सल्तनत काल का प्रशासन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Icon-edit.gif is lekh ka punarikshan evn sampadan hona avashyak hai. ap isamen sahayata kar sakate hain. "sujhav"

saltanat kal men bharat men ek nee prashasanik vyavastha ki shuruat huee, jo mukhy roop se arabi-farasi paddhati par adharit thi. saltanat kal men prashasanik vyavastha poorn roop se islam dharm par adharit thi. prashasan men ulemaon ki mahattvapoorn bhoomika hoti thi. ‘khalifa’ islamik snsar ka paigambar ke bad ka sarvochch neta hota tha. pratyek sultan ke lie avashyak hota tha ki, khalifa use manyata de, phir bhi dilli saltanat ke turk sultanon ne khalifa ko namamatr ka hi pradhan mana. iltutamish dilli saltanat ka pahala sultan tha, jisane 1229 ee men bagadad ke khalifa ko ‘naib’ (sahayak) kaha. alauddin khilaji ne apane ko khalifa ka naib nahin mana. qutubuddin mubaraq khilaji pahala aisa sultan tha, jisane khilafat ke mithak ko todakar svayn ko khalifa ghoshit kiya. muhammad tugalaq ne apane shasak kal ke prarambh men khalifa ko manyata nahin di, kintu shasan ke antim charan men usane khalifa ko manyata pradan kar di. firozashah tugalaq ne apane sikkon par khalifa ka nam utkirn karavaya tha.

sultan

sultan ki upadhi turki shasakon dvara prarambh ki gayi. mahamood gazanavi aisa pahala shasak tha, jisane sultan ki upadhi dharan ki. dilli men adhikansh ne apane ko khalifa ka nayak pukara, parantu kutubuddin mubarak khilaji ne svayn ko khalifa ghoshit kiya. khizr khan ne taimoor ke putr shaharukh ka prabhutv svikar kiya aur 'raiyyat-e-ala' ki upadhi dharan ki. usake putr aur uttaradhikari mubarak shah ne is pratha ko samapt kar diya aur shah sultan ki upadhi grahan ki. sultan kendriy prashasan ka mukhiya hota tha. saltanat kal men uttaradhikar ka koee nishchat niyam nahin tha, kintu sultan ko yah adhikar hota tha ki, vah apane bachchon men kisi ek ko bhi apana uttaradhikari chun sakata tha. sultan dvara chuna gaya uttaradhikari yadi ayogy hai to, aisi sthiti men saradar naye sultan ka chunav karate the. kabhi-kabhi shakti ke prayog se sinhasan par adhikari kiya jata tha. dilli saltanat men sultan poorn roop se nirnkush hota tha. usaki sampoorn shakti sainik bal par nirbhar karati thi. sultan sena ka sarvochch senapati evn nyayalay ka sarvochch nyayadhish hota tha. sultan ‘shariyat’ ke adhin hi kary karata tha.

amir

saltanat men sabhi prabhavashali padon par niyukt vyaktiyon ki samany sngya amir thi. amiron ka prabhav sultan par hota tha. sultan ko shasan karane ke lie amiron ko apane anookool kiye rahana avashyak hota tha. amiron ka prabhav us samay badh jata tha, jab sultan ayogy, nirbal ya alpavayask ho. vaise balaban aur alauddin khilaji ke samay men amir prabhavahin ho gaye the. prayah naye rajavnsh ke satta men ane par purane amiron ko ya to mar diya jata tha ya phir unhen chhote pad de diye jate the. muhammad tugalaq ke kal men hue vidroh men amiron ka sarvadhik yogadan tha. isalie usane purane amiron ko kamazor karane ki drishti se mishrit janajatiy adhikar par padadhikariyon ki ek nee vyavastha sthapit ki. amiron ka prashasan men mahattvapoorn yogadan hota tha. lodi vnsh ke shasan kal me amiron ka mahattv apane charamotkarsh par tha.

mntriparishad

yadyapi satta ki dhuri sultan hota tha, phir bhi vibhinn vibhagon ke karyon ke kushal snchalan hetu use ek mntriparishad ki avashyakata padati thi, jise saltanat kal men ‘majalis-e-khalavat’ kaha jata tha. mntriparishad ki salah manane ke lie sultan badhy nahin hota tha. parantu sultan nirbal ya ayogy ho to sari shakti mntri apane hath men kendrit kar lete the. vah inaki niyukti evn padamukti apani ichchhanusar kar sakata tha. ‘majalis-e-khas’ men ‘majalis-e-khalavat’ ki baithak hua karati. yahan par sultan kuchh khas logon ko bulata tha. ‘bar-e-khas’ men sultan sabhi darabariyon, khanon, amiron, malikon, aur any reenson ko bulata tha. ‘bar-e-ajam’ men sultan rajakiy karyon ka adhikansh bhag poora karata tha. yahan par vidvan mulla, qazi bhi upasthit rahate the.

saltanakalin mntriparishad men 4 mntri mahattvapoorn the. ye nimnalikhit hain-

  1. vazir (pradhanamntri)
  2. divan-e-arij
  3. divan-e-insha
  4. divan-e-rasalat

(1) vazir (pradhanamntri)

mntriparishad men vazir shayad sarvapramukh hota tha. usake pas any mntriyon ki apeksha adhik adhikar hota tha aur vah any mntriyon ke karyon par nazar rakhata tha. vazir rajasv vibhag ka pramukh hota tha, use lagan, kar vyavastha, dan sainik vyay adi ki dekhabhal karani padati thi. vah prantapatiyon ke rajasv lekha ka nirikshan karata tha tatha prantapatiyon se atirikt rajasv ki vasooli karata tha. sultan ki anupasthiti men use shasan ka prabandh karana padata tha. vah divan-e-virajat (rajasv vibhag), divan-e-imarat (lok nirman vibhag), divan-e-amir kohi (krishi vibhag) vibhag ke mntriyon ka pramukh hota tha. mustaufi-e-mumalik evn khazin (khazanchi), hote the. tugalaq kal “muslim bharatiy vazirat ka svarn kal” tha. uttaragami tugalaqon ke samay men vazir ki shakti bahut badh gayi thi. antim tugalaq shasak mahamood tugalaq ke samay men jab ashanti phaili to, ek naye karyalay vaqil-e-sultan ki sthapana huee. saiyyadon ke samay men yah shakti ghatane lagi tatha afaganon ke adhin vazir ka pad mahattvahin ho gaya.

  • nayab vazir

'nayab vazir', vazir ka sahayogi hota tha tatha vazir ki anupasthiti men usake karyon ka nirvahan isake dvara hi kiya jata tha.

  • musharif-e-mumalik (mahalekhakar)

pranton evn any vibhag se prapt hone vali ay evn usake vyay ka lekha-jokha rakhane ka dayitv 'musharif-e-mumalik' ka hota tha. najir isaka sahayak hota tha.

  • mustaufi-e-mumalik (mahalekh parikshak)

musharif dvara taiyar kiye gaye lekha-jokha ki janch ke lie 'mustaufi-e-mumalik' ke pad ki vyavastha thi. kabhi-kabhi yah musharif ki tarah ay-vyay ka nirikshan bhi karata tha.

  • khazin (khazanchi)

yah koshadhyaksh ke roop men kary karata tha.

  • divan-e-vaqoof

jalaluddin khilaji dvara sthapit is vibhag ka mukhy kary vyay ki kagazat ki dekh-bhal karana hota tha.

  • divan-e-mustakharaj

vitt vibhag se sambndhit is vibhag ki sthapana alauddin khilaji ne ki thi. isaka kary atirikt matra men vasool kiye ge kar ka hisab rakhana hota tha.

  • divan-e-amir kohi

muhammad tugalaq dvara sthapit is vibhag ka mukhy kary malaguzari vyavastha ki dekhabhal karana evn bhoomi ko kheti yogy banana hota tha.

uparyukt samast vibhag 'divan-e-vijarat' vibhag se niyntrit hote the. divan-e-vijarat, vazir ka karyalay hota tha. vijarat ko ek snstha ke roop men prayog karane ki prerana abbasi khalifaon ne faras se li tha. dilli saltanat ke prarambhik vaziron men kutubuddin aibak, tajuddin eldoj, nasiruddin qabacha adi the. vazir ka pad dilli saltanat men firozashah tugalaq ke samay men apane charamotkarsh par tha. firozashah tugalaq ke vazir khvaja hisamuddin ne vibhinn soobon ka daura karane ke pashchath samast khalasa bhoomi ka rajasv chhah karod pachasi lakh tnka nishchit kiya tha. lodi vnsh ke shasan kal men yah pad mahattvahin ho gaya.

(2) divan-e-arij

'arij-e-mumalik' sainy vibhag ka pramukh adhikari hota tha. isaka mahattvapoorn kary sainikon ki bharti karana, sainikon evn ghodon ka huliya rakhana, rasad ki vyavastha karana, sena ka nirikshan karana evn sena ki saj-sajja ki vyavastha karana hota tha. arij-e-mumalik ke vibhag ko ‘divan-e-arj’ kaha jata tha. is vibhag ki sthapana balaban ne ki thi tatha alauddin khilaji ke samay isaka mahattv badh gaya.

  • vakil-e-sultan

muhammad tugalaq (tugalaq vnsh ka antim shasak) dvara sthapit is mntri ka kary shasan vyavastha evn sainik vyavastha ki dekh-bhal karana hata tha. yah vibhag kuchh din bad hi astitvahin ho gaya.

(3) divan-e-insha

yah vibhag ‘dabir-e-mumalik’ ke antargat tha. shahi patr vyavahar ke lie kary ka bhar is vibhag dvara hota tha. yah sultan ki ghoshanaon evn patron ka masavida taiyar karata tha. sabhi rajakiy abhilekh isi karyalay men surakshit rakhe jate the. dabir evn lekhak isake sahayogi hote the. firozashah tugalaq ke samay men isaka star mntri ka nahin rah gaya. minahaj-us-siraj is vibhag ko “divan-e-asharaf” kahakar snbodhit karata tha. is vibhag ka kary atyant gopaniy hota tha.

(4) divan-e-rasalat

is vibhag ke karyon ke bare men vivad hai. kuchh itihasakaron ke anusar, yah vibhag videshon se patr vyavahar tatha videshon ko bheje jane vale evn videsh se ane vale rajadooton ki dekhabhal karata tha. kuchh itihasakaron ke anusar yah dharm vibhag se sambndhit tha. khilaji vnsh ke sultan svayn is vibhag ka kary dekhate the. isake lie kisi amir ki niyukti khilaji kal men nahin huee. uparyukt mntriyon ke atirikt bhi kuchh mntri hote the. ye nimnalikhit hain-

  • nayab (nayab-e-mumalikat)

is pad ki sthapana iltutamish ke putr muizuddin baharamashah ke samay men usake saradaron dvara ki gee. is pad ka mahattv ayogy sultanon ke samay men adhik raha, aisi sthiti men yah pad sultan ke bad mana jata tha. nayab ke pad par asin hone vala pratham vyakti aitagin tha. nayab ke pad ka sarvadhik prayog balaban ne kiya.

  • sadr-us-sadoor

yah dharm vibhag evn dan vibhag ka pramukh hota tha. rajy ka pradhan qazi evn sadr-us-sadur prayah ek hi vyakti ko diya jata tha. musalaman praja se lie jane vala kar ‘zakat’ par is adhikari ka adhikar hota tha. yah masjidon, makatabon evn madarason ke nirman ke lie dhan muhaiya karata tha.

  • qazi-ul-kujat

sultan ke bad nyay ka sarvochch adhikari qazi-ul-kujat hota tha. prayah muqadamen isi ke nyayalay men shuroo kiye jate the. yah apane se niche ke qaziyon ke nirnay par phir se vichar karane ka adhikar rakhata tha. prayah yah pad sadr-us-sadoor ke pas hi rahata tha. muhammad bin tugalaq yadi qazi ke nirnay se sntushth nahin hota tha to, us nirnay ko badal deta tha.

  • divan-e-barid

barid-e-mumalik guptachar vibhag ka pradhan adhikari hota tha. isake adhin guptachar, sndeshavahak evn dak chaikiyan hoti thin.

  • divan-e-risayat

sultan alauddin khilaji ne bazar niyntran ke lie ek vibhag sthapit kiya gaya tha.

  • divan-e-amir kohi

muhammad tugalaq dvara krishi ke vikas ke lie yah vibhag sthapit kiya gaya tha.

  • divan-e-mustakharaj

is vibhag ki sthapana alauddin khilaji ne ki thi. isaka pramukh kary bakaya rajasv vasoolana tha.

  • divan-e-nazar

isaki sthapana muhammad bin tugalaq dvara ki gee thi. isaka kary upahar vitarit karana tha.

raj darabar se sambandhit pad nimnalikhit the-

  • vakil-e-dar

yah pad atyant mahattvapoorn hota tha. yah shahi mahal evn sultan ki vyaktigat sevaon ki dekhabhal karata tha.

  • barabak

yah darabar ki shan-o-shaukat evn rasmon ki dekh-rekh karata tha.

  • amir-e-hajib

yah sultan se milane valon ki janch-padatal karata tha. isake atirikt yah darabari shishtachar ke lie uttaradayi tha.

  • amir-e-shikar

yah sultan ke shikar ki vyavastha kiya karata tha.

  • amir-e-majalis

yah shahi utsavon evn davaton ka prabandh karata tha.

  • sar-e-jandar

yah sultan ke ang rakshakon ka adhikari hota tha.

  • amir-e-akhur

yah ashvashala ka adhyaksh hota tha.

  • shahana-e-pil

yah hastishala ka adhyaksh hota tha.

  • divan-e-istihaq

yah penshan vibhag kaha jata tha.

  • divan-e-khairat

ise dan vibhag kaha jata tha.

  • divan-e-bndagan

ise das vibhag kaha jata tha.

  • mutasarriph

yah karakhanon ke pramukh ka pramukh hota tha.

divan-e-istihak, divan-e-khairat v divan-e-bndagan, ye tinon vibhag firozashah tugalaq dvara sthapit kiye gaye the.

prantiy prashasan

ikta vyavastha dilli saltanat ki ek mukhy visheshata thi. isaka mukhy uddeshy bharat men prachalit samanti pratha ko nasht karana aur samrajy ke doorasth pradesh ko kendr se jodana tha. isaka prarnbh iltutamish ke shasanakal men hua. dilli saltanat anek pranton men bnti thi, jise ‘ikta’ kaha jata tha. yahan ka shasan ‘nayab vali’ v ‘mukti’ dvara snchalit kiya jata tha. usake pas nishchit snkhya men sena hoti thi, jise avashyakata ke samay sultan ko upalabdh karaya jata tha. mukti prant ke adhikariyon ki niyukti, sthanantaran adi karata tha. vali ya mukti ka pad vnshanugat nahin tha. vittiy mamalon men vali ki sahayata ‘khvaja’ namak adhikari karata tha. khvaja namak adhikariyon ki niyukti balaban ne iktadaron ke bhrashtachar ko rokane ke lie ki thi. muhammad tugalaq ke kal men mukti se rajasv adhikar lekar ek any kendriy adhikari 'vali-ul-kharaj' ko pradan kar diye gaye. ibn batoota ke anusar is samay-ikta men do adhikari the, ek amir ya mukti tatha doosara ;bali-ul-kharaj'. amir ya mukti sainik adhikari hota tha tatha 'khali-ul-kharaj' ikta ki ay ekatrit karata tha. mukti aur bali ke sambandh sultan ki ichchha par nirbhar karata tha.

sthaniy prashasan

lagabhag 14 vin shatabdi men prashasakiy suvidha ke lie iktaon ko shikon (zilon) men vibhajit kiya gaya. prant shik men, shik paragana tatha paragana ganvon men vibhakt the. yahan ka shasan amir apane any sahayogiyon ke sath karata tha. ek shahar ya sau ganvon ke shasan ki dekh-bhal ‘amir-e-sada’ namak adhikari karata tha. isaki sahayata ke lie mutasarrif, karakoon, balahar, mukaddam, chaudhari, patavari, piyada adi hote the. shasan ki sarvadhik ikaee ganv hota tha, jahan ka shasan pnchayaten karati thin. ganvon men mukaddam (mukhiya), patavari v karakoon hote the. pranton ke atirikt kuchh kendr shasit pradesh the, jinamen shik aur shahar shamil the. isake prabhavi adhikari 'shahana' (adhikshak) then. yah sultan dvara niyukt hote the. is kshetr se ekatr kiya gaya rajasv sidhe kendr ke khazane men jata tha. pratyek upakshetr men amil nam ka ek padadhikari hota tha, jo rajasv ikattha karake rajakosh men jama karata tha.

sainy sngathan

turki shasan vyavastha mukhyatah sainy shakti par adharit thi. ek vishal, sngathit, shaktishali sena ki avashyakata sultan ko rahati thi. aisi sena ki avashyakata ke karanon men turki amiron, saradaron dvara kiye gaye vidroh ko kuchalane, rajapoot rajaon ki vidrohatmak pravritti se nipatane, mngolon ke akraman ko rokane evn sultan ki samrajy vistar ki niti ko saphal banana adi shamil the aur in karyon ke lie vishal evn sngathit sthayi sena ki avashyakata rahati thi.

saltanat kalin sainy vyavastha ke antargat iltutamish dvara sthapit sena ko ‘ishm-e-kalb’ (kendriy sena) ya ‘kalb-e-sultani’ kaha jata tha, jabaki samnton v prantapatiyon ki sena ko ‘hashm-e-ataraf’ kaha jata tha. shahi ghudasavaron ki sena ko 'savar-e-kalb' kaha jata tha. sena ke lie 'divan-e-arj' ki sthapana balaban ki thi. saltanakalin sena ka dhancha rashtriy nahin tha, balki isamen turk, amir, eerani, mngol, afagan evn bharatiy musalaman shamil hote the. saltanat kal men char prakar ke sainik hote the. pratham, ve sainik hote the, jinako svayn sultan niyukt karata tha. yah sultan ki sthayi sena hoti thi. ise ‘khasakhel’ ka nam diya tha. alauddin khilaji ke samay men lagabhag paune panch lakh ki sthayi sena thi. dvitiy, ve sainik hote the, jo pranton evn soobedaron ki sena men bharati hote the. prantiy arij is sena ki dekh-bhal iktadaron ke netritv men karate the. yah sena varsh men ek bar sultan ke samaksh nirikshan hetu prastut ki jati thi. sainik do prakar ke hote the. pratham vajahis, jo sthayi sainik the, dvitiy gair vajahis, jo asthayi the. tritiy, ve sainik hote the, jinhen yuddh ke samay asthayi roop se bharti kiya jata tha. inako yuddh kal tak hi vetan evn rasad prapt hota tha. chaturth ve sainik hote the, jo muslim svaynsevakon ke roop men kafiron se yuddh karate the, inhen koee vetan nahin milata tha, balki loot ki sampatti men hissa milata tha.

sainy vibhajan

saltanat kalin sena mukhyatah tin bhagon men vibhajit thi-

  1. ghudasavar sena
  2. gaj (hathi)
  3. padapit (paidal), sena ya ‘payak’

pad vibhajan

mngol sena ke vargikaran ki dashamalav pranali ko saltanakalin sainy vyavastha ka adhar banaya. saltanatal kal men sena ka gathan, padon ka vibhajan adi dashamalav pranali par hi adharit the. 10 ashvarohiyon ki ek tukadi ko ‘sar-e-khel', 10 sar-e-khelon ki ek tukadi ke oopar ek ‘sipahasalar’, 10 sipahasalaron ke oopar ek ‘amir’, 10 amiron ke oopar ek ‘malik’ aur 10 malikon ke oopar ek ‘khan’ hota tha.

saltanat kal men barood ki sahayata se gola phenkane ki mashin ko ‘mngalik’ tatha ‘arrat’ kaha jata tha. sultanon ke pas navon ka ek beda hota tha. navon ke bedon ka snchalan ‘mir bahar’ namak adhikari ke netritv men hota tha, jisaka upayog sainik saman ko dhone men kiya jata tha. ‘sahib-e-barid-e-lakhkar vibhag’ yuddh ke samay ki samast janakari rajadhani bhejata tha. 'tale-ah' evn ‘yajki’ namak guptachar shatru sena ki gatividhiyon ki soochana ekatr karata tha. ‘charkh’ (shila prakshepastron), phalakhoon (gulel), garagaj (chalayaman mnch), sabat (surakshit gadi) jaise yuddh ke samay prayukt hone vale sadhanon ka ullekh milata hai.

vetan vyavastha

khusaro khan ne apane shasan kal ke dauran sainikon ko atyadhik dhan vitarit kiya. sainik sudhar ki drishti se alauddin khilaji kal sarvadhik mahattvapoorn mana jata hai. alauddin apane sainikon ko nakad vetan dene ke sath hi 6 mahine ka vetan inam ke daur par deta tha. alauddin ne ghodon ko dagane ki aur sainikon ka huliya rakhane ki pratha chalayi. sikandar shah lodi ne sainikon ke huliya ke sthan par chehara shabd ka prayog kiya. balaban sena ko chust rakhane ke lie use shikar par le jati tha. alauddin khilaji ke bad mukti log apane sainikon ke vetan se kuchh kamishan kat lete the. gayasuddin khilaji ne is pratha ko samapt kiya aur vetan rajistar (vasiyat-e-hashm) ki svayn janch karane laga. alauddin ne ikta pratha ko samapt kar diya tha, parantu firozashah tugalaq ke samay men sainikon ko nakad vetan ke sthan par ikta dene ki pratha punah prarambh kar di gee, kalantar men sainikon ka pad anuvnshik ho gaya. firozashah tugalaq ne sena men dason ko bharti karana shuroo kiya. pita ki mrityu ke bad ikta ka hakadar usaka putr, putr n hone ki sthiti men damad, damad ke n hone par das aur das bhi nahin hai to nikat ka sambandhi hota tha. is vyavastha ka dushparinam firozashah tugalaq ke shasan kal men dekhane ko mila. alauddin ki sainy vyavastha khusaravashah ke samay tootakar bikhar gayi. isane kirae par sainikon ko bharti kiya.

nyay evn dand vyavastha

saltanat kal men sultan rajy ka sarvochch nyayadhish hota tha. is samay nyay islami qanoon shariyat, quran evn hadis par adharit tha. muslim qanoon ke char mahattvapoorn srot the - quran, hadis, ijama evn kayas.

  1. quran - musalamanon ka pavitr granth evn muslim qanoon ka mukhy srot.
  2. hadis - paigambar ke karyon evn kathanon ka ullekh, quran dvara samasya ka samadhan n hone par ‘hadis’ ka sahara liya jata tha.
  3. ijama - ‘mujatahid’ v muslim vidhishastriyon ko muslim qanoon ki vyakhya ka adhikar prapt tha. isake dvara vyakhyayit qanoon, jo allah ki ichchha mana jata tha, ko ‘ijama’ kaha jata tha.
  4. kayas - tark ke adhar par vishleshit qanoon ko ‘kayas’ kaha jata tha.

qanoon

sultan 'sadr-us-sudoor', 'qazi-ul-kujat' adi nyay se snbndhit sarvochch adhikari hota tha. sultan 'divan-e-kaja' tatha 'divan-e-majalis' bhi nyay ka kary poora karata tha. 'divan-majalis' ka adhyaksh 'amir-e-dad' hota tha. 'divan-e-mamalik' sultan ko qanooni paramarsh deta tha. prantakhyakshon ki sahayata qazi ya ‘sahib-e-divan’ karate the. dharmik muqadamon ke nirnay ke samay sultan mukhy sadr (sabhapati, adhyaksh) evn mufti ki sahayata leta tha, jabaki any muqadamon ke nirnay ke samay qazi ki sahayata liya karata tha. kasbon evn ganvo ki sahayata ke madhyam se sthaniy pnch log jhagadon ka nipatara karate the. saltanat kal men dand vyavastha kathor thi. aparadh ki gnbhirata ko dekhate hue kramashah mrityudand, ang-bhng evn sampatti ko hadapane ka dand diya jata tha. saltanat kal men mukhyatah 4 prakar ke qanoon ka prachalan tha -

  1. samany qanoon - vyapar adi se sambandhit ye qanoon muslim evn gair muslim donon par lagoo hote the. parantu samanyatah yah qanoon keval musalaman janata par lagoo hota tha.
  2. desh ka qanoon - muslim shasakon dvara shasit desh men prachalit sthaniy niyam qanoon.
  3. faujadari qanoon - yah qanoon muslim evn gair muslim donon par saman roop se lagoo hota tha.
  4. gair muslimon ka dharmik evn vyaktigat qanoon - hindoo janata ke samajik mamalon men dilli saltanat ka ati sookshm hastakshep hota tha. unake muqadamon ki sunavaee pnchayaton men vidvan, purohit evn brahman kiya karate the.

muslim dand vidhi ko ‘fiqah’ (islami dharmashastr) men bataye gaye niyamon ke anusar kathorata se lagoo kiya jata tha. quran ke niyamon ke anusar muslimon ka sabase mahattvapoorn kartavy hai - moorti poojakon ko nasht karana, jihad (dharmayu़ddh) ladana evn ‘darul-harb’ (kafiron ke desh) ko ‘darul islam’ (islam desh men badalana).

vitt vibhag

saltanat kalin vitt vyavastha sunni vidhi-visheshgyon ki hanifi shakha ke vitt siddhanton par adharit thi. dilli saltanat ke sultanon ne gazanavi ke poorvadhikariyon se yah parampara grahan ki thi. saltanat kal men bhoomi char bhagon men vibhakt thi-

  1. madad-e-mash - dan men di gayi bhoomi. isase koee rajasv nahin liya jata tha.
  2. muktiyon ya iktadaron ko di gayi bhoomi - isamen pratyek iktadar apana kharch nikalakar adhishesh shahi khazane men bhej deta tha.
  3. adhinasth hindoo rajaon ki adhin bhoomi - yahan se ek nishchat dhanarashi kendr ko bheji jati thi.
  4. khalasa bhoomi - isaki samast ay shahi kosh men sidhe jati thi. muslim vidhivigyon ne saltanat kal men vasool kie jane vale karon ko dharmik evn dharmanirapeksh bhagon men vibhakt kiya. dharmik kar men 'zakat' evn dharmanirapeksh kar men 'jaziya', 'kharaj' evn 'khums' adi ate the.

zakat

musalamanon se liya jane vala yah dharmik kar keval sampann varg ke musalamanon se liya jata tha. is kar ki vasooli men bal prayog poornatah varjit tha. zakat kar ay ka 2.5 pratishat liya jata tha. is kar ka sampoorn bhag musalamanon ke kalyan par kharch kiya jata tha. ek any dharmik kar ‘sadaka’ ka bhi ullekh milata hai, jise kabhi-kabhi zakat hi man liya jata tha.

ushr

keval musalamanon se liya jane vala yah kar bhoomi ki upaj par liya jata tha. is kar se vakph, nabalig evn das bhi mukt nahin the. is kar ki vasooli men bal prayog kiya ja sakata tha. yah kar prakritik sadhanon se sinchit bhoomi ki upaj ka 1/10 bhag tatha manushyakrit sadhanon se sinchit bhoomi ki upaj ka 1/5 bhag liya jata tha.

jaziya

gair musalamanon se vasoole jane vale is kar par kafi vivad hai. kuchh musalaman ise dharmik kar manate hain, kyonki yah gair musalamanon ko unaki sampatti, samman ki suraksha evn sainik seva se mukt rahane ke lie dena hota tha, parantu adhunik itihasakaron ne ise dharmanirapeksh kar manate hue kaha hai ki, yah kar gair muslimon ko isalie dena hota tha, kyonki ve sainik seva se mukt the. is kar se striyan, bachche, bhikhari evn lngade mukt the. firozashah tugalaq ne is kar ko brahman logon par lagaya. yah kar sampann varg se 40 taka, madhyam varg se 20 taka evn samany varg se 10 taka prativarsh liya jata tha.

kharaj

yah gair musalamanon se liya jane vala bhoomi kar tha. is kar ke roop men upaj ka 1/3 se 1/2 bhag tak vasool kiya jata tha. alauddin khilaji anivary roop se 1/2 bhag vasool karata tha, jabaki poore saltanat kal men kisanon se unaki paidavar ka 1/3 bhag liya jata tha.

khums

khums loot ka dhan hota tha. is dhan ka 1/5 rajakosh men tatha 4/5 bhag sainikon men bant diya jata tha, lekin alauddin khilaji evn muhammad tugalaq loot ke dhan ka 4/5 bhag rajakosh men jama karavate the tatha shesh 1/5 bhag sainikon men vitarit kar diya jata tha.

uparyukt karon ke atirikt vyaparik kar ke roop men musalamanon se 2.5 pratishat evn gair muslimon se 5 pratishat liya jata tha. ghodon ke vyapar par 5 pratishat kar lagata tha. alauddin khilaji ne makan evn charagah par tatha firozashah tugalaq ne sinchaee ke sadhanon par kar lagaya, jo paidavar ka 10 pratishat tha.

lagan vyavastha

lagan vyavastha ke antargat kee prakar ki bntaeeyon ka ullekh milata hai-

  • bntaee

bntaee lagan nirdharit karane ki ek pranali thi, jisamen rajy ki or se pratyaksh roop se zamin ki paidavar se hissa liya jata tha. isaki do vidhiyan thin - ek fasal taiyar hone ke samay sarakari adhikari kul paidavar ka mooly nirdharit karake karon ko tay karate the aur doosara taiyar fasalon ki map-taul ke adhar par kar ka nirdharan kiya jata tha. doosari vidhi ko bntaee, 'kisamat-e-galla', 'galla bakhshi' v 'hasil' kaha gaya hai. saltanat kal men nimn tin prakar ki bntaee vidhi prachalan men thi-

  1. khet bntaee - khadi fasal ya buvaee ke bad hi khet bantakar kar ka nirdharan karana.
  2. lnk bntaee - khet katane ke bad khaliyan men laye gaye anaj se bhoosa nikale bina hi krishak evn sarakar ke bich bntavara ho jata tha.
  3. ras bntaee - khaliyan men anaj se bhoosa alag karane ke bad sarakari hisse ko nirdharit kiya jata tha.
  • muktaee - saltanat kal men lagan nirdharan ki mishrit pranali ko ‘muktaee’ kaha jata tha.

alauddin khilaji ko bazar niyntran ke lie anaj ki avashyakata thi, isalie vah lagan ke roop men anaj leta tha.

masahat

bhoomi ki nap-jokh karane ke uparant usake kshetraphal ke adhar par upaj ka lagan nishchit kiya jata tha. is pranali ki shuruat alauddin khilaji ne ki. gayasuddin tugalaq ke kal men kheton ki map dvara kar nirdharan karane ki vyavastha ko chhodakar ‘hukm-e-hasim’ ko apanaya gaya. dilli sultanon men sarvapratham gayasuddin tugalaq ne krishi ko protsahan dene ke vichar se naharen banavayin tatha kee bag lagavayen. muhammad bin tugalaq ne punah bhoomi paimaish ko lagan ka adhar banaya. firozashah tugalaq dvara banavayi gayi sabase mahattvapoorn naharon men ‘rajavahi’ aur ‘uloogakhani’ pramukh thi. saltanat kal men rajy ki samast bhoomi 4 vargon men vibhakt thi-
(1) khalasa bhoomi - is prakar ki bhoomi poornatah kendr ke niyntran men rahati thi. is bhoomi se kar vasool karane ke lie rajasv vibhag ke padadhikari chaudhari evn mukaddam hote the. pratyak shik (zile) men ek ‘amil’ nam ka adhikari hota tha, jo kar vasool kar sultan ko bheja karata tha. alauddin khilaji ke samay men khalasa bhoomi men paryapt vriddhi huee.
(2) ikta ki bhoomi - ikta ki bhoomi ki dekh-bhal ‘mukti’ karate the. is bhoomi se ‘mukti’ v ‘vali’ lagan vasoolate the. lagan vasool karane ke bad mukti apana kharch alag kar shesh dhan ko sarakari khazane men jama kar deta tha. chhoti ikta ke pramukh ko 'iktadar' tatha badi iktaon ke pramukh ko 'mukti' ya 'vali' kahate the. muhammad tugalaq ne ikta vyavastha men sudhar karate hue mukti ya vali se adhikar lekar 'vali-ul-kharaj' namak adhikari ko de diya. firozashah tugalaq ke samay men sarvadhik iktaen dan men di gayin. bharat men ikta pranali ki shuruat muhammad gori ne ki thi. firozashah tugalaq ke samay ikta pratha anuvnshik ho gee thi. balaban ne ikta dharakon ki dekharekh ke lie ek any qadam uthaya. usane mahattvapoorn pranton par apane putron ko garvanar ke roop men niyukt kiya aur khvaja ke pad ka srijan kiya. is prakar balaban ne pranton men simit roop se dvaidh shasan ki sthapana ki.
(3) samanton ki bhoomi - yah bhoomi adhinasth hindoo samanton v rajaon ki bhoomi thi, jo prativarsh ek nishchit matra men dhan sarakari kosh men jama karate the.
(4) inam v vakph - yah kar mukt bhoomi hoti thi, jo vishesh logon ko dan men di jati thi. bhoomi ko prapt karane vale ka bhoomi par vnshanugat adhikar hota tha. saltanat kal men kisanon ko upaj ka 1/3 se lekar 1/2 bhag tak rajy ko kar ke roop men dena hota tha. alauddin khilaji ke samay bhoomi kar ko 50 pratishat kar diya tha. alauddin evn muhammad tugalaq ne bhoomi ki paimaish ke adhar par lagan ko nirdharit kiya. alauddin ne dan ke roop men di gee adhikansh bhoomi ko chhin kar khalasa bhoomi men parivartit kar diya. usane lagan ko dilli ke as-pas ke kshetron evn doab se anaj ke roop men vasool kiya. firozashah tugalaq ne navin kar, 'sinchaee kar' lagaya.

arthik vikas

saltanat kal men bharat arthik drishti se vikasit tha. videshon se vastuen mngaee evn bheji jati thin. vyapar jal evn sthal donon margon se hota tha. is samay bharat se videshon men bheji jane vali mahattvapoorn vastuen loha, hathiyar, anaj, sootivastr, jadi-booti, masale, phal, shakkar evn nil adi thin. bahar se ayat ki jane vali mahattvapoorn vastuon men ghode (arab, turkistan, roos, eerani), astr-shastr, das, meve phal adi shamil the.

vyaparik kendr

saltanat kal ke mahattvapoorn vyaparik kendr ke roop men dilli, thatta, deval, sarasuti, anhilavad, sataganv, sonar ganv, agara, varanasi, lahaur adi prasiddh the. deval saltanat kal men antarrashtriy bandagah ke roop men prasiddh tha. sarasuti achchhe qism ke chaval ke lie, anhilavad vyapariyon ke tirthasthal men roop men sataganv reshami rajaiyon ke lie, agara nil utpadan ke lie, evn banaras sone, chandi evn jari ke kam ke lie prasiddh tha. avagaman ke sadhan ke roop men bailagadi, khachchar, oont, rath tatha naukaon ka prayog kiya jata tha.


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