सामाजिक-धार्मिक सुधार आन्दोलन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

19vin sadi ko bharat men dharmik evn samajik punarjagaran ki sadi mana gaya hai. is samay eest indiya kampani ki pashchaty shiksha paddhati se adhunik tatkalin yuva man chintanashil ho utha, tarun v vriddh sabhi is vishay par sochane ke lie majaboor hue. yadyapi kampani ne bharat ke dharmik mamalon men hastakshep ke prati snyam ki niti ka palan kiya, lekin aisa usane apane rajanitik hit ke lie kiya. pashchaty shiksha se prabhavit logon ne hindoo samajik rachana, dharm, riti-rivaj v paramparaon ko tark ki kasauti par kasana arambh kar diya. isase samajik v dharmik andolan ka janm hua. angrez hukoomat men sadiyon ki roodhiyon se jarjar evn andhavishvas se grast audyogiki nagar kalakatta, mumbee, kanapur, lahaur evn madras men samyavad ka prabhav kuchh adhik raha. bharatiy samaj ko punarjivan pradan karane ka prayatn prabuddh bharatiy samajik evn dharmik sudharakon, sudharavadi british gavarnar-janaralon evn pashchaty shiksha ke prasar ne kiya.

navajagaran ki shuruat

bharat men british satta ke pair jamane ke bad yahan ka janamanas pashchaty shiksha evn snskriti ke sampark men aya, parinamasvaroop navajagaran ki shuruat huee. bharatiy samaj ki antarik kamazoriyon ka paksh ujagar hua. angrezi shiksha ne bharat ke dharmik evn samajik kshetr men mahattvapoorn parivartan kiya. angrezi shiksha v snskriti ka prabhav sarvapratham bharatiy madhyam varg par pada. tatkalin bharatiy samaj men vyapt kuritiyon evn vahm adambaron ko samapt karane men pashchaty shiksha ne mahattvapoorn yogadan diya. is shiksha ke prabhav men akar hi bharatiyon ne videshi sabhyata aur sahity ke bare men dher sari janakariyan ekatr kin tatha apani sabhyata se unaki tulana kar sachchaee ko jana. prarambh men arthath 1813 ee. tak kampani prashasan ne bharat ke samajik, dharmik evn sanskritik mamalon men ahastakshep ki niti ka palan kiya, kyonki ve sadaiv is bat se sashnkit rahate the ki, in mamalon men hastakshep karane se roodhivadi bharatiy log kampani ki satta ke lie khatara utpann kar sakate hain. parantu 1813 ee. ke bad british shasan ne apane audyogik hiton evn vyaparik labh ke lie simit hastakshep prarambh kar diya, jisake parinamasvaroop kalantar men samajik evn dharmik sudhar andolanon ko janm hua. 'higal' ke matanusar-"punarjagaran ke bina koee bhi dharm sambhav nahin."

hindoo sudhar andolan

isake antargat hindoo dharm tatha samaj men sudhar hetu kee andolanon ko chalaya gaya, jinamen se kuchh is prakar se hain-

brahmasamaj

brahmasamaj hindoo dharm se sambandhit pratham dharm-sudhar andolan tha. isake snsthapak raja ramamohan ray the, jinhonn 20 agast, 1828 ee. men isaki sthapana kalakatta (vartaman kolakata) men ki thi. isaka mukhy uddeshy tatkalin hindoo samaj men vyapt buraeeyon, jaise- sati pratha, bahuvivah, veshyagaman, jativad, asprishyata adi ko samapt karana. raja ramamohan ray ko bharatiy punarjagaran ka pita mana jata hai. raja ramamohan ray pahale bharatiy the, jinhonne samaj men vyapt madhyayugin buraeeyon ko door karane ke lie andolan chalaya. devendranath taigor ne bhi brahmasamaj ko apani sevaen pradan ki thin. unhonne hi keshavachandr sen ko brahmasamaj ka achary niyukt kiya tha. keshavachandr sen ka bahut adhik udaravadi drishtikon hi age chalakar brahmasamaj ke vibhajan ka karan bana. raja ramamohan ray ko bharat men patrakarita ka agradoot mana jata hai. inhonne samachar-patron ki svatntrata ka samarthan kiya tha. bharat ki svatntrata ke bare men unaka mat tha ki, bharat ko turant svatntrata n lekar prashasan men hissedari lena chahie.

adi brahmasamaj

adi brahmasamaj ki sthapana brahmasamaj ke vibhajan ke uparant achary keshavachandr sen dvara ki gee thi. adi brahmasamaj ki sthapana kalakatta (vartaman kolakata) men huee thi. brahmasamaj ka 1865 ee. men vikhandan ho chuka tha. keshavachandr sen ko devendranath taigor ne achary ke pad se hata diya. phalatah keshavachandr sen ne 'bharatiy brahm samaj' ki sthapana ki, aur is prakar poorv ka brahmasamaj 'adi brahmasamaj' ke nam se prasiddh hua.

prarthana samaj

prarthana samaj ki sthapana varsh 1867 ee. men bambee (maharashtr) men achary keshavachandr sen ki prerana se mahadev govind ranade, daau. atmaram pandurng, chandravarakar adi dvara ki gee thi. ji.ar. bhandarakar prarthana samaj ke agrani neta the. prarthana samaj ka mukhy uddeshy jati pratha ka virodh, stri-purush vivah ki ayu men vriddhi, vidhava-vivah, stri shiksha adi ko protsahan pradan karana tha.

ary samaj

10 aprail sanh 1875 ee. men bambee men dayannd sarasvati ne 'ary samaj' ki sthapana ki. isaka uddeshy vaidik dharm ko punah shuddh roop se sthapit karane ka prayas, bharat ko dharmik, samajik v rajanitik roop se ek sootr men bandhane ka prayatn, pashyaty prabhav ko samapt karana adi tha. 1824 ee. men gujarat ke mauravi namak sthan par paida hue svami dayannd ko bachapan men ‘moolashnkar’ ke nam se jana jata tha. 21 varsh ki avastha men moolashnkar ne grih tyag kar ghumakkadon ka jivan svikar kiya. 24 varsh ki avastha men unaki mulakat dandi svami poornannd se huee. inhin se sannyas ki diksha lekar moolashnkar ne dand dharan kiya. diksha pradan karane ke bad dandi svami poornannd ne moolashnkar ka nam 'svami dayanand sarasvati' rakha.

ramakrishn mishan

'ramakrishn mishan' ki sthapana svami vivekanand ne 1 mee, 1897 ee. men ki thi. unaka uddeshy aise sadhuon aur sannyasiyon ko sngathit karana tha, jo ramakrishn paramahns ki shikshaon men gahari astha rakhen, unake upadeshon ko janasadharan tak pahuncha saken aur sntapt, du:khi evn pidit manav jati ki ni:svarth seva kar saken. 1893 ee. men svami vivekanand ne shikango men huee dharm snsad men bhag lekar pashchaty jagat ko bharatiy snskriti evn darshan se avagat karaya. dharm snsad men svami ji ne apane bhashan men bhautikavad evn adhyatmavad ke madhy sntulan banane ki bat kahi. vivekanand ne poore snsar ke lie ek aisi snskriti ki kalpana ki, jo pashchimi deshon ke bhautikavad evn poorvi deshon ke adhyatmavad ke madhy sntulan banane ki bat kar sake tatha sampoorn vishv ko khushiyan pradan kar sake.

thiyosofikal sosaiti

'thiyosofikal sosaiti' ki sthapana varsh 1875 ee. men nyooyaaurk (snyukt rajy amarika) men tatha isake bad 1886 ee. men adayar (chennee, bharat) men ki gee thi. isake snsthapak 'maidam helana petrovana vlavatsaki' evn 'karnal henari stil aaulkat' the. thiyosofikal sosaiti ka mukhy uddeshy dharm ko adhar banakar samaj seva karana, dharmik evn bhaeechare ki bhavana ko phailana, prachin dharm, darshan evn vigyan ke adhyayan men sahayog karana adi tha. bharat men isaki vyapak gatividhiyon ko sucharoo roop se chalane ka shrey eni besent ko diya jata hai.

yng bngal andolan

yng bngal andolan ki sthapana varsh 1828 ee. men bngal men ki gee thi. isake snsthapak 'henari vivinay derojiyo' (1809-1831 ee.) the. is andolan ka mukhy uddeshy pres ki svatantrata, zamindaron dvara kiye ja rahe atyacharon se raiyyat ki snraksha, sarakari naukariyon men oonche vetanaman ke antargat bharatiy logon ko naukari dilavana tha. englon-indiyan derojiyo ‘hindoo kaaulej’ men adhyapak the. ve frans ki mahanh kranti se bahut prabhavit the.

muslim sudhar andolan

muslim samaj tatha islam dharm men sudhar ke lie gaye andolan is prakar se the-

aligadh andolan

'aligadh andolan' ki shuruat aligadh (uttar pradesh) se huee thi. is andolan ke snsthapak sar saiyyad ahamad khan the. sar saiyyad ahamad khan ke atirikt is andolan ke any pramukh neta the- najir ahamad, chirag ali, altaph husain, maulana shibali nomani adi. dilli men paida hue saiyyad ahamad ne 1839 ee. men eest indiya kampani men naukari kar li. kampani ki nyayik seva men kary karate hue 1857 ee. ke vidroh men unhonne kampani ka sath diya. 1870 ee. ke bad prakashit 'dablyoo. hantar' ki pustak 'indiyan musalaman' men sarakar ko yah salah di gee thi ki ve musalamanon se samajhauta kar tatha unhen kuchh riyayaten dekar apani or milaye.

vahabi andolan

vahabi andolan 1830 ee. se prarambh hokar 1860 ee. chalata raha tha. itane lambe samay tak chalane vale 'vahabi andolan' ke pravartak rayabareli ke 'saiyyad ahamad' the. yah vidroh mool roop se muslim sudharavadi andolan tha, jo uttar pashchim, poorvi bharat tatha madhy bharat men sakriy tha. saiyyad ahamad islam dharm men hue sabhi parivartanon tatha sudharon ke viruddh the. unaki ichchha hajarat mohammad ke samay ke islam dharm ko pun:sthapit karane ki thi.

ahamadiya andolan

ahamadiya andolan ki sthapana varsh 1889 ee. men ki gee thi. isaki sthapana guradasapur (pnjab) ke 'kadiya' namak sthan par ki gee. isaka mukhy uddeshy musalamanon men islam dharm ke sachche svaroop ko bahal karana evn muslimon men adhunik audyogik aur takaniki pragati ko dharmik manyata dena tha. ahamadiya andolan ki sthapana 'mirza gulam ahamad' (1838-1908 ee.) dvara 19vin shatabdi ke ant men ki gee thi.

devaband skool

devaband skool ki sthapana muhammad qasim nanautvi (1832-1880 ee.) evn rashid ahamad gngohi (1828-1905 ee.) dvara ki gee thi. is skool ki shuruat 1866-1867 ee. men devaband, saharanapur (uttar pradesh) se ki gee thi. isaka mukhy uddeshy muslim sampraday ke lie dharmik neta taiyar karana, vidyalay ke pathyakramon men angrezi shiksha evn pashchimi snskriti ko pratibandhit karana, muslim sampraday ka naitik evn dharmik punaruddhar karana tatha angrez sarakar ke sath asahayog karana tha.

inhen bhi dekhen: samajik sudhar adhiniyam


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah