शेरशाह सूरी साम्राज्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

sherashah soori
Shershah Suri

shasanakal (1540-1555 ee.)
sherashah soori samrajy ki sthapana sherashah soori ne sanh 1540 men dilli ki sinhasan gaddi par baithakar ki. sherashah ka vastavik nam farid khan tha aur usaka pita 'hasan khan' jaunapur men ek chhota zamindar tha. farid ne pita ki jagir ki dekhabhal karate hue kafi prashasanik anubhav prapt kiya. ibrahim lodi ki mrityu aur afagan mamalon men halachal mach jane par vah ek shaktishali afagan saradar ke roop men ubhara. 'sherakhan' ki upadhi use usake snrakshak ne ek sher marane par di thi. jaldi sherakhan bihar ke shasak ka dahina hath ban gaya. vah vastav men bihar ka betaj badashah tha. yah sab babar ki mrityu se pahale ghatit hua tha. is prakar sherakhan ne achanak hi mahattv prapt kar liya tha.

rajasthan ke sngharsh

shasak ke roop men sherashah ne muhammad bin tugalaq ke samay ke bad sthapit sashaktatam samrajy par rajy kiya. usaka rajy sindhu nadi se kashmir sahit bngal tak phaila hua tha. pashchim men usane malava aur lagabhag sara rajasthan jita. us samay malava kamazor aur bikhara hua tha. atah virodh kar pane ki sthiti men nahin tha. lekin rajasthan men sthiti bhinn thi. maladev ne, jo 1532 men gaddi par baitha tha, sare pashchim aur uttar-rajasthan ko apane adhikar men kar liya tha. sherashah aur humayoon ke bich sngharsh ke samay usane apani simaon ka aur bhi vistar kar liya tha. jaisalamer ke bhattiyon ki madad se usane ajamer ko bhi jit liya. in vijayon ke daur men mevad sahit is kshetr ke shasakon se usaka sngharsh hua. usaka antim kary bikaner ki vijay tha. ladaee men bikaner ka shasak viratapoorvak ladate hue mara gaya. usake ladake kalyan das aur bhim sherashah ki sharan men pahunche. inamen maladev ke snbndhi medata ke biram dev bhi the. jinhen usane jagir se bedakhal kar diya tha.

is prakar vahi sthiti utpann ho gee, jo babar aur rana sanga ke samaksh thi. maladev dvara rajasthan men ek kendriy shasan ki sthapana ke prayatn ko dilli aur agara ke sultan ek khatara manate, aisa avashyambhavi tha. aisa vishvas tha ki maladev ke pas 50,000 sipahi the, lekin is bat ka koee praman nahin hai ki maladev ki nazar dilli ya agara par thi. poorv sngharshon ki bhanti is bar bhi donon pakshon ke bich sngharsh ka karan sainik drishti se mahattvapoorn kshetr rajasthan par adhipaty tha.

chaunsa evn bilagram ke yuddh

1539 ee. men chaunsa ka evn 1540 ee. men bilagram ya kannauj ke yuddh jitane ke bad sherashah 1540 ee. men dilli ki gaddi ki par baitha. uttar bharat men dvitiy afagan samrajy ke snsthapak sher khan dvara babar ke chaderi abhiyan ke dauran kahe gaye ye shabd aksharashah saty siddh hue, “ ki agar bhagy ne meri sahayata ki aur saubhagy mera mitr raha, to mai mugalon ko saralata se bharat se bahar nikala doonga.” chaunsa yuddh ke pashchath sher khan ne ‘sherashah’ ki upadhi dharan kar apana rajyabhishek karavaya. kalantar men isi nam se khutabe (upadesh ya prashnsatmak rachana) padhavaye evn sikke dhalavaye. jis samay sherashah dilli ke sinhasan par baitha, usake samrajy ki simayen pashchim men kannauj se lekar poorab men asam ki pahadiyon evn chataganv tatha uttar men himalay se lekar dakshin men jharakhand ki pahadiyon evn bngal ki khadi tak phaili huee thi.

semal ki ladaee

1544 men ajamer aur jodhapur ke bich semal namak sthan par rajapoot aur afagan faujon ke bich sngharsh hua. rajasthan men age badhate hue sherashah ne bahut hi savadhani se kam liya. vah pratyek padav par akasmik akramanon se bachane ke lie khaee khod leta tha. yah spasht hai ki rana sanga aur babar ke madhy huee bhaynkar parinamon vali ladaee ke bad rajapooton ne bhi bahut si sainik paddhatiyon ko sikh liya tha. unhonne dridhata se surakshit sherashah ke padavon par akraman karana mnzoor nahin kiya. ek mahina intazar karane ke bad maladev achanak hi jodhapur ki or laut gaya.

sherashah ki mrityu

semal ki ladaee ne rajasthan ke bhagy ki kunji ghuma di. isake bad sherashah ne ajamer aur jodhapur par ghera dal diya aur unhen jit kar maladev ko rajasthan ki or khaded diya. phir vah mevad ki or ghooma. rana muqabala karane ki sthiti men nahin tha. usane chittaud ke qile ki chabiyan sherashah ke pas bhijava din. sherashah ne maunt aboo par chauki sthapit kar di.
is prakar das varsh ki chhoti-si avadhi men hi sherashah ne lagabhag sare rajasthan ko jit liya. usaka antim abhiyan kalinjar ke qile ke viruddh tha. yah qila bahut mazaboot aur bundelakhand ka dvar tha. ghere ke dauran ek top phat gee, jisase sherashah gnbhir roop se ghayal ho gaya. vah qile par fatah ka samachar sunane ke bad maut ki nind so gaya.

sherashah ke uttaradhikari

sherashah ke bad usaka doosara putr islamashah gaddi par baitha aur usane 1553 tak rajy kiya. islamashah ek yogy shasak aur senapati tha. lekin usaki adhikansh shakti apane bhaiyon aur usake sath kee afagan saradaron ke vidrohon ko kuchalane men kharch ho gee. isake aur hamesha se bane hue mugalon ke phir se akraman karane ke khatare ke karan islamashah apane samrajy ka aur vistar nahin kar saka. yuvavastha men hi usaki mrityu ho jane ke karan usake uttaradhikariyon men grih-yuddh chhid gaya. isase humayoon ko bharat ke samrajy ko phir se prapt karane ka avasar mil gaya, jisaki vah pratiksha kar raha tha. 1555 ki do zabaradast ladaiyon men usane afaganon ko parajit kar diya aur dilli tatha agara ko phir se jit liya.

sherashah ka mahattv aur yogadan

soor samrajy ko anek prakar se dilli saltanat ki nirantarata aur parinam samajha jana chahie. jabaki babar aur humayoon ka agamal ek antaral hai. sherashah ke mukhy yogadanon men se ek yah hai ki usane apane sampoorn samrajy men qanoon aur vyavastha ko phir se sthapit kiya. vah chauron, dakuon aur un zamindaron se sakhti se pesh aya jo bhoo-rajasv dene se ya sarakar ke adesh manane se inkar karate the. sherashah ka itihasakar abbasakhan saravani kahata hai ki zamindar itana dar gaye the ki koee usake khilaf vidroh ka jhnda uthana nahin chahata tha aur n kisi ki yah himmat padati thi ki apani jagir se gujarane vale rahagiron ko pareshan kare.

vyapar ki unnati aur avagaman ke sadhan

sherashah ne vyapar ki unnati aur avagaman ke sadhanon ke sudhar ki or bahut dhyan diya. sherashah ne purani shahi sadak, jise grand trak rod kaha jata hai, (us samay yah marg us samay sadak-e-azam kahalata tha). jo sindhoo nadi se bngal ke sonar ganv tak hai phir se khola. usane agara se jodhapur aur chittaud tak ki sadak ka nirman karavaya aur use gujarat ke bndaragahon se judi sadakon se milaya. usane lahaur se multan tak tisari sadak ka nirman karavaya. multan us samay pashchim aur madhy eshiya ki or jane vale karavaon ka prarabhink bindu tha. yatriyon ki suvidha ke lie sherashah ne in sadakon par pratyek do kos (lagabhag ath) kilomitar par sarayon ka nirman karaya. saray men yatriyon ke rahane-khane tatha saman surakshit rakhane ki vyavastha hoti thi. in sarayon men hinduon aur musalamanon ke rahane ke lie alag-alag vyavastha hoti thi. hindoo yatriyon ko bhojan aur bistar dene ke lie brahmanon ki niyukti hoti thi. abbasakhan kahata hai ki in sarayon men yah niyam tha ki jo bhi ata tha use sarakar ki or se usake pad ke anusar bhojan aur usake janavaron ko dana-pani milata tha. in sarayon ke asapas ganv basane ka prayatn kiya gaya aur kuchh jaminn sarayon ka kharch poora karane ke lie alag kar di gee. pratyek saray men ek shahana (suraksha adhikari) ke adhin kuchh chaukidar hote the.

Blockquote-open.gif "kisan nirdosh hai, ve adhikariyon ke age jhuk jate hain, aur agar main un par zulm karoon to ve apane ganv chhodakar chale jayenge, desh barbad aur viran ho jayega aur dobara samriddh hone ke lie use bahut lnba vaqt lagega."-sherashah Blockquote-close.gif


dak vyavastha

kaha jata hai ki sherashah ne kul 1700 sarayon ka nirman karavaya. inamen se kuchh ab bhi khadi hain. jisase pata chalata hai ki ve kitani mazaboot banayi gee thin usaki sadakon aur sarayon ko 'samrajy ki dhamaniyan' kaha jata hai. bahut si sarayon ke as-pas qasbe ban gaye, jahan kisan apani upaj bechane ke lie ate the. sarayon ko dak-chaukiyon ke roop men bhi istemal kiya jata tha. dak-chaukiyon ki vyavastha ke vishay men ek poorv adhyay men charcha ki ja chuki hai. inake madhyam se sherashah ko vishal samrajy ki ghatanaon ki janakari milati-rahati thi.

yatriyon aur vyapariyon ki suvidha

sherashah ne apane gavarnaron aur amilon ko is bat ka adesh diya ki ve logon ko yatriyon aur vyapariyon se achchha vyavahar karane aur unhen kisi bhi prakar ki hani n pahunchane ke lie vivash karen. agar kisi vyapari ki mrityu ho jati thi to usake saman ko lavaris man kar zabt nahin kiya jata tha. sherashah ne unhen shekh nizami ka sootr diya tha ki "yadi tumhare desh men kisi vyapari ki mrityu hoti hai, to usaki sampatti ko hath lagana vishvasaghat hota hai." kisi vyapari ko yadi marg men koee nuqasan hota tha to sherashah ganv ke mukhiya ya zamindar ko uttaradayi thaharata tha. vyapariyon ka saman chori ho jane par muqadama ya zamindar ko choron ya luteron ke addon ka pata batana padata tha. isamen asaphal rahane par svayn vah saza bhugatani padati thi jo choron ya luteron ko mil sakati thi. margon par hatya ki varadat ho jane par bhi yahi qanoon lagoo hota tha. aparadhi ke sthan par niraparadh ko uttaradayi thaharana barbar qanoon avashy tha, lekin lagata hai ki isaka kafi prabhav pada. abbas khan saravani ki chitramay bhasha men "ek jarjar boodhi aurat bhi apane sir par jevarat ki tokari rakh kar yatra par ja sakati thi, aur sherashah ki saza ke dar se koee chor ya lutera usake nazadik nahin a sakata tha."

mudra sudhar

sherashah ke mudra sudharon se bhi vyapar aur shilpon ki unnati men sahayata mili. usane khot mile mishrit dhatuon ke sikkon ke sthan par sone, chandi aur tanbe ke badhiya manak sikke dhalavaye. usaka chandi ka sikka itana pramanik tha ki vah shatabdiyon bad tak manak sikke ke roop men prachalit raha. manak banton aur mapon ko sampoorn samrajy men lagoo karane ka usaka prayatn bhi vyapar men bahut sahayak siddh hua.
sherashah ne saltanatakal se chali a rahi prashasakiy ikaeeyon men koee parivartan nahin kiya. paragana ke antargat kuchh ganv hote the. paragana ek shiqadar ke adhin hota tha. shiqadar ka kam qanoon aur vyavastha tatha prashasan ka kary dekhana tha evn munsif ya amil bhi usake adhin hota tha, jo bhoo-rajasv ikattha karata tha. lekha farasi tatha sthaniy bhashaon donon men rakha jata tha. paragana ke oopar shiq athava sarakar hota tha, jisaki dekhabhal shiqadar-e-shiqadaran aur munsif-e-munsifan karate the. aisa lagata hai ki adhikariyon ke pad nam hi nahin the. anyatha poorv kalon men bhi paragana aur sarakar donon prashasan ki ikaiyan the.

bhoomi aur rajasv

kee sarakaron ko milakar prant ka nirman hota tha, parantu sherashah ke samay ke prantiy prashasan ki paddhati ki koee vishesh janakari nahin hai. aisa lagata hai ki prantiy gavarnar kee kshetron men bahut shaktishali the. bngal jaise kshetron men vastavik adhikar prajatiy-saradaron (qabile ke saradaron) ke pas hi hote the aur prantiy gavarnaron ka un par dhila-dhala adhikar hi hota tha.
vastutah sherashah ne saltanatakal se chali a rahi kendriy prashasan vyavastha ko hi banaye rakha. parantu is vishay men adhik janakari upalabdh nahin hai.

sherashah vaziron ke hath men adhikar dene men vishvas nahin rakhata tha. vah subah se der rat tak rajy ke karyon men vyast rahata tha aur kada parishram karata tha. vah praja ki halat janane ke lie aksar desh ka bhraman karata tha. lekin koee bhi vyakti chahe vah kitana hi parishrami kyon n ho, bharat jaise brihad desh ke kamon ko akela nahin snbhal sakata tha. sherashah dvara prashasan ki ati kendrikrit paddhati apanakar adhikansh adhikar apane hath men rakhane ki pravritti ki kamazoriyan usaki mrityu ke bad hi ubhar kar aeen.

sherashah ne bhoo-rajasv pranali, sena aur nyay par bahut dhyan diya. apane pita ki zagir ka kam anek varshon tak snbhalane aur phir bihar ke shasan ki dekhabhal karane ke karan sherashah bhoo-rajasv pranali ke pratyek star ke kary se bhali-bhanti parichit tha. kuchh yogy prashasakon ki madad se usane sari pranali ko thik kiya. upaj ki matra ka anuman nahin lagaya jata tha, n hi upaj ko kheton ya khalihanon men hisson men banta jata tha. daron ki ek pranali (jise ray kaha jata tha) nikali gee, jisake antargat alag-alag kismon par rajy ke bhag ki dar alag-alag hoti thi. usake bad alag-alag kshetron men bazar-bhavon ke anusar us bhag ki qimat tay ki jati thi. rajy ka bhag ek-tihaee hota tha. bhoomi ko bhi uttam, madhyam aur nimn kotiyon men banta jata tha. unaki ausat upaj ka hisab laga kar usaka ek tihaee bhag rajasv ke roop men liya jata tha. yadyapi vah rajyakar ka bhugatan naqadi men chahata tha parantu yah kisanon par nirbhar karata tha ki ve kar naqad den ya anaj ke roop men.

kisanon ke lie vyavastha

is prakar boaee karane ke bad kisan ko yah pata chal jata tha ki use kitana kar dena hai. boaee ka kshetraphal, fasal ki qism aur kisan dvara dey kar ek patte par likh liya jata tha aur kisan ko usaki soochana de di jati thi. kisi ko kisan se usase adhik lene ka adhikar nahin tha. nap-jokh karane vale dalon ke sadasyon ka parishramik bhi nirdharit tha. akal jaisi prakritik vipadaon ka muqabala karane ke lie prati bigha dhaee ser anaj atirikt kar ke roop men liya jata tha.
sherashah kisanon ke kalyan ka bahut khayal rakhata tha. vah kaha karata tha :- "kisan nirdosh hai, ve adhikariyon ke age jhuk jate hain, aur agar main un par zulm karoon to ve apane ganv chhodakar chale jayenge, desh barbad aur viran ho jayega aur dobara samriddh hone ke lie use bahut lnba vaqt lagega." us kal men kheti yogy bahut bhoomi upalabdh thi aur zulm hone par kisanon dvara ganv chhodakar chala jana ek bahut bada khatara tha aur is sthiti ke karan hi shasakon dvara kisanon ka shoshan karane par ek ankush rahata tha.

sainy netritv

sherashah ne apane vishal samrajy ki suraksha ke lie ek mazaboot sena taiyar ki. usane jatiy mukhiyaon ke netritv men rajy ki seva men nishchit matra men sainik upalabdh karane ki paddhati ko samapt kar diya aur charitr-pushti ke adhar par sainikon ki sidhi bharti shuroo ki. har sainik ka khata (chehara) darj hota tha, usake ghode par shahi nishan laga diya jata tha taki ghatiya nasl ke ghode se use badala n ja sake. sambhavatah ghodon ko dagane ki parampara sherashah ne alauddin khilaji se apanayi. jisane sainik sudharon ke antargat is vidhi ko shuroo kiya tha. sherashah ki apani sena men 1,50,000 paidal sipahi, 25,000 ghudasavar jo dhanushon se lais hote the, 5,000 hathi aur ek topakhana tha. usane samrajy ke vibhinn bhagon men chhavaniyan banavayin aur pratyek men ek mazaboot tukadi ko tainat kiya.

nyay vyavastha

sherashah nyay par bahut bal deta tha. vah kaha karata tha ki "nyay sabase badhiya dharmik kary hai, aur ise kafiron aur musalamanon donon ke raja saman roop se svikar karate hain." vah zulm karane valon ko kabhi kshama nahin karata tha chahe ve bade saradar hon ya apani jati ke log ya nikat snbndhi hi kyon n hon. qanooni vyavastha ke lie vibhinn sthanon par qaziyon ki niyukti ki jati thi. lekin pahale ki bhanti, ganv pnchayaten aur zamindar bhi sthaniy star par divani aur faujadari muqadamon ki sunavaee karate the.

nyay pradan karane ke lie sherashah ke putr aur uttaradhikari islamashah ne ek aur bada qadam uthaya. islamashah ne qanoon ko likhit roop dekar islami qanoon ki vyakhyaon ke lie kuchh vishesh vyaktiyon par nirbhar rahane ki avashyakata ko samapt kar diya. islamashah ne saradaron ke adhikaron aur visheshadhikaron ko bhi kam karane ka prayas kiya, aur usane sainikon ko naqad vetan dene ki parampara bhi prarambh ki. lekin usaki mrityu ke sath hi usaki adhikansh vyavasthaen bhi samapt ho geen.

bhavan nirman

isamen koee sndeh nahin hai ki sherashah ka vyaktitv asadharan tha. usane panch sal ke shasan ki chhoti si avadhi men prashasan ki sudridh pranali sthapit ki. vah mahanh bhavan-nirmata bhi tha. sasaram sthit sherashah ka maqabara, jo usane apane jivan-kal men nirmit karavaya tha, sthapaty kala ka ek shanadar namoona mana jata hai. ise poorvakalin sthapaty shaili aur bad men vikasit sthapaty shaili ke prarnbhik bindu ka mishran mana jata hai.

kuchh any visheshataen

  • sherashah ne dilli ke nikat yamuna ke kinare par ek naya shahar bhi basaya. isamen se ab keval purana qila aur usake andar bani ek sundar masjid hi shesh hai.
  • sherashah vidvanon ko snrakshan bhi deta tha. malik muhammad jayasi ke "padmavat" jaisi hindi ki kuchh shreshth rachanaen usi ke shasanakal men likhi geen.
  • sherashah men dharmik madandhata nahin thi. usaki samajik aur arthik nitiyan isaka praman hain.
  • sherashah aur usaka putr islamashah men se koee bhi ulemaon par nirbhar nahin rahata tha, yadyapi vah unaka bahut adar karate the. kabhi-kabhi rajanitik karyon ko nyayasngat thaharane ke lie dharmik nare diye jate the. shapath par vishvas karake malava ke rayasen ke qile se bahar ane par pooranamal aur unake sathiyon ka vadh, isaka ek udaharan hai. ulemaon ne yah spashtikaran diya ki kafiron ke sath vishvas banaye rakhana zaroori nahin hai, aur kaha ki pooranamal ne musalaman striyon aur purushon par zulm kiya tha. lekin sherashah ne koee nayi udar niti shuroo nahin ki.
  • hinduon se "jaziya" kar liya jata raha aur usake saradaron men lagabhag sabhi afagan the.

is prakar sooron ke adhin rajy rakt aur jati par adharit afagan snstha hi raha. akabar ke uday ke bad hi isamen moolabhoot parivartan hue.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah