राजा राममोहन राय  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

raja ramamohan ray
raja ramamohan ray
poora nam raja ramamohan ray
janm 22 mee, 1772
janm bhoomi bngal, bharat
mrityu 27 sitambar, 1833
mrityu sthan inglaind
abhibhavak ramakant ray
pati/patni uma devi
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr samaj sudharak
bhasha arabi, farasi, angrezi, grik, hibroo (ibrani) adi.
prasiddhi vedant ke oopar angrezi men likhakar unhonne yoorop tatha amerika men bhi bahut prasiddhi arjit ki.
vishesh yogadan satipratha ka nivaran, bharatiy samaj ki kattarata, roodhivadita evn andh vishvason ko door karake use adhunik banane ka prayas kiya.
nagarikata bharatiy
sthapana brahmasamaj, yooniteriyan esosieshan, hindoo kaaulej
any janakari raja ramamohan ray ne samachar patron ki svatntrata ke lie bhi kada sngharsh kiya tha. unhonne svayn ek bngali patrika 'samvad-kaumudi' arambh ki aur usaka sampadan bhi kiya

raja ramamohan ray (angrezi: Raja Ram Mohan Roy, janm: 22 mee, 1772; mrityu: 27 sitambar, 1833) ko 'adhunik bharatiy samaj ka janmadata' kaha jata hai. ve brahm samaj ke snsthapak, bharatiy bhashayi pres ke pravartak, janajagaran aur samajik sudhar andolan ke praneta tatha bngal men nav-jagaran yug ke pitamah the. dharmik aur samajik vikas ke kshetr men raja ramamohan ray ka nam sabase agrani hai. raja ram mohan ray ne tatkalin bharatiy samaj ki kattarata, roodhivadita evn andh vishvason ko door karake use adhunik banane ka prayas kiya.

jivan parichay

janm

raja ramamohan ray ka janm 22 mee, 1772 ee. ko radha nagar namak bngal ke ek ganv men, purane vicharon se sampann bngali brahman parivar men hua tha. unhonne apane jivan men arabi, farasi, angrezi, grik, hibroo adi bhashaon ka adhyayan kiya tha. hindoo, eesaee, islam aur soofi dharm ka bhi unhonne gambhir adhyayan kiya tha. 17 varsh ki alpayu men hi ve moorti pooja virodhi ho gaye the. ve angrezi bhasha aur sabhyata se kafi prabhavit the. unhonne inglaind ki yatra ki. dharm aur samaj sudhar unaka mukhy lakshy tha. ve eeshvar ki ekata men vishvas karate the aur sabhi prakar ke dharmik andhavishvas aur karmakandon ke virodhi the. apane vicharon ko unhonne lekhon aur pustakon men prakashit karavaya. kintu hindoo aur eesaee pracharakon se unaka kafi sngharsh hua, parantu ve jivan bhar apane vicharon ka samarthan karate rahe aur unake prachar ke lie unhonne brahmasamaj ki sthapana ki.

yuvavastha men hi moortipooja khndan

jab ve mushkil se 15 varsh ke the, tab unhonne bngal men ek chhoti si pustika likhi thi, jisamen unhonne moortipooja ka khndan kiya tha, jisake sambndh men unaka kahana tha ki- "vah vedon men nahin hai." navayuvak ramamohan ko isake lie bahut kasht uthane pade. unhen kattaravadi parivar se nikal diya gaya aur unhen desh nikale ke roop men apana jivan vyatit karana pada. tathapi unhonne eeshvar pradatt paristhitiyon se poorn labh uthaya. unhonne door door tak yatraen ki aur is prakar bahut sa gyan aur anubhav snchit kiya. ramamohan ray ko moortipooja evn paramparaon ke virodh ke karan apana ghar bhi chhodana pada tha. unhonne tibbat yatra ki to unake krantikari vicharon ke karan vahan ke lama bhi unake virodhi ho gaye. ve arabi aur farasi pahale se hi janate the, ab unhonne snskrit ki bhi yogyata prapt kar li. unhonne angrezi, phrench, laitin, hibroo aur grik ka bhi kuchh gyan prapt kar liya. ekeshvaravadi ramamohan ray ne jain, islam adi dharmon ka adhyayan kiya tha. ve snsar ke mahattvapoorn dharmagrnthon ka mool roop men adhyayan karane men samarth the. is karan ve snsar ke sab mahattvapoorn dharmon ki tulana karane men saphal ho gaye. vishvadharm ki unaki dharana kinhin snshlisht siddhanton par adharit nahin thi, apitu vibhinn dharmon ke gambhir gyan par hi adharit thi. unhonne vedon aur upanishadon ka bngala anuvad kiya. vedant ke oopar angrezi men likhakar unhonne yoorop tatha amerika men bhi bahut khyati arjit ki.

mahan samaj sudharak

brahmasamaj ki sthapana

raja ramamohan ray adhunik shiksha ke samarthak the tatha unhonne ganit evn vigyan par anek lekh tatha pustaken likhin. 1821 men unhonne 'yooniteriyan esosieshan' ki sthapana ki. hindoo samaj ki kuritiyon ke ghor virodhi hone ke karan 1828 men unhonne 'brahm samaj' namak ek naye prakar ke samaj ki sthapana ki. 1805 men raja ramamohan ray bngal men angrezi eest indiya kampani ki seva men sammalit hue aur 1814 tak ve isi kary men lage rahe. naukari se avakash prapt karake ve kalakatta men sthayi roop se rahane lage aur unhonne poorn roop se apane ko janata ki seva men lagaya. 1814 men unhonne atmiy sabha ko arambh kiya. 20 agast, 1828 men unhonne brahmasamaj ki sthapana ki. 1831 men ek vishesh kary ke sambndh men dilli ke mugal samrat ke paksh ka samarthan karane ke lie inglaind gaye. ve usi kary men vyast the ki bristal men 27 sitnbar, 1833 ko unaka dehant ho gaya. unhen mugal samrat ki or se 'raja' ki upadhi di gayi. apane sab karyon men raja ramamohan ray ko svadesh prem, ashikshiton aur nirdhanon ke lie atyadhik sahanubhooti ki bhavana thi. angrezon ke viruddh sashastr vidroh ke sambhav hone ke karan unhonne apane deshavasiyon men rajanitik jagriti ki bhavana ko protsahit karane ke lie janamat ko shikshit kiya. unhonne sambhav upayon se logon ki naitik unnati ke yathasambhav prayatn kie.

hindoo kaaulej ki sthapana men yogadan

ve apane samay ke sabase bade prachy bhashon ke gyataon men se ek the. unaka vishvas tha ki bharat ki pragati keval udar shiksha ke dvara hogi, jisamen pashchaty vidya tatha gyan ki sabhi shakhaon ki shikshan vyavastha ho. unhonne aise logon ka poorn samarthan kiya, jinhonne angrezi bhasha tatha pashchimi vigyan ke adhyayan ka bharat men arambh kiya aur ve apane prayatnon men saphal bhi hue. unhonne hindoo kaaulej ki sthapana men sahayata di. yah snstha un dinon ki sarvadhik adhunik snstha thi.

dharmik sudharak

raja ramamohan ray

raja ramamohan ray ek dharmik sudharak tatha saty ke anveshak the. sabhi dharmon ke adhyayan se ve is parinam par pnhuche ki sabhi dharmon men advaitavad sambadhi siddhanton ka prachalan hai. musalaman unhen musalaman samajhate the, eesaee unhen eesaee samajhate the, advaitavadi unhen advaitavati manate the tatha hindoo unhen vedanti svikar karate the. ve sab dharmon ki maulik satyata tatha ekata men vishvas karate the.

samachar patron ki svatntrata ke liye sngharsh

angrez eesaee mishanari ne angrezi bhasha men 'phrend aauf indiya' namak ek patr jari kiya tha. isi varsh gngadhar bhattachary ne 'bngal samachar' ka prakashan shuroo kiya. bngal men ek udaravadi patr 'kelakata jarnal' jems silk bakindham ne aktoobar sanh 1818 ee. men shuroo kiya. sanh 1821 ee. men tarachndr dnt aur bhavani charan bndhopadhyay ne bngali bhasha men saptahik patr 'snvad kaumudi' nikala, lekin disnbar 1821 ee. men bhavani charan ne snpadak pad se tyag patr de diya, to usaka bhar raja ramamohan ray ne snbhala. aprail 1822 ee. men raja ramamohan ray ne farasi bhasha men ek saptahik akhabar 'mirat-ul-akhabar' nam se shuroo kiya, jo bharat men pahala farasi akhabar tha. samrajyavadi british sarakar ko raja ramamohan ray ke dharmik vachir aur inglaind ki ayalaind virodhi niti ko alochana pasnd nahin aee. parinamasvaroop sarakar ne pres ki svatntrata par pratibndh lagane ke lie adhyadesh jari kiya, jisake virodh men raja ramamohan ray ne 'mirat-ul-akhabar' ka prakashan bnd kar diya.

raja ramamohan ray ke samman men jari dak tikat

raja ramamohan ray ne samachar patron ki svatntrata ke lie bhi kada sngharsh kiya tha. unhonne svayn ek bngali patrika 'samvad-kaumudi' arambh ki aur usaka sampadan bhi kiya. yah patrika bharatiyon dvara sampadit sabase purani patrikaon men se thi. unhonne 1833 ee. ke samacharapatr niyamon ke viruddh prabal andolan chalaya. unhonne sarvochch nyayalay ko ek smriti-patr diya, jisamen unhonne samachar patron ki svatntrata ke labhon par apane vichar prakat kie the. samachar patron ki svatntrata ke lie unake dvara chalaye gaye andolan ke dvara hi 1835 ee. men samachar patron ki azadi ke lie marg bana.

sati pratha hatane ko andolan

raja ramamohan ray

raja ram mohan ray ke jivan ki sabase badi upalabdhi thi - sati pratha ka nivaran. unhonne hi apane athak prayason se sarakar dvara is kupratha ko gair-qanooni dnndaniy ghoshit karavaya. raja ramamohan ray ne sati pratha ko mitane ke lie prayatn kiya. unhonne is amanaviy pratha ke viruddh nirantar andolan chalaya. yah andolan samachar patron tatha mnch donon madhyamon se chala. isaka virodh itana adhik tha ki ek avasar par to unaka jivan hi khatare men tha. ve apane shatruon ke hamale se kabhi nahin ghabaraye. unake poorn aur nirantar samarthan ka hi prabhav tha, jisake karan laaurd viliyam bainntik 1829 men sati pratha ko band karane men samarth ho sake. jab kattar logon ne inglaind men 'privi kaauunsil' men prarthana patr prastut kiya, tab unhonne bhi apane pragatishil mitron aur sathi karyakartaon ki or se british snsad ke sammukh apana virodhi prarthana patr prastut kiya. unhen prasannata huee jab 'privi kaauunsil' ne 'sati pratha' ke samarthakon ke prarthana patr ko asvikrit kar diya. sati pratha ke mitane se raja ramamohan ray snsar ke manavatavadi sudharakon ki sarvapratham pnkti men a gaye.

videsh men pratham bharatiy

1831 se 1834 tak apane inglaind pravas kal men ramamohan ji ne british bharat ki prashasanik paddhati men sudhar ke lie andolan kiya. british snsad ke dvara bharatiy mamalon par paramarsh lie jane vale ve pratham bharatiy the. haus aauph kaaumans ki pravar samiti ke samaksh apana sakshy dete hue unhonne bharatiy prashasan ki pray: sabhi shakhaon ke sambndh men apane sujhav diya. ramamohan ji ke rajanitik vichar bekan, hyoom,baintham, blaikaston aur maaunteskyoo jaise yooropiy darshanikon se prabhavit the. unhonne antarrashtriy vivadon ke shantipoorvak nibatare ke sambndh men kangres ke madhyam se sujhav prastut kiya, jisamen sambndhit deshon ki snsadon se sadasy lie jane ka nishchay hua.

mrityu

raja ramamohan ray ki pratima, bristal, briten

27 sitambar, 1833 men inglaind men raja ramamohan ray ki mrityu ho gee.

briten men bhavy samadhi

briten ke bristal nagar ke aranos vel qabristan men raja ramamohan ray ki samadhi hai. 27 sitnbar 2013 ko unaki 180vin punyatithi thi. bahut hi kam logon ko gyat hoga ki yatra ke madhy meninajaeetis ho jane ke karan yahan briten men hi unaka apratyashit nidhan ho gaya tha. us yug men briten men dah-snskar ki anumati nahin thi, atah unake shav ko bhoomi men yon hi daba / samahit kar diya gaya tha. vah samadhi tab se dhool-dhoosarit, tooti-phooti, agyat, upekshit v bure hal men padi thi. ek bharatiy parasi se vivah karane vali angrez mahila 'karla kaauntraiktar' ne isake jirnoddhar ka bida uthaya. kolakata ke ek vyavasayi v tatkalin meyar ke sahayog se 5 varsh poorv hi unhonne isaka punaruddhar karavaya aur ise ek bhavy samadhi ka roop diya. karla ke prayason se hi hathidant se bani raja ki ek durlabh moorti ko bhi samadhi-bhavan men snjo kar rakha gaya hai. 27 sitnbar, 2013 ko bristal men raja ramamohan ray ki usi samadhi par shraddhanjali sabha ayojit ki gee. smaraniy hai ki bristal nagar men ek pramukh sthan par chamakile kale patthar se bani raja ramamohan ray ki lagabhag do mnjila oonchaee ki ek pratima bhi sthapit hai, jisamen men ve pustaken hath men pakade khade hain.[1]

raja ji ke bad brahmasamaj

raja ramamohan ray ki mrityu ke bad brahmasamaj dhire dhire kee shakhaon men bnt gaya. maharshi devendranath taigor ne 'adi brahm samaj', shri keshavachandrasen ne 'bharatiy brahmasamaj' ki aur unake pashchath 'sadharan brahm samaj', ki sthapana huee. brahmasamaj ke vicharon ke saman hi daau. atmaram pandurng ne 1867 men maharashtr men 'prarthana samaj' ki sthapana ki jise ar. ji. bhandarakar aur mahadev govind ranade jaise vyaktiyon ka samarthan prapt hua. is prakar brahmasamaj yadyapi vibhinn shakhaon men vibhakt ho gaya, parantu usaka mool adhar ek hi tha. sabhi ka uddeshy hindoo samaj aur hindoo dharm ka sudhar karana tha aur sabhi ne eesaee dharm aur pashchimi sabhyata se prabhavit hote hue bhi hindoo dharmik grnthon, mukhyataya vedon ko hi apana mukhy adhar banaya tha.

googal doodal

raja ramamohan ray par jari googal doodal

googal ne apane chiraparichit andaj men mngalavar (22 mee, 2018) ko doodal banakar mahan samaj sudharak raja ram mohan ray ko yad kiya hai. 22 mee, 2018 ko raja ram mohan ray ka 246van janmadin hai. raja ram mohan ray ko desh men 'adhunik bharat ke nirmata' aur 'punarjagaran kal ke janak' ke taur par jana jata hai. unhonne 19vin sadi men samaj sudhar ke lie kee bade andolan chalae, jinamen sati pratha ko khatm karana sabase aham hai. googal ne samaj ke lie kie ge unake yogadan ke chalate doodal banakar unhen salam kiya hai.


raja ram mohan ray ki yad men banae ge googal doodal ko bina mistri ne banaya hai. bina tornto ki dizainar hain. googal doodal men raja ram mohan ray ko ek kitab pakade hue dikhaya gaya hai, jinake asapas kuchh log khade hain.

vidvanon ki ray men raja ramamohan ray

vidvanon ki ray men raja ramamohan ray ko naye yug ka agradoot thik hi kaha gaya hai.

  • moniyar viliyam ke anusar, raja mahoday sambhavat: tulanatmak dharmashastr ke pratham sachche anveshak the.
  • sil (Seal) ke anusar, raja vishv manavata ke vichar ke sndeshavahak the. ve manavatavadi, pavitr tatha saral the. ve vishv itihas men vishv manavata ke digdarshan karate the.
  • mis kolet ke kathananusar, itihas men ramamohan ray aise jivit pul ke saman hain, jis par bharat apane aparimit bhootakal se apane aparimit bhavishy ki or chalata hai. ve ek aise vrit khnd the, jo prachin jativad tatha arvachin manavata, andhavishvas tatha vigyan, aniyantrit satta tatha prajatntr, sthir rivaj tatha anudar pragati, bhayavane anek devataon men vishvas tatha pavitr, yadyapi aspasht astikata ke bich ki khaee ko dhake hue the.
  • nandalal chatarji ke anusar, raja ramamohan ray avinasht bhootakal aur udit hote hue bhavishy, sthir anudarata tatha krantikari sudhar, andh paramparagat prithakata tatha pragatishil ekata ke madhy manav sambndh sthapit karane vale the. snkshep men ve pratikriya tatha pragati ke madhy bindu the.
  • ravindranath taigor ke anusar, ramamohan ray ne bharat men adhunik yug ka sootrapat kiya. unhen bharatiy punarjagaran ka pita tatha bharatiy rashtravad ka pravartak bhi kaha jata hai unake dharmik aur samajik sab vicharon ke pichhe apane deshavasiyon ki rajanitik unnati karane ki bhavana maujood rahati thi. ve age likhate hain ki mujhe yah khedapoorvak kahana padata hai ki hinduon ki vartaman paddhati unake rajanitik hiton ki drishti se thik nahin hai. jat pat ke bhav ne unhen rajanitik bhavana men shoony kar diya hai. saikadon hazaron dharmik krityon aur shuddhata ke niyamon ne unhen koee bhi kathin kam karane ke ayogy bana diya hai. main samajhata hoon ki yah avashyak hai ki unake rajanitik labh aur samajik suvidha ke lie unake dharm men kuchh parivartan ho.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. vachaknavi, daau. kavita. raja ramamohan ray puny tithi (hindi) fesabuk. abhigaman tithi: 30 sitambar, 2013.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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