फ़िरदौसी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

firadausi
firadausi ki pratima
poora nam hakim abul qasim firadausi tusi
janm 940 ee.
janm bhoomi tus, eeran
mrityu 1020 ee.
mrityu sthan tus, eeran
mukhy rachanaen shahanama
bhasha farasi
dharm parasi dharm
any janakari shahanama faras (eeran) ki rashtriy mahakavy hai. isamen unhonne satavin sadi men faras par arabi fatah ke pahale ke eeran ke bare men likha hai.

firadausi (angrezi: Ferdowsi, poora nam: hakim abul qasim firadausi tusi, janm: 940 ee. - mrityu: 1020 ee.) ek prasiddh farasi kavi the. firadausi ne shahanama ki rachana ki jo bad men faras (eeran) ki rashtriy mahakavy ban gee. isamen unhonne satavin sadi men faras par arabi fatah ke pahale ke eeran ke bare men likha hai.

jivan parichay

firadausi ka poora nam 'hakim abul qasim firadausi tusi' tha. ye eeran ke toos men hi paida hue the. unaka mahakavy 'shahanama' hai jise likhane men unhonne poori umr laga di thi. 'shahanama' khurasan ke shahazade samanid ke lie likha gaya tha. yah vah zamana tha jab satavin shatabdi men arabon ki eeran par vijay ke bad farasi bhasha aur snskriti par arab prabhutv dikhaee padane laga tha. firadausi ke jivanakal men hi unake snrakshak shahajade samanid ko sultan mahamood gazanavi ne hara diya tha aur khurasan ka shasak ban gaya tha. mahamood gazanavi aur firadausi ko lekar kuchh rochak kahaniyan hain jinhen kalpanik bhi kaha ja sakata hai.
kaha jata hai ki mahamood gazanavi ne firadausi ko yah vachan diya tha ki vah 'shahanama' ke har shabd ke lie ek dinar dega. varshon ki mehanat ke bad jab 'shahanama' taiyar ho gaya aur firadausi use lekar mahamood gazanavi ke darabar men gaya to samrat ne use pratyek shabd ke lie ek dinar nahin balki ek diraham ka bhugatan kara diya. kaha jata hai is par naraz hokar firadausi laut gaya aur usane ek diraham bhi nahin liya. yah vayada khilafi kuchh aisi thi jaise kisi kavi ke prati shabd ek rupaye dene ka vachan dekar prati shabd ek paisa diya jaye. firadausi ne gusse men akar mahamood gazanavi ke khilaf kuchh pnktiyan likhi. ve pnktiyan itani prabhavashali thi ki poore samrajy men phail gayin. kuchh sal bad mahamood gazanavi se usake vishvasapatr mntriyon ne nivedan kiya ki firadausi ko usi dar par bhugatan kar diya jaye jo tay ki gayi thi. samrat ke karan poochhane par pradhanamntri ne kaha ki ham log samrajy ke jis kone men jate hain hamen ve pnktiyan sunane ko milati hain jo firadausi ne apake viruddh likhi hain aur hamara sirph sharm se jhuk jata hai. use nirdharit dar par paisa de diya jayega to hamen bada naitik bal milega.' samrat ne adesh de diya. dinaron se bhari gadi jab firadausi ke ghar pahunchi to ghar ke andar se firadausi ka janaza nikal raha tha. poori umr garibi, tngi aur mufalisi men katane ke bad firadausi mar chuka tha. kahate hain ki firadausi ki ekamatr sntan usaki ladaki ne bhi yah dhan lene se inkar kar diya tha. is tarah samrat kavi ka karzadar raha aur aj bhi hai. shayad yahi vajah hai ki aj firadausi ka shahanama jitana prasiddh hai utani hi ya usase jyada prasiddh ve pnktiyan hai jo firadausi ne mahamood gazanavi ki alochana karate hue likhi thin.[1]

firadausi ka 'shahanama'

firadausi ka 'shahanama' darasal eeran ka itihas hi nahin eerani asmita ki pahachan hai. usamen prachin eeran ki upalabdhiyon ka bakhan hai. samraton ka itihas hai. prachin farasi grnthon ko naya roop dekar unako shamil kiya gaya hai. mithak aur itihas ke sammishran se ek adbhut prabhav utpann hua hai. prem, vidroh, virata, dushtata, manaviyata, yuddh, sahas ke aise utkrisht udaharan hain jinhonne 'shahanama' ko eerani sahity ki amar kriti bana diya hai. eerani sahity men 'shahanama' jitani tarah se jitani bar chhapa hai utana aur koee pustak nahin chhapi hai. firadausi ne rustam aur soharab jaise patr nirmit kie hain jo manav-smriti ka hissa ban chuke hain.

firadausi puraskar

eeran ke rashtriy pustakalay ke pramukh ke anusar snyukt rashtr sngh ki shaikshik v sanskritik snstha ne antarrashtriy firadausi puraskar ke ayojan par sahamati vyakt kar di hai. rashtriy pustakalay ke pramukh raza salehi amiri ne mehar nyooz ejensi se bat karate hue kaha ki yoonesko ne antarrashtriy firadausi puraskar ke ayojan par sahamati vyakt kar di hai. unaka kahana tha ki shighr hi is mamale ki samiksha ke lie eeran aur yoonesko ke vishashgyon ke star ke pratinidhimndal ki ghoshana ki jaegi. unaka kahana tha ki antarrashtriy firadausi puraskar, yoonesko ki or se prativarsh eeran aur eerani snskriti ke bare men shodh karane vale kuchh prasiddh logon ko diya jaega.[2]

firadausi ki qabr

eeran men khurasan prant ki rajadhani mashahad se kuchh doori par nishapur men firadausi ki qabr hai. yahan ek bada khoobasoorat bag hai, jisamen firadausi ki sngamaramar ki moorti hai. firadausi ki qabr ke pas ki divaron par unake she'r likhe hue hain. kaha jata hai ki sadiyon pahale firadausi ko dafanane ke lie jab kisi qabristan men jagah nahin mili to unhen isi bag men dafana diya gaya. ab yah bag farasi bhasha aur sahity premiyon ke lie ek darshaniy sthal ke taur par mashahoor ho chuka hai. sahity premi apane mahaboob shayar ko yad karate hue yahan ate hain.[3]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. asagar vajahat ka yatra snsmaran- antim kisht (kavi ka karza) (hindi) rachanakar. abhigaman tithi: 4 disambar, 2014.
  2. yoonesko ne firadausi puraskar ke ayojan ko svikriti di (hindi) iran hindi radio. abhigaman tithi: 4 disambar, 2014.
  3. sharma, nasira. firadausi ka shahakar shahanama (hindi) chauthi duniya. abhigaman tithi: 2 faravari, 2015.

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