महमूद ग़ज़नवी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mahamood gazanavi
Sultan-Mahmud-Ghaznawi.jpg
poora nam mahamood gazanavi
janm 2 navambar, 971 (lagabhag)
janm bhoomi gazani, afaganistan
mrityu tithi 30 aprail, 1030 (umr 59 varsh)
mrityu sthan gazani, afaganistan
pita/mata subuktagin
rajy sima poorvi eeran, pakistan aur afaganistan
shasan kal 997-1030
sha. avadhi 33 varsh
dharmik manyata sunni islam

mahamood gazanavi yamini vnsh ka turk saradar gazani ke shasak subuktagin ka putr tha. usaka janm sn. 1028 vi. (ee. 971) men hua, 27 varsh ki ayu men sn. 1055 (ee. 998) men vah shasanadhyaksh bana tha. mahamood bachapan se bharatavarsh ki apar samriddhi aur dhan-daulat ke vishay men sunata raha tha. usake pita ne ek bar hindoo shahi raja jayapal ke rajy ko loot kar prachur sampatti prapt ki thi, mahamood bharat ki daulat ko lootakar malamal hone ke svapn dekha karata tha. usane 17 bar bharat par akraman kiya aur yahan ki apar sampatti ko vah loot kar gazani le gaya tha. akramanon ka yah silasila 1001 ee. se arnbh hua. usake akraman aur lootamar ke kale karanamon se tatkalin aitihasik grnthon ke panne bhare hue hai.

gazanavi

nauvin shatabdi ke ant tak trans-aksiyana, khurasan tatha eeran ke kuchh bhagon par samani shasakon ka rajy tha jo moolatah eerani the. inhen apani uttari aur poorvi simaon par barabar turk qabilon se sngharsh karana padata tha. isi sngharsh ke dauran ek naye prakar ke sainik 'gazi' ka uday hua. 'turk' adhikatar prakriti ki shaktiyon ki pooja karate the. atah musalamanon ki drishti men kafir the. isalie unake khilaf yuddh rajy ki raksha ke sath-sath dharm ki drishti se bhi vanchhaniy tha. is prakar gazi, yoddha tatha dharm-pracharak, donon tha. vah sena ke ek atirikt ang ke saman tha aur kam vetan ki poorti lootapat se karata tha. gazi log vir hone ke sath-sath dharm ke lie bade se bada khatara mol lene ke lie taiyar rahate the aur inhin ki badaulat ne muslim rajyon ko turkon ke akramanon ka samana karane men saphalata mil saki. samay ke sath-sath kee turk musalaman ban ge par phir bhi gair-musalaman turk qabilon ke sath musalaman rajyon ka sngharsh jari raha. turki ke qabilaee jo musalaman ban ge the bad men ve hi musalaman dharm ke kattar snrakshak aur pracharak ban ge. lekin islam ki raksha aur prachar ke sath-sath unaki lootapat ki lipsa bani rahi. samani rajy ke prashasakon men ek turk gulam 'alaptagin' tha, jo dhire-dhire ek apana rajy qayam karane men saphal ho gaya. isaki rajadhani 'gazani' thi. bad men samani samrajy ka patan ho gaya aur 'gazanavi' logon ne madhy eshiya ke qabilon se islami kshetr ki raksha karane ka bhar sambhala.

mahamood gazanavi

isi prakriya ke dauran gazani ke sinhasan par mahamood (998-1030) baitha. madhyayugin itihasakaron ne madhy eshiya ke qabilaee akramanakariyon se virata se sngharsh karane ke karan mahamood ko islam ka yoddha mana hai. isake alava is samay eerani snskriti ka jo punarjagaran hua, usake sath mahamood ka gahara sampark tha. garvile eeraniyon ne kabhi bhi arabon ki bhasha aur snskriti nahin apanayi. samani samrajy men farasi bhasha aur sahity ko bhi protsahan diya gaya. 'firadausi' ki 'shahanama' ke sath eerani sahity apane shikhar par pahunch gaya. firadausi mahamood ke darabar men raj kavi tha. usane yah dikhane ki cheshta ki ki eeran aur tooran ka sngharsh bahut prachin yug men bhi tha aur usane eerani yoddhaon ko apane sahity men gauravashali banaya. is kal men eerani deshaprem ka itana ubhar hua ki mahamood ne bhi svayn ko prachin eerani kinvadantiyon men charchit raja 'afarasiyab' ka vnshaj hone ka dava kiya. farasi bhasha sare gazanavi samrajy ki bhasha ban gee. is prakar turk n keval musalaman varanh farasi bhi ban ge. isi snskriti ko do shatabdiyon ke bad ve bharat lae.

eerani snskriti ka punarjagaran

mana jata hai ki mahamood ne n keval turk qabilon ke viruddh islami rajy ki raksha ki varanh eerani snskriti ke punarjagaran men bhi mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaee. lekin bharat men vah keval ek lutere ke roop men yad kiya jata hai. kaha jata hai ki mahamood ne bharat par satrah bar akraman kiya. arambh men usane peshavar aur pnjab ke hindoo shahi shasakon ke khilaf yuddh kiya. usane multan ke muslim shasakon ke viruddh bhi yuddh kiya kyonki ve islam ke us sampraday ko manane vale the jinaka mahamood kattar virodhi tha. hindushahi rajy pnjab se lekar adhunik afaganistan tak phaila hua tha aur unake shasak gazani men ek svatntr shaktishali rajy se utpann hone vale khataron ko bakhoobi samajhate the. hindushahi shasak jayapal ne samani shasan ke antargat bhootaparv gavarnar ke putr ke sath milakar gazani par chadhaee bhi ki thi, lekin use har ka samana karana pada. usane agale varsh phir chadhaee ki aur phir parajit hua. in ladaiyon men yuvaraj ke roop men mahamood ne sakriy bhag liya tha.

hindooshahiyon ke viruddh abhiyan

mahamood ne sinhasan par baithate hi hindooshahiyon ke viruddh abhiyan chhed diya. unake bich hone vale sngharsh men multan ke musalaman shasakon ne 'jayapal' ka sath diya. mahamood ne pahala akraman hindoo shahi raja 'jayapal' ke viruddh 29 navnbar sanh 1001 men kiya. un donon men bhishan yuddh hua, parantu mahamood ki joshili aur badi sena ne jayapal ko hara diya . is apaman se vyathit hokar vah jite ji chita par baith gaya aur usane apane jivan ka ant kar diya . jayapal ke putr anandapal aur usake vnshaj 'trilochanapal' tatha 'bhimapal' ne kee bar mahamood se yuddh kiya. hindooshahi rajadhani 'vaihind' (peshavar ke nikat) men mahamood aur anandapal ke bich 1008-1009 ee. men bhishan yuddh hua. aisa lagata hai ki is yuddh men uttar-pashchimi bharat ke kannauj aur ajamer ke rajaon ke alava kee rajapoot shasakon ne bhag liya. multan ke musalaman shasak ne bhi anandapal ka sath diya. yadyapi hinduon ki sena kafi badi thi aur usamen bahaduri ke lie pnjab ke 'khokar qabile' ke log the, tathapi mahamood ke ghudasavar dhanushadhariyon ke age unaki ek n chali. hindooshahiyon ko ab zagiradaron ke roop men apane bhootaparv samrajy ke ek bhag ka shasan mila. yah 1020 tak qayam raha, lekin sahi arthon men pnjab par ab gazanaviyon ka poorn adhikar ho gaya. isake bad multan ki bari aee.par har bar unhen parajay mili. sn. 1071 men hindoo shahi rajaon ka rajy samapt ho gaya . hindoo shahi rajaon ka rajy samapt ho jane par mahamood ko khula marg mil gaya. bad ke akramanon men usane multan, lahaur, nagarakot aur thaneshvar tak ke vishal bhoo-bhag men khoob mar-kat ki tatha bharatiyon ko zabardasti musalaman banaya . usaka navan (kuchh lekhakon ke matanusar barahavan) akraman sn. 1074 men kannauj ke viruddh hua tha . usi samay usane mathura par bhi akraman kiya aur use buri tarah loota .

mahamood ki loot aur mahavan ka yuddh

gyarahavin shati ke arambh men uttar-pashchim ki or se musalamanon ke dhave bharat ki or hone lage. gazani ke moortibhnjak sultan mahamood ne satrah bar bharat par chadhaee ki. usaka uddeshy lootapat karake gazani lautana hota tha. apane naven akraman ka nishana usane mathura ko banaya. usaka vah akraman 1017 ee. men hua. mathura ko lootane se pahale mahamood gazanabi ko yahan ek bhishan yuddh karana pada. yah yuddh mathura ke samip mahavanake shasak kulachnd ke sath hua.

  • mahamood ke miramunshi al-utvi ne apani pustak 'tarikhe yamini' men is akraman ka varnan kiya hai. usane likha hai –
'kulachnd ka durg mahavan men tha . usako apani shakti par poora bharosa tha kyonki tab tak koee bhi shatru usase parajit hue bina nahin raha tha. vah vistrit rajy, apar vaibhav, asnkhy viron ki sena, vishal hathi aur sudridh durgon ka svami tha, jinaki or kisi ko ankh utha kar dekhane ka bhi sahas nahin hota tha. jab use gyat hua ki mahamood us par akraman karane ke lie a raha hai, tab vah apane sainik aur hathiyon ke sath unaka muqabala karane ko taiyar ho gaya. atynt viratapoorvak yuddh karane par bhi jab mahamood ke akraman ko viphal nahin kar paya, tab usake sainik qile se nikal kar bhagane lage, jisase ve yamuna nadi ko par kar apani jan bacha saken. is prakar lagabhag 50,000 (pachas hazar) sainik us yuddh men mare gaye ya nadi men doob gaye, tab kulachndr ne hatash hokar pahale apani rani aur phir svayn ko bhi talavar se samapt kar diya. us abhiyan men mahamood ko loot ke any saman ke atirikt 185 sundar hathi bhi prapt hue the.'
  • pharishta ne bhi us yuddh ka utvi se milata julata varnan kiya hai-
'merath akar sulatan ne mahavan ke durg par akraman kiya tha. mahavan ke shasak kulachndr se usaka samana hua. us yuddh men adhikansh hindoo sainik yamuna nadi men dhakel diye gaye the. raja ne nirash hokar apane stri-bachchon ka svayn vadh kiya aur phir khud ko bhi mar dala. durg par musalamanon ka adhikar ho gaya. mahavan ki loot men use prachur dhan-sampatti tatha 80 hathi mile the.'
  • in lekhakon ne mahamood gazanabi ke sath bhishan yuddh karane vale yoddha kulachndr ke vyaktitv par kuchh bhi prakash nahin dala hai. isake bad sultan mahamood ki fauj mathura pahunchi. yahan ka varnan karate hue utvi likhata hai-
    'is shahar men sultan ne nihayat umda dhng ki bani huee ek imarat dekhi, jise sthaniy logon ne manushyon ki rachana n batakar devataon ki kriti bataya. nagar ka parakota patthar ka bana hua tha, usamen nadi ki or oonche tatha mazaboot adhar-stnbhon par bane hue do daravaze sthit the . shahar ke donon or hazaron makan bane hue the jiname lage hue devamndir the. ye sab patthar ke bane the aur lohe ki chhadon dvara mazaboot kar diye gaye the. unake samane doosari imaraten bani thi, jo sudridh lakadi ke khambhon par adharit thi. shahar ke bich men sabhi mndiron se ooncha evn sundar ek mandir tha,jisaka poora varnan n to chitr-rachana dvara aur n lekhani dvara kiya ja sakata hai. sultan mahamood ne svayn us mandir ke bare men likha ki 'yadi koee vyakti is prakar ki imarat banavana chahe to use das karod dinar (svarn-mudra) se kam n kharch karane padegen aur usake nirman men 200 varsh lagengen, chahe usamen bahut hi yogy tatha anubhavi karigaron ko hi kyon n laga diya jaye.' sultan ne agya di ki sabhi mndiron ko jala kar unhen dharashayi kar diya jay. bis dinon tak barabar shahar ki loot hoti rahi. is loot men mahamood ke hath khalis sone ki panch badi moortiyan lagin jinaki ankhen bahumooly manikyon se jadi huee thin. inaka mooly pachas hazar dinar tha. keval ek sone ki moorti ka hi vazan chaudah man tha. in moortiyon tatha chandi ki bahusnkhyak pratimaon ko sau oonto ki pith par lad kar gazani le jaya gaya .'[1]

somanath ke mndir ka dhvns

usaka sabase bada akraman 1026 ee. men kathiyavad ke somanath mndir par tha. desh ki pashchimi sima par prachin kushasthali aur vartaman saurashtr (gujarat) ke kathiyavad men sagar tat par somanath mahadev ka prachin mndir hai. sknd puran men ullekh hai – "vaidik sarasvati vahan sagar men milati hai, jahan someshvar ka mndir hai, us pavitr sthal ke darshan karane se atynt puny prapt hota hai. ye someshvar hi somanath hai, jinaka mndir kathiyavad ke vartaman joonagadh rajy men hai." chaluky vnsh ka bhim pratham us samay kathiyavad ka shasak tha. mahamood ke akraman ki soochana milate hi vah bhag khada hua.

mahamood ne somanath mndir ka shivaling tod dala. mndir ko dhvast kiya. hazaron pujari maut ke ghat utar die aur vah mndir ka sona aur bhari khazana lootakar le gaya. akele somanath se use ab tak ki sabhi looton se adhik dhan mila tha. usaka antim akraman 1027 ee. men hua. usane pnjab ko apane rajy men mila liya tha. aur lahaur ka nam badalakar mahamoodapur kar diya tha. mahamood ke in akramanon se bharat ke rajavnsh durbal ho ge aur bad ke varshon men muslim akramanon ke lie yahan ka dvar khul gaya.

mahamood ke samay ke lekhak aur unake grnth

mahamood gazanavi ke akramanon ko jin lekhakon ne apani ankhon se dekhakar lipibaddh kiya, unamen 'mahamood alutvi, burihan, alabarooni aur islam vairaki' pramukh hain . unake likhe hue vivaran bhi upalabdh hote hain.

  1. mahamood alutvi– yah mahamood gazanavi ka mir munshi tha, halanki akramanon men vah sath men nahin tha. usane subuktagin tatha mahamood ke shasan-kal ka sn. 1077 tak ka itihas arabi bhasha men apani kitab "ul-yamini" men likha hai. is kitab men mahamood ke sn. 1077 tak ke akramanon ka vistrit varnan milata hai. usaka vivaran pakshapat poorn hai. usane bharatiyon ki durbalata aur videshi musalaman akramanakariyon ki virata ka atishyoktipoorn vivaran kiya hai.
  2. alaberooni– muslim lekhakon men alaberooni ka vivaran prayah pakshapat rahit hai. vah bharatiy darshan, jyotish, itihas, adi ka utkrisht vidvanh aur dhir gambhir prakriti ka lekhak tha. usaka janm ek chhote se rajy khyadim men 4 sitnbar sanh 973 men hua tha. vah mahamood gazanavi ke akramanon men usake sath raha tha, kintu usako loot-mar se koee matalab nahin tha. vah bharatiyon se nikat snbndh sthapit kar unaki bhasha, snskriti, dharmopasana evn vidya-kalaon ki janakari prapt karane men laga rahata tha. usaki sikhane ki kshamata gazab ki thi. thodi hi koshish men bahut sikhane ki usamen adbhut pratibha thi. bharatiy snskriti aur dharm-darshan ka pramanik gyan prapt karane ke lie usane snskrit evn prakrit bhashaen sikhi thin, aur unake grntho ka adhyayan kiya tha. usane anek bharatiy grnthon ka arabi bhasha men anuvad bhi kiya.
  3. imam vairaki– usaka poora nam imam, abul fazal vairaki tha. vah mahamood gazanavi ke darabar men hakim tha. usane jo grnth likha, usaka nam "tarikh-e-arab-e-subuktagin" arthat subuktagin vnsh ka itihas. isamen subuktagin aur usake putr-pautr mahamood gazanavi evn usake shasan-kal ki ghatanaon par prakash dala gaya hai. isamen prasngik roop se mahamood ke bharatiy akramanon ka bhi kuchh vivaran likha gaya hai, jo ullekhaniy eemanadari ka praman hai. yah grnth tin bhagon men hai kintu is samay usaka keval tisara bhag hi upalabdh hai. arnbh ke do bhag nasht ho gaye. upalabdh bhag farasi bhasha men hai.

tatkalin rajanitik sthiti

isake bad bharat men mahamood ke akramanon ka uddeshy yahan ke mandiron aur uttar bharat ke shaharon ko lootana tatha apane viruddh yahan ke rajaon ko ek hone se rokana tha. is prakar usane pnjab pahadiyon men nagarakot tatha dilli ke nikat thanesar par chadhaee ki. usaka sabase bada akraman 1018 men kannauj tatha 1025 men gujarat men somanath par hua. kannauj ke apane abhiyan ke dauran usane kannauj ke sath-sath mathura ka bhi vidhvns kiya aur apar sampatti ke sath bundelakhand se kalinjar hota hua svadesh laut gaya. apane in abhiyanon men vah isalie saphal hua kyonki us samay uttari bharat men ek bhi shaktishali rajy nahin tha. mahamood ne in kshetron par qabza karane ka koee prayas nahin kiya. un dinon somanath ka mandir apani apar sampatti ke lie prasiddh tha. use lootane ke lie mahamood multan se rajasthan hote hue somanath bina kisi vishesh badha ke ya virodh ke pahunch gaya. bharat men pnjab ke bahar yah usaka antim abhiyan tha.

mahamood ko keval ek lutera kahakar usaki bhoomika ki anadekhi karana uchit nahin hoga. pnjab aur multan par usaki vijay se uttari bharat ki rajanitik sthiti bilkul badal gee. ab turk bharat ke uttar pashchimi sima ki suraksha karane vale pahadon ko par kar kabhi bhi gnga pradesh men akraman kar sakate the. phir bhi ve dedh sau varshon tak is kshetr ko apane adhikar men nahin le sake. isaka karan hamen is kal men madhy eshiya tatha uttar bharat men tezi se hone vale parivartanon men milata hai.

mrityu

apane antim kal men mahamood gazanavi asadhy rogon se pidit hokar asahy kasht pata raha tha. apane dushkarmon ko yad kar use ghor manasik klesh tha. vah sharirik evn manasik kashton se grasit tha. usaki mrityu sn. 1087 (san 1030, aprail 30) men gazani men huee thi.


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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. de.grauj - memvayar, pri. 31-32 .

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