यहूदी धर्म  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

yahoodi dharm
yahoodi dharm ka pratik chihn
vivaran 'yahoodi dharm' ek 'ekeshvaravadi' dharm hai. is dharm ki yah manyata hai ki eeshvar apana sndesh paigambaron ke madhyam se preshit karata hai.
snsthapak ibrahim
dharmasootr yahoodi dharm men 10 dharmacharanon ka vishesh mahattv hai, jinaka palan karane par 'yahova' ki anupam kripa prapt hoti hai.
dharm grnth 'tora', 'talamud', 'ilaka', 'agada', 'tanaka'.
paigambar yahoodi log 'abraham', 'eesak' aur 'jekab' ko apana pitamah; 'moosa' ko mukhy paigambar tatha 'elija', 'ayos', 'hosiya', 'ijiya', 'hajakiya', 'ijakil', 'jaremiya' adi ko any paigambar manate hain.
vishesh yahoodiyon ke purohit ko 'rabi' tatha mndir ya poojasthal ko 'sinagaug' kaha jata hai.
any janakari yahoodi dharm 'ekeshvaravad' par adharit hai. unaka eeshvar 'yahova', amoort, nirgun, sarvavyapi, nyayapriy, kripalu aur kathor anushasanapriy hai. apani agyaon ke ullnghan hone par vah dnd bhi deta hai.

yahoodi dharm (angrezi: Judaism) yahoodiyon ka ekeshvaravadi dharm hai, jo yah manata hai ki eeshvar ki upasthiti ka anubhav manav gatividhiyon aur itihas dvara hota hai. yah upasthiti kuchh manyataon aur moolyon ki abhivyakti hai, jo karm, samajik vyavastha aur snskriti men drishtigochar hoti hai.

manyata

yahoodi dharm ka manana hai ki yahoodi samuday ka divy ke sath pratyaksh samana hota hai aur sthapit hone vala yah snbndh, berit (anubndh), atoot hai aur yah samoochi manavata ke lie mahattvapoorn hai. eeshvar ko 'tora pradayak', yani divy pradayak ke roop men dekha jata hai. apane parnparik vyapak roop men 'hibroo grnth' aur yahoodi maukhik parnparaen[1], dharmik manyataen riti-rivaj aur anushthan, aitihasik punarsnkalan aur isake adhikarik grnthon[2] ki vivechana hai. eeshvar ne divy ashish ke lie yahoodiyon ka chunav karake unhen manavata tak ise pahunchane ka madhyam bhi banaya aur unase tora ke niyamon ke palan aur vishv ke any logon ke gavah ke roop men kam karane ki apeksha ki.

rabi

yahoodiyon ke purohit ko rabi kahate hain.

sinagaug

yahoodiyon ke mndir ya poojasthal ko sinagaug kahate hain.

dharmapitak

dharmapitak sinagaug men rakha kikat ki lakadi ka svarnajatit ek pitak hai, jisamen das dharmasootron ki prati rakhi hoti hai. ise dharm pratigya ki nauka bhi kahate hain.

itihas

samajha jata hai ki yahoodi dharm ke snsthapak ibrahim 20vin shatabdi ee. poo. ke madhy men uttari mesopotamiya se kanan[3]) chale ge the. vahan se ibrahim ke arddh khanabadosh vnshaj aur unake putr isak aur jekab, jo tab tak 12 yahoodi parivar ban chuke the, misr chale ge, jahan unhen kee pidhiyon tak gulam banakar rakha gaya aur ee.poo 13vin shatabdi men ve vahan palayan karake izaraili kanan[4] laute. yahoodi dharm ki tarah dharmadhyakshon ka dharm bhi yugon-yugon tak vividh videshi vicharo ke snpark men aya, inamen mari, ugarit,[5] bebiloniya, mesopotamiya aur misr ke prabhav sammilit hain. izaraili eeshvar ko vishv ka srijanahar mana jata hai, jisaki khoj ibrahim ne nahin ki thi, parntu vah eeshvar ke sath pratigyabaddh hue the. eeshvar ne ibrahim ke sath apane vayade mojez ke madhyam se poore kie, jinhonne palayan ka netritv kiya aur maunt sinaee men izarail par aur pratigyaon ka dayitv rakha aur apane sathiyon ko kanan le ae. dharmadhyakshon ki kahaniyon ke anusar, kanan men basana eeshvar dvara pratigya palan ka abhinn ang hai. misr men gulam bane rahane ke anubhav se keval ukt manyata ki nahin, isaki bhi pushti huee ki izaraili eeshvar kshetriy simaon se pare samoochi prithvi ka eeshvar hai.

yahoodi aur yahoodat

prachin mesopotamiya[6] men sami mool ki vibhinn bhashaen bolane vale akkadi, kainani, amori, asuri adi kee khanabadosh kabile raha karate the. inhin men se ek kabile ka nam hibroo tha. ve yahova ko apana eeshvar aur abraham ko adi-pitamah manate the. unaki manyata thi ki yahova ne abraham aur unake vnshajon ke rahane ke lie istrail pradesh niyat kiya hai. prarambh men goshan ke mistriyon ke sath hibruon ke sambndh achchhe the, parantu bad men donon men tanav utpann ho gaya. at: mistri pharaon ke atyacharon se pareshan hokar hibroo log moosa ke netritv men istrail ki or chal pade. is yatra ko yahoodi itihas men 'nishkraman' kaha jata hai. istrail ke marg men sinaee parvat par moosa ko eeshvar ka sndesh mila ki yahova hi ekamatr eeshvar hai, at: usaki agya ka palan karen, usake prati shraddha rakhen aur 10 dharmasootron ka palan karen. moosa ne yah sndesh hibroo kabile ke logon ko sunaya. tatpashchath any sabhi devi-devataon ko hatakar sirf yahova ki aradhana ki jane lagi. is prakar yahova ki aradhana karane vale 'yahoodi' aur unaka dharm 'yahoodat' kahalaya.

yahoodiyon ke paigambar

yahoodi dharm ki manata hai ki eeshvar apana sndesh paigambaron ke madhyam se preshit karata hai. yahoodi log abraham, eesak aur jekab ko apana pitamah paigambar, moosa ko mukhy paigambar tatha elija, ayos, hosiya, ijiya, hajakiya, ijakil, jaremiya adi ko any paigambar manate hain. yahoodi dharm ekeshvaravad par adharit hai. unaka eeshvar 'yahova' amoort, nirgun, sarvavyapi, nyayapriy, kripalu aur kathor anushasanapriy hai. apani agyaon ke ullnghan hone par vah dnd bhi deta hai. itana hi nahin, yahoodi log yahova ki agyaon men sainy krityon ka bhi sndesh pate hain. yahova unako dharm raksha ke lie sainy sngharsh ka bhi adesh deta hai.

das dharm sootr

yahoodi dharm men 10 dharmacharanon ka vishesh mahattv hai, jinaka palan karane par yahova ki anupam kripa prapt hoti hai. ye das dharm sootr nimn hain-

  1. main svami hoon tera eeshvar, tujhe mistr ki dasata se mukt karane vala.
  2. mere siva too kisi doosare devata ko nahin manega.
  3. too apane svami aur apane prabhu ka nam vyarth hi n lega.
  4. sabath (avakash) ka din sadaiv yad rakhana aur use pavitr rakhana. chh: din too kam karega, apane sab kam, kintu satavan din sabath ka din hai. yad rakhana ki chh: din tak tere prabhu ne akash, prithvi aur sagar tatha un sabamen vidyaman sabhi kuchh ki rachana ki, phir sataven din vishram kiya tha. at: yah prabhu ke vishram ka din hai. is din too koee bhi kam nahin kar sakata.
  5. apane mata-pita ka samman kar, unhen adar de taki prabhu pradatt is bhoomi par too dirghayu ho sake.
  6. too hatya nahin karega.
  7. too parastri, parapurush gaman nahin karega.
  8. too chori nahin karega.
  9. too apane padosi ke khilaf jhoothi gavahi nahin dega.
  10. too apane padosi ke makan, padosi ki patni, padosi ke naukar ya naukarani, usake bail, usake gadhe par buri nazar nahin rakhega.

dharmagrnth

yahoodiyon ke bich anek dharmagrnth prachalit hain, jisamen kuchh pramukh hain-

  1. tora, jo baibil ke pratham panch grnthon ka samoohik nam hai aur yahoodi log ise sidhe eeshvar dvara moosa ko pradan ki gee thi,
  2. talamud, jo yahoodiyon ke maukhik achar v dainik vyahar snbndhi niyamon, tikaon tatha vyakhyaon ka snkalan hai,
  3. ilaka, jo talamud ka vidhi sngrah hai,
  4. agada, jisamen dharmakary, dharmakathaen, kisse adi sngrahit hain,
  5. tanaka, jo baibil ka hibroo nam hai, adi.

manyataen

yahoodi dharm ke any tattv mojez ke sath ubhare. inamen yah mool manyata bhi shamil hai ki naitik chayan ki kushalata hi manav jati ko paribhashit karati hai. isilie sabhi vyakti eeshvar ke sath ek pratigya dvara jude hain. yah ek aisa snbndh hai, jise yahoodi udaharan aur praman dvara samane rakhate hain. manushy ke pas eeshvar ke qanoon ke agyapalan (achchhaee) aur agya ka ullnghan (buraee), do vikalp hain aur isi sndarbh men vah kisi ek ka naitik chunav karata hai. pap ko qanoon ya tora ka jan-boojhakar kiya gaya ullnghan mana jata hai aur tora ki or punah vapas jana ek vimarshit chayan kaha jata hai. yahi nahin, manushy ki naitik pravritti nyayapoorn samaj ki sthapana tak vistrit aur usase gunthi hai. kanan par vijay ko 'palayan' hetu eeshvar ke hastakshep aur sahayata ke ek ang ke roop men dekha jata hai. tab filistin jaise ne shatru samane ae aur 'nyayadhishon ki pustak' men ullikhit parivartan ke daur ki shuruat huee. izarail ki 12 bikhari huee janajatiyon ko bujurgon ya mat ke dridh samarthakon ke netritv men ekajut hone ka avasar mila. jaaurdan nadi ke donon or bahut se pooja sthal aur vediyan sthapit ki geen aur pratigyapatr ki mnjoosha[7], jise aksar shilo[8] men hi rakha jata tha, chal vastu mani gee thi.

yerushalam

nyayadhishon ke kal ke dauran nirntar netritv ki avashyakata ko dekhate hue rajashahi ki mang samane aee. rudhivadi dharmik logon ke virodh ke bavajood lagabhag 1021 ee. poo. men saaul ko raja banaya gaya, kintu 1000 ee. poo men devid ke shasan kal ki shuruat tak rajashahi ke prati dharmik apattiyan hoti rahin. devid ne hi yerushalam par vijay prapt ki aur ise rashtriy rajadhani banaya aur mnjoosha (ark) ko yahan rashtriy eeshvar ke devalay ke roop men lae. devid ke putr saauloman ne pahala mndir banavaya. saauloman dvara rajashahi ko antarrashtriy mahattv ki samratashahi men vikasit karane ka dharmik aur laukik virodh hua aur lagabhag 922 ee. poo. men uttari janajatiyon ne snbndh vichchhed kar liya.

rajaon ki pustak[9] ke anusar, agale 200 varsh ke dauran videshi snpradayon ne yahoodi dharm par asar dala, uttari rajy (izarail) ke viruddh vishesh roop se avaz uthaee gee. jahan yerushalam ki pratidvndvita men dharmik rajadhani samadiya sthapit ki gee. jab raja ahab ne apani siriyaee patni jezebal ko izarail men apane videshi eeshvar ki pooja karane ki anumati di, to paignbar elija ne samooche uttar ko adharmi ghoshit kar diya. unaka dava tha ki tin varsh ka sookha, eeshvar ke hit men n rahane ke pap ka samriddhi-kshati ke pahale dnd ke roop men tha.

dharm-yuddh

nauvin se athavin shatabdi ee. poo tak izarail, asam[10] ke sath chali a rahi purani ladaee men ulajha raha, parinamasvaroop izarail men muthti bhar amiron aur garib janata ke bich dhravikaran ho gaya. is sthiti se sahityik ya gyanavan paignbaron ki shuruat huee, jinamen se pahale amos the. unhonne yah soch arnbh kiya ki pratigyapatr ke samajik naitik niyamon ke ullnghan se eeshvar samuday ke viruddh ho jaega. athavin shatabdi ke ant men jab asiriya ne izarail ka virodh kiya, to paignbar hosiya ne kaha ki eeshvar ko bhula dene ke karan nee musibaton ki shuruat huee hai. jooda ke raja ehaz ke asiriya ke samane samarpan se aize aur maik paignbaron ko yahoodi bhavishyavani men yugantak vichar shamil karana pada, jisamen sahi mayanon men bhavi pavitr dharmik samuday ki bat ki gee, jo prithvi par ek ek adarsh shasak ke netritv men ek samany samajik rajanitik ikaee ke roop men kam kare. bebiloniya dvara jooda par vijay aur bad men yahoodiyon ke nirvasan (597 ee. poo. se) se is vicharadhara men bhavishyagami tattv ko bal mila. aisa hi jeramai aur aizekal ki bhavishyavaniyon men tha aur isase dyootero eesaiyon ki bhavishyavani ko bhi bal mila ki izarail ki punarsthapana se vishv ko izarail ke eeshvar ke prati samarpit karane men madad milegi.

faras dvara bebilon ko harae jane se nirvasan ka ant hua aur jooda phir se hasil ho gaya (538 ee. poo.) izarail ko dubara sthapit karane ki mesiyani ashaen adhoori rah geen, lekin meleki dvara 'mojez ki tora' ke palan ki chetavali ke sath paignbari kal ka ant ho gaya. 444 ee. poo men ...I ne tora ko desh ke qanoon ke roop men manyata di. is tora ko prakashit kiya jana tha. tora ki is prakar manyata se alikhit qanoon ka vyapak adhar bana, jo yahoodi dharm ki visheshata hai. sikndar mahanh dvara 332 ee. poo. filistin par vijay se yoonani yahoodi dharm[11] yug ki shuruat huee. yahoodi dharm aur snskriti par yoonani prabhav doosari shatabdi ee. poo. ke prarnbh men us samay spasht ho gaya, jab yoonan ke yahoodi kattar purohiton ke prabhav men a ge. entiokas IV aipifaniz dvara yahoodi dharm ke viruddh adeshon ke phalasvaroop mekabiz[12] ne vidroh kiya aur tabhi se yahoodi aur eesaee dharm men shahidon ka arvibhav hua. vidroh ke bavajood yoonanivad jari raha, jo jooda ke herod I ke kal (37 se 4 ee. poo.) ke dauran charam par pahuncha. isi kal men dharmik netaon ke do samooh ban ge. farasi, jo alikhit qanoon ke divy lekhan men vishvas karate the aur sadjosi, jo tora ke likhit svaroop ko manate the.

yahoodi dharm ke pramukh kendr

yoonanivad ki avadhi men siriya, eshiya mainar, bebiloniya aur visheshatah alekzendar, misr men yahoodi dharm ke pramukh kendr the. pnchagrnth[13] ka yoonani bhasha men anuvad kiya gaya, jisase yoonanivad ka akarshan badha aur misr men itihas, kavita, natak aur darshanashastr ka paryapt sahity racha gaya.

yahoodi rajy ki sthapana

63 ee. poo. se 135 ee. ke dauran rom ke shasan men svatntr yahoodi rajy ki sthapana ki koshishen ki geen. herodiyan, jilaaut aur kee arddh math samoohon ne yah koshish ki aur yah sabhi tora ke sakhti se palan ke pakshadhar the. rom kal ke dauran samast manavata par phir se divy snprabhuta sthapit kie jane ki izarail ki asha adarsh raja ke vichar par kendrit hone ke samay eesaee dharm ka uday sabase mahattvapoorn jatiy ghatanakram tha.

halanki rom ke rajy ki achchhi shuruat huee thi, lekin rom se pratikool adeshon ke karan vidrohon ki lagatar asaphal koshishen hueen, inamen se pahali (66-73) ke dauran 'doosara mndir' nasht kar diya gaya. in trasadiyon se yahoodi dharm snkuchit hua aur talamud ka vikas hua.

tanaim yug

rabbaniyaee yahoodi dharm, jisake dauran talamud ka vikas hua, doosari se atharahavin shatabdi tak phaila raha. tanaim yug kahe jane kal men filistin men ek uchch nyayalay ke pramukh, dharmaguru simiyan ben gamaliel (135-175) aur jooda-ha-nasi (175-220) the, jinhen mishana namak alikhit qanoon ke antim svaroop ke nirman ka shrey jata hai.

amoraim kal

mishana lagoo kie jane se amoraim kal[14] ki shuruat huee. mishana ko manak pustak manate hue filistin ke amoraim (220-400) aur bebiloniya (200-650) ne ise spasht kiya, any pustakon ke sath milan kiya aur isake siddhanton ko nee paristhitiyon par lagoo kiya. unhonne filistin talamud aur bebiloniya talamud taiyar kie, jinamen se bebiloniya talamud yahoodi jivan ki kendriy snhita ban gaya. halanki antim dharmaguru gamaliel IV ki 425 men mrityu se bhoomadhyiy yahoodi dharm bikhar gaya, lekin yahoodi kailendar aur rabbaiyon dvara palit niyam jari rahane se yoorop men yahoodi samuday ka bana rahana sunishchit raha.

bebiloniya men nirvasakon ke pramukh ka pad 10vin se 11vin shatabdi ke madhy tak rabbaiyon ke sath-sath chalata raha. filistin se pratyaropit rabbi padadhikariyon ne nee bhoomi men yahoodi qanooni dharmik pranali ke moolyon aur antarvastu ko saphalatapoorvak anukoolit kar liya. satavin aur athavin shatabdi men islam ke vistar ke bad bebiloniya ke dharmik netaon ya 'jiyonim' ne sabhi yahoodi samudayon men apani parnparaon ko pahunchaya.

madhyakalin yug

madhyakalin yug men saman dharmik adhar ke bavajood yahoodi snskriti ki do shakhaen vikasit hueen. sefardi samuday ki sanskritik snbaddhata bebiloniya se thi aur yah arabi muslim mahaul se prabhavit tha. ashakenaji samuday yoorop ki laitin eesaee snskriti men vikasit huee aur isaki prishthabhoomi rom aur filistin men thi. is avadhi men yahoodi adhyatmavad ke do prakar ubharakar samane ae, 12 vin shatabdi ke jarman ashakenazim ke bich tatha kathit madhyayugin hasidivar aur provens ki talamudik akadamiyon tatha 13vin shatabdi men uttari spen ke bich anumanatmak kabbala shaili.[15] provens aur uttari spen men sefaradim aur ashakenazim snskritiyon ke bich jhapaden hueen.

eesaee dharm ki svikriti

eesaee adhikariyon dvara talamud par hamalon ke karan aur 1306 men frans men yahoodiyon ke nishkasan se vivad ka samadhan nahin ho paya aur rudhivadiyon ki do shakhaen jaise-taise sath-sath chalati rahin. yoorop men yahoodiyon par 18vin shatabdi men muqad me jari rahane se svadharm tyag aur eesaee dharm svikar karane (maranizm) ke mamale samane ae aur shabbetaee tzevi aur jaiqab phrenk jaise chhadm-masihaee ugravadi maton ka uday hua.

yahoodi bodh kal

madhy aur poorvi yoorop men 18vin shatabdi 'hasakala' ya yahoodi bodh ka kal tha. is avadhi men yahoodiyon ne mesiyani manyataon se hatakar apane jivanakal men is prithvi par apani ya rashtriy akankshaon ki poorti karana shuroo kar diya. mojeze mndilaszon vishesh taur par mahattvapoorn the, jinake yerushalam ne yahoodi dharm ki vaidhata aur apane sarvabhaumik tarkik dharm ke vishvas ki vakalat ki. nafatali harz vesali ke sath milakar unhonne jarman baibil ki rachana ki, jisane madhy yooropiy yahoodivad ko jarman snskriti men prastut kiya.

andolan

poorvi yoorop aur visheshatah roos men hasakala ne purohitavad ka virodh aur vyavaharik samajik aur arthik sudharon ki mang karane ka roop le liya. hibroo aur roosi bhasha ka sahity un lekhakon ke bich phalane-phoolane laga, jinhonne svayn ko roosi nagarik aur yahoodi dharm ko apana dharm ghoshit kiya. yiddish sahity, jo poorvi yooropiy deshon men 12vin aur 13vin shatabdi men shuroo hua tha, 19vin shatabdi ke ant aur 20vin shatabdi ke prarnbh men panapa. halanki 1881 ki samoohik hatyaon ke karan is andolan ka ant ho gaya, hasakala se yahoodi dharmik sudhar ki utpatti huee. jisaki nepoliyan yug (1800-1815) dauran pashchimi yoorop men shuruat huee. frans men sudhar saiddhantik the, jabaki jarmani men yah pooja ki sundar vidhiyon par kendrit the. jarman sudhar 1840 men snsthagat ho ge, halanki ye adhikansh yoorop men viphal rahe aur asani se amerika men svikar kie ge, jahan ye sudhar ke prarnbhik rujhan ke sath ghulamil ge.

ab is sudhar andolan se snkuchit vichar vale yahoodi dharm ki shuruat huee, jo jarmani men 1845 men prarnbh hua. isane vikasatmak dharm ke roop men yahoodi dharm ki parikalpana ki, lekin riti-rivajon men mukhyatah parnparik niyamon ke palan par a gaya.

yoorop ke adhikansh yahoodiyon ne sudhar andolan ko thukara diya. yadyapi kuchh ullekhaniy hasidim ne pashchimikaran ka poori tarah bahishkar jari rakha aur inamen se adhikansh dharm men roodhivadi, lekin snskriti aur taur-tariqo men pashchimi ban ge. pashchimikaran ke vikas ke sath vidvanon ne yahoodi itihas aur snskriti ke dharmanirapeksh adhyayan tatha vigyan, chikitsa aur ganit men yahoodi dharm ke yogadan ka adhyayan shuroo kar diy. jab adhikansh yahoodiyon ne maukhik qanoon ki divyata ke vidhan ko asvikar kar diya. us samay yahoodi darshanikon ne nirntarata ke prashn ka virodh kiya. vibhinn uttaron men se unhonne yahoodi dharm ko eeshvar ke sath vyaktigat sakshatkar ke saghan svaroop ya dharmik rashtravad ke roop men aitihasik ya naitik prakriya ka vahak mana.

yahoodi dharm ko usake dharmanirapeksh pahaluon men sudhar andolan ke parinam ko dekha ja sakata hai, 19vin shatabdi ke agaman ke sath yooropiy rashtravad aur samivad ke virodh ki pratikriya se yahoodi dharm ne rashtr-punarjagaran aur punarvas ka karyakram prastut kiya, jo 1948 men izarail desh ke gathan ke sath snpann hua. dvitiy vishv yuddh ki samapti ke bad yahoodi dharm gair yooropiy dharm ban gaya, jo izarail, amerika aur roos tatha any poorv soviyat ganarajyon men kendrit tha. vishv men yahoodi dharm ka arab rashtron ke sath takarav hua, jabaki yahoodi dharm ke pratyek samuday men dharmanirapekshata ki bhavana badhati gee hai. phir bhi yahoodiyon men apane dharm ke prati atyadhik utsah aur usaki aitihasik parnparaon ke ahasas se lagav dikhaee deta hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. mishna aur talamud
  2. midarash
  3. lagabhag adhunik izarail aur lebanan
  4. aitihasik aur baibil vishayak sahity men vividh roop se paribhashit kshetr, kintu sadaiv filistin se snbndhit
  5. ab donon siriya men
  6. vartaman eerak tatha siriya
  7. ark: alnkrit, sone se jadi lakadi ki tijori, jisamen baibil kal men eeshvar dvara mojez ko di gee qanoon ki do pattikaen rakhi gee thin
  8. kanan ka qasba
  9. buk aauf kings
  10. uttari siriya ka kshetr
  11. chauthi shatabdi se doosari shatabdi ee. poo
  12. yahoodi purohit parivar
  13. old testament ki pahali panch pustaken
  14. pravakta ya vivechak
  15. hibroo shabd, arthat 'prapt karana' ya dharmik parnpara'

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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