पारसी धर्म  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

parasi dharm
parasi dharm ka pratik
vivaran parasi dharm ya 'zarathushtr (zarathushtr) dharm' vishv ka atynt prachin dharm hai, jisaki sthapana aryon ki eerani shakha ke ek snt zarathushtr ne ki thi.
prakar 'parasi' ya 'zarathushtr' dharm ekaikadhidevavadi dharm hai, jisaka tatpary yah hai ki parasi log ek eeshvar 'ahur mazda' men astha rakhate hue bhi any devataon ki satta ko nahin nakarate.
dharmagrnth 'jend avesta' jo rigvedik snskrit ki hi ek puratan shakha avesta bhasha men likhi gee hai.
pavitr chihn sadaro (pavitr kurti) aur pavitr dhaga.
sadaro vishesh akriti vali sadaro ko nirman safed sooti kapade ke nau tukadon se kiya jata hai. isamen ek jeb hoti hai, jise 'kism-e-karph' kahate hain.
snbndhit lekh zarathushtr, zarathustravad, ahur mazda
any janakari bharat men parasi dharm ke manane valon ki janasnkhya lagabhag ek lakh hai, jisaka 70 pratishat log mahanagari bambee men rahate hain.

parasi dharm ya 'zarathushtr (zarathushtr) dharm' vishv ka atynt prachin dharm hai, jisaki sthapana aryon ki eerani shakha ke ek snt zarathushtr ne ki thi. islam ke avirbhav ke poorv prachin eeran men zarathushtr dharm ka hi prachalan tha. satavin shatabdi men arabon ne eeran ko parajit kar vahan ke zarathushtr dharmavalambiyon ko jabaran islam men dikshit kar liya tha. aisi manyata hai ki kuchh eeraniyon ne islam nahin svikar kiya aur ve ek nav par savar hokar bharat bhag aye aur yahan gujarat tat par navasari men akar bas gaye. vartaman men bharat men unaki janasnkhya lagabhag ek lakh hai, jisaka 70% bambee men rahate hain.

sthapana

parasi dharm ko 'zarathushtr dharm' bhi kaha jata hai, kyonki snt zarathushtr ne isaki shuruat ki thi. snt zarathushtr ko rigved ke angira, brihaspati adi rishiyon ka samakalik mana jata hai. parantu rigvedik rishiyon ke viparit zarathushtr ne ek snsthagat dharm ka pratipadan kiya. sambhavat: kisi snsthagat dharm ke ve pratham paigambar the. itihasakaron ka mat hai ki ve 1700-1500 ee.poo. ke bich sakriy the. ve eerani aryon ke spitama kutumb ke paurushahasp ke putr the. unaki mata ka nam dudhadhova (dogdon) tha. 30 varsh ki ayu men unhen gyan prapt hua. unaki mrityu 77 varsh 11 din ki ayu men huee.

arth

'parasi' ya 'zarathushtr' dharm ekaikadhidevavadi dharm hai, jisaka tatpary yah hai ki parasi log ek eeshvar 'ahuramajd' men astha rakhate hue bhi any devataon ki satta ko nahin nakarate. yadyapi ahuramajd unake sarvochch devata hain, parantu dainik jivan ke anushthanon v karmakandon men 'agni' unake pramukh devata ke roop men drishtigat hote hain. isilie parasiyon ko agnipoojak bhi kaha jata hai. parasiyon ki shav-visarjan vidhi vilakshan hai. ve shavon ko kisi oonchi minar par khula chhod dete hain, jahan giddh-chil use nonch-nanchakar kha jate hain. bad men usaki asthiyan ekatrit kar daphana di jati hai. parantu hal ke varshon men is parampara men kami ho rahi hai aur shav ko sidhe daphanaya ja raha hai.

dharmadiksha snskar

zarathushtr dharmavalambiyon ke do atynt pavitr chihn hain- sadaro (pavitr kurti) aur pavitr dhaga. dharmadiksha snskar ke roop men zarathushtradharmi balak tatha balika- donon ko ek vishesh samaroh men ye pavitr chihn diye jate hain, jinhen ve ajivan dharan karate hain. manyata hai ki inhen dharan karane se vyakti dushprabhavon aur dusht atmaon se surakshit rah sakata hai. vishesh akriti vali sadaron ko nirman safed sooti kapade ke nau tukadon se kiya jata hai. isamen ek jeb hoti hai, jise 'kism-e-karph' kahate hain. pavitr dhaga, jise 'kushti' kahate hain, oon ke 72 dhagon ko bntakar banate hain aur use kamar ke charon or bandh diya jata hai, jisamen do ganthen samane aur do ganthe pichhe bandhi jati hain.

zarathushtr dharm ki manyata

zarathushtr dharm men do shaktiyon ki manyata hai-

  • spenta mainyoo, jo vikas aur pragati ki shakti hai aur
  • angr mainyoo, jo vighatan aur vinashakari shakti hai.

zarathushtr dharmavalambi sat devadooton (yazat) ki kalpana karate hain, jinamen se pratyek soory, chndrama, tare, prithvi, agni tatha srishti ke any tatvon par shasan karate hain. inaki stuti karake log ahuramajd ko bhi prasann kar sakate hain.

dharmagrnth

parasiyon ka pravitr dharmagrnth 'jend avesta' hai, jo rigvedik snskrit ki hi ek puratan shakha avesta bhasha men likhi gee hai. eeran ke sasani kal men jend avesta ka pahalavi bhasha men anuvad kiya gaya, jise 'pnjnd' kaha jata hai. parantu is grnth ka sirf panchava bhag hi aj upalabdh hai. is upalabdh grnth bhag ko panch bhagon men banta gaya hai-

  1. yastr (ygy)- anushthanon evn snskaron ke mntron ka sngrah,
  2. visaparad- rakshason evn pishachon ko door rakhane ke niyam,
  3. yasht- pooja-prarthana,
  4. khorada avesta- dainik prarthana pustak,
  5. amesh spenta- yazaton ki stuti.

parasi dharm ka vistar

zarathustr ki mrityu ke bad (551 ee. poo.) unaki shikshaen dhire-dhire baiktriya aur faras men phailin. tisari sadi men faras men saseniyaee rajavnsh ke uday ke sath parasi dharm ko manyata milane lagi aur ise desh ka adhikarik dharm bana diya gaya. isake purohiton ke pas kafi adhikar a ge; avesta ka snkalan aur anuvad sthaniy bhasha pahalavi men kiya gaya.[1]

bharat agaman

633 ee. men arab musalamanon ka akraman shuroo hone par iraq ko aur phir 651 ee. men eeran ko jit liya gaya. agni mndir nasht kie ge, dharmik grnth jalae ge aur logon ko balapoorvak dharmantarit kiya gaya. kee log bhagakar registan ya pahadon men chhip ge. any dakshin eeran ke prachin rajy parsis[2] chale ge aur vahan unhonne svayn ko surakshit kar liya. kuchh any haauramuz khadi par sthit haauramuz tak pahunch ge. vahan ve 100 sal rahe aur gupt roop se paladar jahaz banate rahe. antat: ve jahaz se bharat ravana hue aur gujarat men kathiyavad ke sire par machhuaron ke dioo ganv pahunche. bharatiy parasi inhin prarnbhik basane valon ke vnshaj hain.

'parasi' shabd ka arth 'parsis se aya vyakti hai'. 'parasipan' ya 'parasivad' ka zikr dharm ke lie nahin, balki vishisht parasi lokoktiyon, vyavahar-vaichitry, prahasan aur hasy ke lie hota hai. bharat men parasiyon ka ek chhota samuday hai, unaki snkhya ghat rahi hai. ve mukhy roop se pashchimi tat, kolakata (bhootapoorv kalakatta), chennee (bhootapoorv madras) aur dilli men rahate hain. isake viparit 19vin sadi ke madhy men eeran se bharat ae zarathustri (parasi) ek badhata hua samuday hai. donon samooh parasi agni mndiron men pooja karate hain aur parasi dharm ke riti-rivajon ka palan karate hain.

navajot, sudreh aur kusti

ye dharm ki paryavaraniy chetana ko moort roop dene vale samaroh hain. ye prithvi ke chaturthanshon ko ahutiyon se lekar vyapak 'yasna' samaroh tak, manushy aur brahmand ke bich antarsnbndh ke snpoornatavadi drishtikon ko pradarshit karate hain. sabase mahattvapoorn samaroh 'navajot' (dharm men diksha) hai. parasi mata-pita se paida hone ke bavajood bachche ko parasi banane ke lie svayn dharm chunana aur is par qayam rahana zaroori hain. prachin eeran ki tarah aj bhi bachche ke 15 varsh ka hone par navajot ayojit kiya jata hai. navajot samaroh men bachche ko pavitr qamiz 'sudreh' aur pavitr karadhani 'kusti' se pahanae jate hain. kamiz ko 'vohu manik' vastr, yani achchhe man ka vastr kaha jata hai. kusti ko achchhi oon ke 72 dhagon se bunakar banaya jata hai, jo yasna ke 72 adhyayon ka pratinidhitv karate hain. sire par ke phundane oon ke 24 dhagon se bune jate hain. ye visperad ke 24 adhyayon ke pratik hain. kusti uttam dharm ka pratik hai. sudreh dharm ke safed rng ka hota hai aur soot ka bana hota hai.[1]

tasme vala sudreh 19vin sadi men prachalan men aya tha. isaki visheshata angrezi ke 'vi' akar ke gale ke niche sthit chhota 'kisseh-i-karfeh' ya 'gareban'[3] hai, jisamen pichhe phank hoti hai. gareban parasiyon ko yad dilata hai ki ahur mazda ki achchhaee ki tulana men manaviy prayas atynt chhote hain. gareban ko achchhe karmon se bhara jana chahie aur har rat ahur mazda ki kripa ke lie unake samane prastut kiya jana chahie. gale ke pichhe ek aur chhoti zeb hoti hai, jo 'gardyoo' (girdo) kahalati hai. pratikatmak roop se isamen dharak ki upalabdhiyan hoti hain. 'tiri' kahalane vale tin dhage sudreh ke daen hath ke nichale kone par trikon men sile hote hain, jo dharm ke adarsh vaky- "achchhe vichar, achchhe shabd aur achchhe kary" ka pratinidhitv karate hai. kusti ko vishesh prarthana ke sath kamar par bandhate hain, jisamen gathaon ke do bhajan shamil hain. sudreh aur kusti ko jivan bhar pahanana hota hai. mrityu ke samay bhi shav ke lie naya sudreh upalabdh n ho pane ki sthiti men purane phate hue sudreh men lapeta jata hai.

bharatiy sarvajanik jivan men parasiyon ka yogadan

halanki bharat aur eeran ke bich vyapar snbndh aur rajanaitik snpark arnbhik kal se rahe hain, bharat men parasi athavin se dasavin sadi ke dauran akar base, jabaki eerani lagabhag 19vin sadi ke madhy men yahan pahunche. eeraniyon ne chay ki chhoti dukanen kholakar mamooli shuruat ki. isake bad krishi v aushadhi kshetr men pravesh kiya aur aj yah ek phalata-phoolata samuday hai. parasiyon ne nariyal aur tad ke ped ugane vale phal utpadak aur krishakon ke roop men shuruat ki aur phir bade vyavasayon men a ge. soorat ke 'vadiya parivar' ne jahaz-nirman ke roop men nam kamaya aur shahi nausaina ko yuddh poton ki apoorti ki. is parivar ke ek sadasy ardeshir karsetaji vadiya (1808-77) ne yuddh poton men bhap ke injan ka pahali bar istemal kiya aur bnbee (vartaman munbee) men gais se roshani ki bhi shuruat ki. vah 'raauyal sosaiti aauf lndan' dvara 1941 men sadasy chune jane vale pahale bharatiy the.

tin parasiyon ne bharatiy rajaniti men vishesh roop se khyati prapt ki. dadabhaee nauroji (1825-1917), firojashah mehata (1845-1915) aur dinashaau vacha. vanijy aur udyog ke kshetr men jamashedaji nausheravanaji tata (1839-1904) ka yogadan ullekhaniy hai. unhonne bharat ke lauh aur ispat udyog ki adharashila rakhi. lonavala men panabijali pariyojana sthapit ki aur bngalor men 'bharatiy vigyan snsthan' ki sthapana ke lie vah uttaradayi the, halanki yah unaki mrityu ke bad sthapit kiya gaya tha. 'tata parivar' ke vnshaj jahangir ratanaji dadabhaee tata ne 1932 men 'tata eyaralains' ke sath desh bhar men nagarik uddayan ki shuruat ki, jo bad men vikasit hokar 'endiyan eyaralains' aur 'eyar endiya intaraneshanal' men badal gaya. donon ka 1953 men rashtriyakaran kar diya gaya. kala ke kshetr men jubin mehata antarrashtriy khyatiprapt sngit snchalak hain. jahangir sabala ke chitron ko vyapak manyata mili hai aur pinaz masani gazal gayan ke lie prasiddh hain. aban ee. mistri pratham prasiddh parasi tabala vadak hain.[1]

ek any parasi homi jahangir bhabha (1909-1966) antarrashtriy khyati prapt paramanu vaigyanik the. 1941 men 31 varsh ki umr men vah 'raauyal sosaiti aauf lndan' ke felo chune ge the. vah 'tata instityoot aauf fndamental risarch' aur 'bharatiy paramanu ayog' ke snsthapak the. unake samakalin darashaau vadiya (1883-1969) bhoogarbhashastr ke pravartak the, jinhonne himalay ki pramukh shreniyon ka manachitran kiya. is dauran qimati patthar 'lahasuniya' (beril) bhi khoj nikala. nanabhaee ardeshar moos (1859-1936) vidyut chunbakatv ke kshetr men agrani the aur unhonne bharat ki do prayogashalaen sthapit kin, jo ab 'bharatiy bhoo-chunbakatv snsthan'[4] ka hissa hain.

aushadhi ke kshetr men jal kavashaau pemastar (1908-1980) ne kainsar anusndhan men utkrisht kary kiya. 1959 men 'bharat sarakar' ne unhen munh aur grasani ke kainsar ke rog vigyan ke kshetr men agragami kary tatha unake ilaj ke lie sadharan takanik vikasit karane ke lie 'padmabhooshan' se sammanit kiya tha. hriday rog vigyan men rustam jal vakil (1911-1974) ka kam bhi ullekhaniy hai. netrarog vigyan men jamashedaji nauseravanaji duggan (1884-1958) agrani the, jis tarah dilli men 'shraauf netr aspatal' ke snsthapak sorabaji pi. shraauf (1878-1964) rahe. 1914 men sthapit yah aspatal dakshin-poorv eshiya men kee varshon tak apani tarah ka ek hi aspatal raha.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 bharat gyanakosh, khand-2 |lekhak: indu ramachndani |prakashak: ensaiklopidiya britainika praivet limited, nee dilli aur paaupyular prakashan, mumbee |snkalan: bharatakosh pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 224 |
  2. ab fars kahalane vala kshetr
  3. sadkarmon ki zeb
  4. endiyan instityoot aauf jiyomaignetizm

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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