hota hai.

karban

sade karban-ispat men, karban ki matra ko 0.1 pratishat se 1.0 pratishat tak ya adhik badhane par tanav pushtata badhati hai. bujhae hue karban ispat men tanav pushtata atyadhik badh jati hai, jaise 1 pratishat karban par 150 tan varg inch tak. bujhae hue tatha pani chadhae (tenpar kie) ispat ki shakti pani chadhane ke tapakram par nirbhar rahati hai.

ailyuminiyam

dhatu ke danon ke pariman (gren saiz) ko niyntrit karane ke lie thodi matra men ailyuminiyam, 3 paund prati tan tak, pighale hue ispat men milaya jata hai. satah ki atyadhik kathorata vale bhagon men 1.3 pratishat tak ailyuminiyam rahata hai.

boran

boran ispat adhunik vikas hai. kuchh nimn mishradhatviy ispaton men 0.003 pratishat jaisi kam matra men boran milae jane par kathor ho jane ki kshamata badhati hai tatha yantrik gunon ki unnati hoti hai.

kromiyam

akele athava doosare mishradhatukari tatvon se snyojit kromiyam, ispat ka gharshan-avarodh tatha kathor ho sakane ki kshamata badhata hai. adhik matra men, 12 se 14 pratishat tak, hone par yah akalush (stenales) ispat ka avashyak tatv hai. isi athava isase bhi adhik matra men (20 pratishat tak) kromiyam rahane par, nikal aur kabhi-kabhi doosare tatvon ke sath milakar, tarah tarah ke ushma pratirodhak ispat tatha vibhinn prakar ke aaustenait ispat banate hain jo marchen tatha aml ki kriya ke prati atyadhik avarodhakata ke lie prasiddh hain. kromiyam gharshan-avarodh ki unnati karata hai; isalie 2 pratishat karban ke sath 12 pratishat tak kromiyam kuchh vishesh tarah ke yntron tatha thappon ke lie ispat banane men upayukt hota hai. prishth kathorikaran (kes hardening) tatha naitraiding ke lie ispat men kromiyam pray: 2 pratishat se kam hi hota hai. sidhe kathorikrit chharro (bal beyaring) tatha kuchalane ki mashinavale golon ke ispat men kromiyam ki matra adhik hoti hai.

kobalt

kobalt se, kuchh uchch veg vale yantrik ispaton ki katane ki kshamata badhati hai. kuchh ushma pratirodhak ispaton men, jaise gais tarbin injan ke dhale hue bledon men, yah prayukt hota hai. adhik matra men yah aise ispat ka avashyak ang hota hai jo un ati kathin paristhitiyon ko sahan karane ke lie banate hain jinamen gais tarbin ke bled kary karate hain. in upayagon men kobalt milane se ispat ko ushma avarodhak gun, satah par chippad (skel) n banane dene tatha dhire-dhire map men svat: parivartan (krip) ko rokane ki kshamata milati hai. sthayi chunbak ki mishradhatuon men bhi kobalt paryapt matra men rahata hai.

tanba

bina tanba ke ispat ki tulana men tanba ki thodi bhi matravale ispat men snksharan-avarodh adhik hota hai. grihanirman ke lie prayukt athava aise hi doosare prakar ke naram ispaton men lagabhag 0.6 pratishat tak tanba rahata hai.

mainganij

ispat ka thosapan badhane ke lie tatha bachi huee gndhak se milakar, salphaid ke karan, bhurabhurapan rokane ke lie 0.5 se 1.0 pratishat tak mainganij milaya jata hai. 1.0 pratishat se 1.8 pratishat tak, mainganiz ispat ki tanavapushtata tatha kathorata men vriddhi karata hai. 13 pratishat mainganij-ispat ka ek alag hi varg hai. aisa ispat thonkane pitane se kada ho jata hai, arthath‌ sughaty tanav (plaistik stren) padane par svayn kada ho jata hai. kisi sadharan ushma upachar dvara isaka kathorikaran nahin hota. yah adhikatar dhalaee ke lie prayukt hota hai. jham (drejar) ke oshth,chattan todane vali mashinon ke jabade, rel ki patariyon ki snghi (krasovar) tatha any vishesh marg snbndhi karyo men, jahan ghisaee ki vishesh ashnka rahati hai, isaka upayog hota hai.

molibdenam

ispat men molibdenam shakti, kathor ho sakane ki kshamata tatha dhire-dhire svat: parivartan ke prati avarodh badhata hai. uchch tapakram par kary karane ke lie ispat ki kathorata surakshit rakhane men bhi malibdinam sahayak hai. isalie kuchh uchch veg ispaton men tngstan ke ek ansh ke badale isi ka upayog hota hai. udaharan ke lie 5.5 pratishat molibdenam aur 6 pratishat tngstan ka ek uchchaveg ispat hai, jo pramanik 18 pratishat tngstan ki tulana men upayogi aur sasta hota hai.

nikal

ispat men milane ke lie (mainganiz ko chhod) sabase adhik upayog isi ka hota hai. pighale hue lohe men yah sabhi anupaton men ghul jata hai tatha thnda hone par thos ghol banata hai. 5 pratishat tak rahane par yah ispat ka chimadapan tatha tanav pushtata badhata hai. yah kathor ho sakane ki kshamata ko bhi badhata hai, jisase pani men bujhane ki jagah tel men bujhakar kathorikaran snbhav hai. phatane tatha ainthane ki pravritti ko bhi kam karata hai, jisase badi nap ke aise ispat ko bhi achchhi tarah kathor kiya ja sakata hai.

kuchh prishth-

kathorikaran ispaton men 1.0 se 5.0 pratishat tak nikal rahata hai. naitraiding ispaton men sadharanat: nikal ki matra adhik se adhik 0.4 pratishat tak hi simit hai.[1]

bahut se snksharan-

avarodhak tatha 'stenales' aaustenaitamay ispaton men nikal ka ansh 8 pratishat tatha isase adhik hota hai. prasiddh 18 : 8 kromiyam-nikal-ispat tatha usase milate julate ispat bhi isi varg men sammilit hain. kuchh ati navin prakar ke ispaton men nikal ki matra adhik hoti hain, jaise 20 pratishat ya isase bhi adhik. ye uchch tap tatha atyadhik dabav ki sthitiyon men kary karane ke lie upayukt hote hain; udaharanat:, gais tarbin ke sthir tave (disk) tatha bled. 36 pratishat nikal ka, ispat, jo 'inavar' nam se prasiddh hai, apane ati nimn-prasar-gunank ke karan yatharthadarshi ghadiyon, svaritr (tayooning fork) tatha bahut se vaigyanik upakaran banane men upayukt hota hai.

kolnbiyam

kromiyam ispat ya 18 : 8 kromiyam-nikal prakar ke ispat ko sthir karane ke lie 1 pratishat athava aisi hi matra tak kolnbiyam ka upayog hota hai. yah taiteniyam ke sadrish hi kary karata hai.

silikan

mainganiz ki bhanti silikan sabhi ispaton men prarnbh se hi, athava ispat banate samay milavat ke karan, rahata hai. isaki upasthiti se ispat ka anaksikaran hona pray: nishchit sa ho jata hai. silikan men, adhik matra men rahane par, ispat ki shakti tatha kathor ho sakane ki kshamata badhane ki tatha antarik tanyata kam karane ki pravritti hoti hai. silikan mainganiz ke kamani vale ispat men isaki matra 1.5 pratishat se 2 pratishat tak rahati hai, jisamen mainganiz ki matra lagabhag 0.6-1.0 pratishat hoti hai. silikan-kromiyam se bane injanon ke valvon ke ispat men silikan ki matra 3.75 pratishat hoti hai. nikal-kromiyam-tngstan valvon ke ispat men isaki matra 1.0-2.5 pratishat hoti hai.

gndhak

jaisa vidit hai, ispat men gndhak ka hona sadharanataya upadravaprad hai. mishradhatukari tatv ke roop men isaka upayog keval svachchhndata se katane vale ispat men hota hai.

siliniyam

yah tatv gndhak ke sadrish hi kary karata hai.

taiteniyam

thodi matra men milane se yah ispat ki sthirata badhata hai, aur kahate hain, isake karan dane (gren) ka pariman adhik sookshm hota hai.

tngstan

20 pratishat tak ki matra men tngstan uchchaveg ispat ka avashyak avayav hai; isalie ki yah ispat ko ushma upachar ke bad atyadhik kathorata pradan karata hai, jo oonche tap par bhi sthir rah jati hai. garm-thappa-ispat tatha doosare garm kary ke lie upayukt ispat men bhi isaka upayog hota hai. isamen isaki matra 2 pratishat se lagabhag 10 pratishat tak hoti hai.

vainediyam

ispat men vainediyam, fero-vainediyam ke roop men milaya jata hai. yah shaktishali schachchhakarak vastu hai. isase ispat ki sthirata tatha saphaee badhati hai tatha ushma upacharit karbanamay aur mishradhatviy ispat ke yantrik gun unnat hote hain. hava men kathorikaran ke gun tatha katane ki kshamata badhane ke lie 1½ pratishat tak vainediyam uchchaveg yantrik ispat men prayukt hota hai. ek prakar ke prasiddh uchchaveg ispat men vainediyam 4.5 jaise oonche anupat men rahata hai.

zirakoniyam

kuchh uchch kromiyam-nikal tatha aaustenaitamay 18 : 8 prakar ke ispat men, mukt katane ke gun dene ke lie, thodi matra men yah tatv gndhak ke sath prayukt hota hai.

nimn-mishr-dhatviy, uchch-tanav-pusht, bhavan-nirman-ispat

pramanik byore ke anusar in ispaton ki antim tanav-pushtata 37-43 tan prati varg inch hai, tatha trotanavindu (vah sima jisapar chhad tootata hai)

  1. silikan ispat
  2. mainganiz ispat
  3. tanbe ki thodi matra ke sath mainganiz ispat.
  4. mainganiz, kromiyam tatha tanbe ki milavat ka ispat.
  • varg 1 : silikan ispat ki, jisaki maulikata amariki hai, antim tanav-pushtata 37.7-42.4 tan prati varg inch tatha nimnatam trotanabindu 20.1 tan prati varg inch hai. isaki tanavapushtata karaban ki oonchi matra ke karan utpann hoti hai (0.4% tak).
  • varg 2 : is samooh ke ispat adhikatar mainganiz ki matra (lagabhag 1.25%) par nirbhar hain.
  • varg 3 : samanyat: 0.25% se 0.5% tak tanbe ki milavat hone par varg (2) ke saman hi is varg ki bhi sadharan prakriti hoti hai. mainganiz ke sath tanbe ki matra snksharan-pratirodh badhati hai, jo narm ispat ki apeksha 30-40% adhik ho jati hai.
  • varg 4 : is varg ke ispat men mainganiz, kromiyam tatha tanba mishrit rahata hai. isamen ooncha trotanabindu tatha sath hi unnat snksharan avarodh milata hai.

vayuyan motar tatha gadiyon ke injan ka ispat

motaragadiyon ki kraink dhuri sadaiv pitakar hi taiyar ki jati hai tatha 45-65 tan prati varg inch ki sadharan sima tak tanav-pushtata prapt karane ke lie ushmaupacharit hoti hai. avashyak ispat ka chunav puraje ki pradhan motaee par nirbhar hai. chhoti kraink dhuri ke lie 0.40% karaban ispat, bina nikal ke ya 1.0% nikal sahit, athava nimn mishradhatviy mainganiz-malibdinam ispat ko prathamikata di jati hai. bhari kraink dhuriyan nikal-kromiyam-malibdinam ispat ki banati hain, jo 55-65 tan prati varg inch tanav-pushtata ke lie ushma-upacharit rahati hain. nikal-kromiyam ispat men, jo pani chadhaee huee avastha men upayukt hota hai, pani chadhane par bhurabhurapan bachane ke lie malibdinam ki milavat ek manak prachalan hai.

havaee injan ki kraink dhuri ke lie naitraiding ispaton ka upayog prachalit hai. ye kromiyam malibdinam ispat hote hain jo 60-70 tan prati varg inch tanav-pushtata tak ushma-upacharit kie jate hain.

motar men snbndhak dndon (kanekting raaud) ko madhyam karaban ya mainganij-malibdinam ispat se, jo 45-65 tan prati varg inch tanav-pushtata tak ushma-upacharit hote hain, pitakar banaya jata hai. havaee injan ke snbndhak dnd ke lie 3.5% nikal ispat, 55-65 tan prati varg inch tanav-pushtata dene ke lie upacharit, tatha nikal-kromiyam-malibdinam ispat, 65-70 tan prati varg inch tanav-pushtata tak upacharit, anukool hain.

motar ke valvon ke lie 3.5% silikan aur 8.5% kromiyam vale ispat ka upayog hota hai tatha kabhi-kabhi aaustenaitamay ispat, jisamen 13% kromiyam, 13% nikal, 2.5% tngstan tatha 0.4% karaban hota hai, nishkasak (egzaaust) valv ke lie prayukt hota hai. kraink dhuri tatha taipat prishth kathorikrit ispat ke banae jate hain, jisamen 5% nikal ispat athava 4% nikal aur 1.3% kromiyam vale ispat ka prayog hota hai.

dantidar chakron ka vinash thakan (faitig) se utana nahin hota jitana ghisane ke karan. ye adhikatar prishth kathorikrit ispat se banae jate hai; jaise 0.20-0.28% karaban sahit 2 pratishat nikal molibdinam ispat, 3% nikal ispat athava 5% nikal ispat.

gair tarbin ispat

is kary men prayukt samagri mote taur par tin shreniyon men vibhakt ki ja sakati hai. inamen se pahala pheritik (parlitik) ya anh‌-astenaitamay varg kaha ja sakata hai, jisamen ve mishr dhatuen hain jo udaharanat: 600° selsiyas adhikatam tap tak kary ke lie anukool hain.

doosari shreni men ve mishr dhatuen hain jinaka vikas pradhanat: chippad n banane dene ki oonchi kshamata ke lie hua hai tatha jinaki bhar snbhalane ki kshamata par adhik dhyan nahin diya gaya hai. is varg men ane vale ispaton ki rasayanik snrachana men adhik antar hai. pheritik tatha astenaitamay donon prakar ki mishr dhatuen isi men hain. kam shakti ke antardah injan men valv-ispat ke roop men prayukt hone vale sade 6% kromiyam ispat se lekar dhale athava pitakar banae ge 65% nikal aur 18% kromiyam vali mishr dhatuon tak, jo namak ke ghol vale ushmakon men tatha any snksharak paristhitiyon men uchch tap par prayog ke lie upayukt hoti hain, is varg men sammilit hain.

tisari shreni men ve astenaitamay mishr dhatuen ati hain jo 600° sen. se oopar ke tap par dhire-dhire hone vale svat: parivartan ke viruddh oonchi pratirodhak shakti ke lie hi banaee gee hain. is sthiti men moracha tatha chippad n banane dene ki achchhi kshamata bhi avashyak hai. is tritiy varg ka adharabhoot padarth prasiddh 18% kromiyam aur 8% nikalavala 'stenales' ispat hai, parntu kuchh navin tatha shreshth mishr dhatuen ati jatil prakriti ki hain. inamen loha keval alp matra men hi ek ashuddhi ke roop men rahata hai.

vashp tarbin ke lie ispat

adhunik vashp tarbin, parishuddh mashin kie hue aise angon se bani rahati hai jinhen uchch tap par atyadhik tanav tatha bahudha kathin snksharan ki sthiti sahan karani padati hai tatha jo lnbi avadhi tak lagatar kary men lage rahate hain. tarbin ki dhuri pitakar banae ge, tel men bujhakar kathor kie ge tatha kuchh pani utare hue karaban ispat ki hoti hai, jisamen karaban lagabhag 0.4% tatha mainganiz 0.5 se 1.0% tak hota hai. uchch dabav vale tarbin ki dhuri antarik tanav rahit kie tatha pani chadhe karaban-malibdinam-vainediyam ispat se banati hai. tarbin ke silindar ke lie pray: sada karaban vale athava karaban-mainganiz-vale (mainganiz 1.4-1.8%) ispat ka upayog hota hai. keval un silindaron ke lie jo ati uchch tap par kary karate hain 0.5% malibdinam ispat ki avashyakata padati hai. bled ke lie vividh stenales ispat tatha oonchi nikal mishradhatuen prayukt huee hain. ajakal sabase adhik prayukt hone vala padarth 13% kromiyam-nimn-karaban ispat hai.

bayalar

ajakal ke bayalar 600°C tak tap tatha 3,200 paund prati varg inch se adhik dab par kary karate hain. dhol (dram) saral karaban-ispat, athava 3% nikal, 0.7% kromiyam aur 0.6% malibdinam vale ispat se lavngit (rivet) karake, athava veld karake, athava tapt pitakar banae jate hain. bayalar ki naliyan pray: karaban-ispat, athava kromiyam-malibdinam ispat ki thos khinchi huee hoti hain.

dabasah baratan

adhunik rasayanik udyog men rasayanik kriya karane tatha vibhinn gaison ko rakhane ke lie dabasah baratanon ki avashyakata padati hai. in baratanon ke lie upayukt padarth tin varg ke hote hain: # karaban ispat

  1. mishradhatu ispat
  2. stenales ispat

samanyat: madhyam tanav-pusht ispat, jinamen mainganiz ki matra 1.5 se 1.8% tak tatha 0.25% karaban rahata hai tatha jinaki tanav-pushtata 37 se 45 tan prati varg inch tak hoti hai, madhyam tatha uchch dab par kary ke lie dabasah baratanon men upayukt hote hain.

rasayanik udyog men ispat

sadaiv vikasit hoti huee nee rasayanik vidhiyon ke karan tatha un vishesh, navin paristhitiyon ka samana karane ke lie jo in vidhiyon men upasthit hoti hai, vibhinn prakar ke ispat tatha any dhatuon ka upayog hota hai. rasayanik udyog men mal rakhane ke baratanon, anek mashinon aur bahut prakar ke nirman baratanon tatha naliyon adi ke lie naram ispat hi atyadhik prayukt hota hai. kromiyam tatha kromiyam-nikal astenaitamay snksharan avarodhak ispat ka upayog rasayanik udyog men bahut hain. prachalit ispat ki rasayanik snrachana men 18% kromiyam, 8% nikal tatha lagabhag 0.18% karaban rahata hai tatha ise taiteniyam ya niyobiyam ki sahayata se sthayikrit kar diya jata hai. parntu aise ispat ka snksharan-avarodh 2.5-3% malbdiinam milane se atyadhik badh jata hai. rasayanik udyog men uchch tap par kary ke lie 25% kromiyam tatha 20% nikalavala ispat vyavahrit hota hai.

aujar tatha thappe ke lie ispat

adhunik utpadan

vidhiyon ka vikas aujar banane men kam anevale aise ispat ki unnati par hi bahut kuchh nirbhar raha hai jo uttarottar kathin paristhitiyon men bhi kary kar sake. vaise to aujari ispat aganit prakar ke hain, par unhen suvidhapoorvak in sat samoohon men banta ja sakata hai:

  1. sade karaban aujari ispat
  2. nimn mishradhatviy aujari ispat
  3. tel men bujhakar kathor kiya janevala aujari mainganiz ispat
  4. aghat-pratirodhak aujari ispat
  5. uchchakaraban uchchakromiyam mishradhatu
  6. uchch veg ispat tatha garam thappe ka ispat
  7. nikal-kromiyam-malibdinam ispat.

oopar die hue ek ya adhik maulik gun, inamen se pratyek samooh men adhik ansh tak pae jate hain.

sada karaban aujari ispat

ek bar pani men bujhakar isaka prishth kathor, komal tatha sadharan kathorata ka banaya ja sakata hai.

nimn mishradhatviy aujari ispat

karaban vale aujari ispat men 0.2 se 0.5% tak vainediyam ki upasthiti danedar hona rokati hai tatha kathorikaran ki kshamata ko labhadayak sima tak badhati hai. 1.5% kromiyam milane se kathorikaran ki kshamata tatha gharshan-avarodh badhata hai aur yadi mainganiz 0.5 tatha 0.75% ke bich men sthir rakha jae to yah tel men bujhakar kathorikaran yogy ispat ho jata hai. 1.2% karaban tatha 1.3% tngstan vala ispat, jo pray: dhatukat ari ke phal (haikasaau bled) ke lie prayukt hota hai, isaka ek achchha udaharan hai.

tel men bujhakar kathorikaran yogy mainganiz aujari ispat

tel men bujhakar kathorikrit pramanik ispat men 0.8-1.0% karaban tatha 1.0-2.0% mainganiz rahata hai.

aghat pratirodhak ispat

is prakar ke ispaton men se saralatam ispat men 0.6% karaban, 0.6% mainganiz tatha 0.4-1.4% kromiyam rahata hai. jisamen adhik kromiyam rahata hai vah mote yntron ke lie upayukt hota hai.

uchch karaban, uchch kromiyam mishradhatu

pramanik mishradhatu men 2.2-2.4% karaban tatha 12-14% kromiyam rahata hai. isamen uchch gharshan-avarodh tatha uchch snksharan-avarodh ka gun hota hai. yah tel men bujhakar kathor kiya ja sakata hai, parntu 1% malibdinam ki milavat ise vayu men kathorikaran yogy mishradhatu bana deti hai.

uchch veg tatha garm thappe ke lie upayukt ispat

oonche tap par kary karate samay achchhi kathorata tatha katane ka dhar surakshit rakhane ki kshamata hi uchchaveg ispat ka mukhy gun hai. adhik upayog men ane vale is prakar ke ispat men lagabhag 0.75% karaban, 1.8% tngastan, 4% kromiyam tatha 1.5% vainediyam rahata hai.

nikal-kromiyam-malibdinam ispat

0.3-0.6% karaban, 4% nikal, 1.3% kromiyam tatha 0.3% malibdinam sahit ispaton men atyadhik chimadapan (tafanes) hota hai. chunbakayukt yntron ke bahut se aise karyo men jahan pahale keval vidyuchchunbak hi vyavahrit hote the, ab navin khojon ke karan, sthayi chunbak saphalatapoorvak prayukt hote hain. chunbak ispat do vargo men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai-vah jo maaurtenasitik ispat hota hai tatha vah jisamen avakshepan ki vidhi dvara chunbakiy kathorata utpann ki jati hai. martenasitik ispat kromiyam ispat (karaban 0.9%, kromiyam 3.5%), tngstan ispat (karaban 0.7%, kromiyam 0.3% tatha tngastan 6%) tatha kobalt ispat (35% kobalt, 1% karaban, 5-9% kromiyam, lagabhag 1% tngstan aur 1.5% malibdinam) ko milakar banaya jata hai. avakshepan dvara kathorikrit mishradhatuon men ailyuminiyam, nikal, kobalt tatha tanba, kuchh taiteniyam, niyabayam ya malibdinam ke sath rahate hain.

1900 ee. tak, sadharan upayog men, loha hi akele 'naram' lauhachunbakiy vastu tha. tatpashchath‌ anek mishradhatuon ka pravesh hua, jinamen samuchit ushma upachar se oonchi prarnbhik chunbakashilata (parmiebiliti) tatha nimn mndayan (histerisis) hani utpann hoti hai! inhen par-mishradhatu kahate hain. nikal-loha ki bahut si mishradhatuen, jinamen doosari dhatuon ki alp pratishat men hi milavat rahati hai, is kshetr men ati shreshth thahari hain. in mishradhatuon men 35-90% nikal rahata hai tatha inamen milaee jane vali pradhan dhatuen malibdinam, kromiyam tatha tanba hai.

injiniyari men aise ispat tatha mishradhatuon ke anek upayog hain, jo yantrik tanav sah sake ya sahara de saken, parntu asapas men chunbakiy kshetr ki vriddhi n karen. inaki chunbak-pravritti (saseptabaliti) ko lagabhag shoony tatha chunbakashilata ko lagabhag ikaee tak pahunchana chahie. is kary men prayukt hone vale padarth nimnalikhit hain:

  1. astenaitamay mishradhatu dhalavan loha tatha ispat
  2. tapasamakara mishradhatu jinamen pradhanat: nikal (30-36%)
  3. aur loha (59-70%) tatha sath men kabhi kabhi mainganiz ya kromiyam (5%) hota hai, tatha (3) nishchunbakiy ispat (karaban 0.45%, mainganiz 8.5-9.5%, nikal 7.5-8.5%, kromiyam 3.0-3.5%).

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. naitraiding ispat ke bahari prishth ko kada karane ki ek riti hai. sadharanat:amoniya gais men ispat ko 500-555° sentigred tak tapt karane se yah kary siddh hota hai.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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