सर सैयद अहमद ख़ाँ  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

sar saiyad ahamad khan
sar saiyad ahamad khan
poora nam sar saiyad ahamad khan
janm 27 aktoobar, 1817
janm bhoomi dilli
mrityu 27 march, 1898
mrityu sthan aligadh, uttar pradesh
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr shikshak, vidhivetta aur lekhak
prasiddhi ainglo-mohamadan oriental kaaulej ke snsthapak
vishesh yogadan 1860 men pashchimottar simant prant men akal pidi़ton ko rahat pahunchane ke lie sakriy roop se yogadan kiya.
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari sar saiyad ahamad khan ke jivan ka sarvochch uddeshy shiksha ka prachar-prasar usake vyapakatam arthon men karana tha. muslim samaj ke sudhar ke lie prayasarat sar saiyad ne 1858 men muradabad men adhunik madarase ki sthapana ki. yah un shuruati dharmik skoolon men tha, jahan vaigyanik shiksha di jati thi.

sar saiyad ahamad khan (angrezi: Syed Ahmad Khan, janm: 17 aktoobar, 1817; mrityu: 27 march, 1898) muslim shikshak, vidhivetta aur lekhak, ainglo-mohamadan oriental kaaulej aligadh, uttar pradesh, ke snsthapak the. sar saiyad ahamad khan aise mahanh muslim samaj sudharak aur bhavishyadrishta the, jinhonne shiksha ke lie jivan bhar prayas kiya. sar saiyad ahamad khan ne logon ko parnparik shiksha ke sthan par adhunik gyan hasil karane ke lie prerit kiya, kyonki vah janate the ki adhunik shiksha ke bina pragati snbhav nahin hai.[1] sar saiyad ahamad khan musalamanon aur hinduon ke virodhatmak svar ko chup-chap sahan karate rahe. isi sahanashilata ka parinam hai ki aj sar saiyad ahamad khan ko ek yug purush ke roop men yad kiya jata hai aur hindoo tatha musalaman donon hi unaka adar karate hain. sar saiyad ahamad khan ne sada hi yah bat apane bhashanon men kahi thi ki, 'hindoo aur musalaman bharat ki do ankhen hain'.

parivar

saiyad ahamad khan ka janm 27 aktoobar, 1817 men dilli ke sadat (saiyad) khanadan men hua tha. saiyad ahamad khan ne sarvochch ohade par hone ke bavazood apani sari zindagi tngadasti ke sath guzari. sar saiyad ka parivar pragatishil hone ke bavazood patanashil mugal saltanat dvara bahut sammanit tha. unake pita, jinhen mugal prashasan se bhatta milata tha, unhonne dharm se lagabhag sannyas le liya tha unake nana ne tatkalin mugal badashah ke pradhanamntri ke roop men do bar kam kiya aur eest indiya knpani ke adhin bhi mahattvapoorn padon par karyarat rahe. sar saiyad ko bachapan se hi padhane likhane ka shauq tha aur un par pita ki tulana men man ka vishesh prabhav tha. man ke kushal palan poshan aur unase mile snskaron ka asar sar saiyad ke bad ke dinon men spasht dikha, jab vah samajik utthan ke kshetr men ae.[1] saiyad ke bhaee ne dilli ke sabase pahale chhapekhanon men se ek ki sthapana ki thi aur uttari bharat ke musalamanon ki pramukh bhasha urdoo ke pahale samachar patron men se ek ka prakashan shuroo kiya tha.

jivan parichay

22 varsh ki avastha men pita ki mrityu ke bad parivar ko arthik kathinaiyon ka samana karana pada aur thodi si shiksha ke bad hi saiyad ko ajivika kamane men lagana pada. sar saiyad ahamad khan ne 1830 ee. men eest indiya knpani men klark ke roop men kam shuroo kiya, kintu vah hath-par-hath dhar kar baithane valon men se nahin the. unhonne mehanat ki aur tin varsh bad 1841 ee. men mainapuri men up-nyayadhish ki yogyata hasil ki aur vibhinn sthanon par nyayik vibhag men kam kiya. saiyad ahamad ko nyayik vibhag men kary karane ki vajah se kee kshetron men sakriy hone ka samay mil saka. spasht hai ki yah naukari angrezi sarakar ki kripa ka parinam nahin thi.

rachanaen

Blockquote-open.gif ham bij bo rahe hain vah ek ghane vriksh ke roop men phailega aur usaki shakhen desh ke vibhinn kshetron men phail jayengi. yah kaaulej vishvavidyalay ka svaroop dharan karega aur isake chhatr sahishnuta, apasi prem v sadbhav aur gyan ke sandesh ko jan-jan tak pahunchayenge. Blockquote-close.gif

- sar saiyad ahamad khan

sar saiyad ne dharmik evn sanskritik vishayon par kafi likha. 19vin shatabdi ke ant men bharatiy islam ke punarjagaran ki pramukh prerak shakti huee. unhonne urdoo kritiyon men muhammad ke jivan par lekh (1870) aur baibil tatha quran par tikaen sammilit hain.

  • 23 varsh ki ayu men dharmik pustikaen likhakar, sar saiyad ne apane urdoo lekhan ki shuruat ki. unhonne 1847 men ek ullekhaniy pustak atahar asanadid (mahan logon ke smarak) prakashit ki, jo dilli ke puravisheshon par adharit thi. unaki pustika bharatiy vidroh ke karan[2] isase bhi adhik mahattvapoorn thi.
  • unhonne 1857 ke bharatiy svatntrata sngram ke dauran angrezon ka sath diya. parntu apani pustika men unhonne kushalata v nirbhikata se british prashasan ki un kamazoriyon aur galatiyon ko ujagar kiya. jinake karan asntosh aur deshavyapi virodh panapa tha. is pustika ko angrez adhikariyon ne bariki se padha aur british niti par isaka ullekhaniy prabhav pada.
  • dhairy aur sahanashilata ki moorti sar saiyad ahamad khan ne apani gnbhir soojh-boojh ke adhar par british sarakar ki pratikriya ki chinta kie bina, janakranti ke karanon par 1859 ee. men 'asababe-bagavate-hind' shirshak ek mahattvapoorn pustika likhi aur usaka angrezi anuvad british parliyament ko bhej diya. sar saiyad ke mitr ray shnkar das ne jo un dinon muradabad men munsiph the sar saiyad ko samajhaya bhi ki ve pustakon ko jala den aur apani jan khatare men n dalen. kintu sar saiyad ne unase spasht shabdon men kah diya ki unaka yah kary deshavasiyon aur sarakar ki bhi bhalaee ke lie avashyak hai. isake lie jan-mal ka nuqasan uthane ka khauf unake marg men avarodhak nahin ban saka. kranti ke jokhim bhare vishay par kuchh likhane vale sar saiyad pratham bharatiy hain.
  • dilli ke nivasakal men 'asarussanadid' shirshak pustak likhakar sar saiyad ne dilli ki 232 imaraton ka shodhaparak aitihasik parichay prastut kiya aur is pustak ke adhar par unhen rayal eshiyatik sosaiti landan ka phelo niyukt kiya gaya. garsan-d-tasi ne isaka fransisi bhasha men anuvad kiya jo 1861 ee. men prakashit hua.[3]
  • dharm men unaki sakriy ruchi thi, jo jivanaparynt rahi. unhonne baibil ki sahriday vyakhya se shuruat ki aur paignbar muhammad par pustak likhi, jisaka unake putr ne essez aaun d laif aauf muhammad shirshak se angrezi men anuvad kiya. unhonne quran par adhunik vyakhya ke kee khnd likhane ke lie bhi samay nikala. apani in kritiyon men unhonne islami mat ka samakalin vaigyanik tatha rajanitik pragatishil vicharon se samnjasy sthapit karane ka prayas kiya. 'vaigyanik samaj' ki sthapana bhi 1864 ee. men sar saiyad ahamad khan ne ki tatha 1875 ee. men 'aligadh muslim englo oriental kaaulej' ki sthapana ki.
sar saiyad ahamad khan
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

mahakranti

jab sar saiyad 40 varsh ke hue to us vaqt hindustan ek naya mod le raha tha. 1857 ki mahakranti aur usaki asaphalata ke dushparinam unhonne apani ankhon se dekhe. unaka ghar tabah ho gaya, nikat sambandhiyon ka qatl hua, unaki man jan bachakar ek saptah tak ghode ke astabal men chhupi rahin.[3] sar saiyad ki dooradrishti isaki gavahi de rahi thi ki sanh 1857 ki jng musalamanon ki arthik tngi paigam de rahi hai. jisake itihas se aj ham sab vakif hain. is jng ki angrezon ki kamayabi aur hindustaniyon ki nakami sabit huee aur dilli ke akhiri badashah bahadur shah zafar ko apamanit karake rngoon (ab yangoon) bheja gaya aur unaka khanadan angrezon ki hathon khatm kar diya gaya aur daulat v jayadad, sampatti jabt kar li gayi.

rashtrabhakti

1857 ke atyachar hindustan par angrezon ne jari rakha. snvedanashil vyaktiyon aur aise log visheshat: sar saiyad musalamanon ki is barbadi ko dekhakar tadap uthe aur unake dilo-dimag men rashtrabhakti ki lahar karavaten lene lagin. is bechaini se sar saiyad ne pareshan hokar hindustan chhodane aur misr men basane ka faisala le liya. angrezon ne sar saiyad jaise insan ko apani or karane ke lie mir sadiq aur mir rustam ali ka bahut bada ilaqa bagavat ke jurm men sar saiyad ahamad khan ko talluka jahanabad jo ki us vaqt ek lakh rupaye se zyada tha, dene ki lalach di aur yah aisa mauqa tha ki sar saiyad inake jal men phns sakate the. ve dhanadhy ki zindagi basar kar sakate the. lekin vah bahut hi buddhiman aur samajhadar vyakti the. unhonne socha ki main dorahe par khada hoon aur sar saiyad ne us vaqt lalach ko buri bala samajhakar thukara di aur rashtrabhakti ke khoobasoorat har ko apane gale men pahanana behatar samajha, kyonki us vaqt unake dil men angrezon ki or se nafarat ke shaule bhadak rahe the aur rashtrabhakti ke lie unaka dil tadap raha tha.

apani qaum ki hifazat

sar saiyad ne yah mahasoos kiya ki agar hindustan ke musalamanon ko is kothari se nahin nikala gaya to ek din hamari qaum tabah aur barbad ho jaegi aur vah kabhi bhi uth n sakegi. isalie unhonne misr jane ka irada badal diya aur kalyan v astitv ke chirag ko lekar apani qaum aur mulq ki taraf badhane lage aur apane ek chirag se sainkadon chirag roshan kie. unhonne 28 disambar 1889 ko ejookeshan kanphrens men ek bhashan diya tha, jisamen bhavanaon ko jin shabdon men zahir kiya tha, vah is prakar hai-

"jo hal is samay qaum ka tha mujhase dekha nahin jata tha. kuchh dinon tak main is gam men dooba raha. ap vishvas kijie is gam ne mujhe nidhal kar diya aur mere bal safed kar die. jab main muradabad aya jo du:khon ka ek ghar tha aur hamari qaum ke dhanadhyon ki barbadi ka tha. is du:kh men kuchh aur badhottari huee lekin is us vaqt ye vichar aya ki bahut hi snvedanahinata ki bat hai ki apani qaum aur desh ko is tabahi ki sthiti men chhodakar main svayn kisi aram vali jagah men ja baithoon."

uparokt bhashan ki roshani men yah kahana galat n hoga ki unake dil men rashtr ke lie jo diya roshan hua vah sirf angrezon ke atyacharon se hua tha. yah sach hai ki unhonne gair fauji angrezon ko apane ghar men panah di, lekin unake samarthak bilkul n the, balki vah islami shiksha v snskriti ke chahane vale the. isalie unhonne unako panah di thi. aur jisako panah di jati hai, usaki ijjat karana insani farz hai. sar saiyad islami shiksha v snskriti ko mulq par khol dena chahate the. agar yah shiksha aur snskriti hamari qaum men paida ho jae to ek din zaroor kamayab ho sakati hai. lekin snvedanahin aur jahil musalamanon ne kuchh mauliviyon se fatave lekar unhen kafir qarar diya. magar sar saiyad ne kisi ki paravah nahin ki aur jo socha vahi kiya. kisi ne kitani achchhi bat kahi hai-

vo bhala kisaki bat mane hain bhaee saiyad to kuchh divane hain.

sar saiyad ki dooradrishti

sar saiyad ki dooradrishti angrezon ke shadayntr se achchhi tarah se vaqif thi. unhen maloom tha ki angrezi hukoomat hindustan par sthapit ho chuki hai aur sar saiyad ne unhen harane ke lie shaikshik maidan ko behatar samajha. isalie apane behatarin lekhon ke madhyam se qaum men shiksha v snskriti ki bhavana jagane ki koshish ki taki shaikshik maidan men koee hamari qaum par havi n ho sake. musalaman unhen kuphr ka fatava dete rahe bavazood isake qaum ke dushman banakar ya bigadakar n mile balki narami se unhen samajhane ki koshish karate rahe. achchhi tarah se janate the ki yah qaum jahil hai, isalie unaki baton ki paravah kiye bina apani manzil par pahunchane ke lie koshish karate rahe. aj muslim qaum ye bat svikar karati hai ki sar saiyad ahamad khan ne qaum ke lie kya kuchh nahin kiya.

sar saiyad ahamad khan masjid, aligadh

snsthaon ki sthapana

saiyad ke jivan ka sarvochch uddeshy shiksha ka prachar-prasar usake vyapakatam arthon men karana tha. muslim samaj ke sudhar ke lie prayasarat sar saiyad ne (1858) men muradabad men adhunik madarase ki sthapana ki.[1] yah un shuruati dharmik skoolon men tha jahan vaigyanik shiksha di jati thi. unhonne 1863 men gajipur men bhi ek adhunik skool ki sthapana ki. unaka ek any mahattavakankshi kary tha- 'saintifik sosaiti' ki sthapana, jisane kee shaikshik pustakon ka anuvad prakashit kiya urdoo tatha angrezi men dvibhashi patrika nikali.

ye snsthaen sabhi nagarikon ke lie thin aur hindoo tatha muslim milakar inaka snchalan karate the. 1860 ke dashak ke antim varshon ka ghatanakram unaki gatividhiyon ka rukh badalane vala siddh hua. unhen 1867 men hinduon ki dharmik asthaon ke kendr, gnga tat par sthit banaras (vartaman varanasi) men sthanantarik kar diya gaya. lagabhag isi dauran musalamanon dvara poshit bhasha, urdoo ke sthan par hindi ko lane ka andolan shuroo hua. is andolan tatha saintifik sosaiti ke prakashanon men urdoo ke sthan par hindi lane ke prayason se saiyad ko vishvas ho gaya ki hinduon aur musalamanon ke raston ko alag hona hi hai. isalie unhonne inglaind ki apani yatra (1869-70) ke dauran 'muslim kenbrij' jaisi mahanh shiksha snsthaon ki yojana taiyar kin. unhonne bharat lautane par is uddeshy ke lie ek samiti banaee aur musalamanon ke utthan aur sudhar ke lie prabhavashali patrika tahadib-al-akhalak (samajik sudhar) ka prakashan prarnbh kiya.

saiyad ne 1886 men aaul indiya muhamadan aijukeshanal kaaunfrens ka gathan kiya, jisake varshik sammelan musalamanon men shiksha ko badhava dene tatha unhen ek sajha mnch upalabdh karane ke lie vibhinn sthanon par ayojit kiya jate the. 1906 men muslim lig ki sthapana hone tak yah bharatiy islam ka pramukh rashtriy kendr tha.

aligadh muslim vishvavidyalay

saiyad ji ka shiksha-snstha kholane ka vichar hua to saiyad ji ne apani sari jama-poonji yahan tak ki makan bhi giravi rakh kar yooropiy shiksha-paddhati ka gyan prapt karane ke uddeshy se ingalistan ki yatra ki. lautakar ae to kuchh varshon ke bhitar hi mee 1875 men aligadh men 'madarasatululoom' ek muslim skool sthapit kiya gaya aur 1876 men sevanivritti ke bad saiyad ne ise kaaulej men badalane ki buniyad rakhi. saiyad ki pariyojanaon ke prati roodhivadi virodh ke bavazood kaaulej ne tezi se pragati ki aur 1920 men ise vishvavidyalay ke roop men pratishthit kiya gaya.[3]

Blockquote-open.gif sar saiyad ka faisala ki tamam koshishen musalamanon ko naye daur ki talim dene par poori taqat laga di ye bilkul sahi tha. bina is talim ke mera khyal hai ki musalaman naye tarah ki rashtriyata men koee hissa nahin le sakate. balki ve hamesha ke lie hinduon ke gulam ban jaenge. ja talim men age the aur arthik drishtikon se bhi mazaboot the.- pn. javahar lal neharoo Blockquote-close.gif

sar saiyad ahamad khan ka uddeshy

bharatiy upamahadvip men musalamanon ke purnajagaran ke pratik sar saiyad ahamad khan ka uddeshy matr aligadh men ek vishvavidyalay ki sthapana karana hi nahin tha balki unaki hardik kamana thi ki aligadh men unake dvara sthapit kaaulej ka praroop ek aise kendr ka ho jisake adhin desh bhar ki muslim shiksha snsthayen usake nirdeshan men age badhen taki desh bhar ke musalaman adhunik shiksha grahan kar rashtr nirman men apani sakriy bhoomika nibha saken. aligadh muslim vishvavidyalay ke adhin sthapit hone vale naye kendron ke gathan se sar saiyad ahamad khan ka sapana sakar hone ja raha hai.

em. e. yoo. kaaulej ke adharashila samaroh men 8 janavari, 1877 ko laaurd litan ke sammukh sar saiyad ne kaha tha ki aj jo "ham bij bo rahe hain vah ek ghane vriksh ke roop men phailega aur usaki shakhen desh ke vibhinn kshetron men phail jayengi. yah kaaulej vishvavidyalay ka svaroop dharan karega aur isake chhatr sahishnuta, apasi prem v sadbhav aur gyan ke sandesh ko jan-jan tak pahunchayenge." aj is snstha ke chhatr 92 deshon men phaile hue hain aur desh ka yah matr pahala aisa snsthan hai jisake chhatr poori duniya men apane snsthapak sar saiyad ka janm divas manate hain. sar saiyad bharatiy musalamanon ke aise pahale samaj sudharak the jinhonne agyanata ki kali chadar ki dhajjiyan udakar musalamanon men adhunik shiksha aur vaigyanik chetana jagrit ki.[4]

kaaulej men anek bhashaon men shiksha

sar saiyad ke 'em. e. yoo. kaaulej' ke dvar sabhi dharmavalambiyon ke lie khule hue the. pahale din se hi arabi farasi bhashaon ke sath-sath snskrit bhasha ki shiksha ki bhi vyavastha ki gee. skool ke star tak hindi ke adhyayan-adhyapan ko bhi apekshit samajha gaya aur isake lie pn. kedaranath adhyapak niyukt hue. sakool tatha kaaulej donon hi staron par hindoo adhyapakon ki niyukti men koee snkoch nahin kiya gaya. kaaulej ke ganit ke prophesar jadav chandr chakravarti ko akhil bharatiy star par khyati prapt huee. ek lnbe samay tak chakravarti ganit ke adhyayan ke bina ganit ka gyan adhoora samajha jata tha.[3]

rajaniti

saiyad musalamanon ko sakriy rajaniti ke bajay shiksha par dhyan kendrit karane ki salah dete the. bad men jab kuchh musalaman bharatiy rashtriy kangres men sammilit hue, to saiyad ne is sngathan aur isake uddeshy ka jamakar virodh kiya, jinamen bharat men snsadiy lokatntr ki sthapana bhi ek uddeshy tha. unhonne dalil di ki sanpradayik taur par vibhajit aur kuchh vargon ke lie simit shiksha tatha rajanitik sngathan vale desh men snsadiy lokatntr se keval asamanata hi badhegi. musalamanon ne amataur par unaki ray mani aur kee salon bad apana rajanitik sngathan banane tak vah rajaniti se door rahe.

unhonne yah bhagirath prayas kiya ki musalaman v british sabase achchhe mitr hain. muslim rajaniti men sar saiyad ki parnpara muslim lig (1906 men sthapit) ke roop men ubhari. bharatiy rashtriy kangres (1885 men sthapit) ke viroodhd unaka propegnda tha ki kangres hindoo adhipaty parti hai aur propegnda azad-poorv bharat ke muslimon men jivit raha. kuchh apavadon ko chhodakar ve kangres se door rahe aur yahan tak ki ve azadi ki ladaee se bhi hissa nahin liya. isamen koee ashchary ki bat nahin ki british-bharat ke muslim bahul rajyon masalan-bngal, pnjab men lagabhag sabhi svatntrata senani hindoo ya sikh the.[5]

samoohik sudhar ke lie

sar saiyad ahamad khan ki qabr, aligadh
Tomb Of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Aligarh

musalamanon ke samoohik sudhar ke lie ve inglaind gaye aur vahan vishvavidyalayon men jakar shiksha v snskriti ka gahan adhyayan kiya. angrezi maigazin jo sudhar ke lie 'taitalar ispaiktar' aur 'garjiyan' nikale jate the, unaki failon ko dekhakar bahut hi prabhavit hue. vahin se sar saiyad ko apani qaum ko jagaruk karane ke lie ek madhyam mil gaya. jisaki talash men ve sada hi bhatakate rahe the. jab ve yoorop se vapas hue to unhonne 24 disambar, 1870 ko 'tahajibul akhlaq' ke nam se maigazin jari kiya, jisamen musalamanon ke kalyan se sambandhit lekh chhape jate the. is maigazin ko jari karane ka uddeshy sirf yahi tha ki jis prakar yoorop ke log snskriti aur shiksha men age badh rahe hain aur vikas kar rahe hain, usi tarah se hamari qaum men yahi baten a jaen to doosare dharmon ke naujavanon ke sath ekajut hokar angrezon se svayn muqabala kar sakate hain aur ye kisi ke das banakar rahana pasand nahin karenge. ye bat sar saiyad ke dimag men ulajhan banakar rah gayi thi, lekin vah in tamam baton se nahin ghabaraye, balki apani koshishon men vyast rahe aur isharon men hi logon ko samajhate rahe. vo achchhi tarah se janate the ki ye sari baten khulakar kah di gayin to angrez bhi phansi ke takhte latakane se nahin chookenge. jis tarah se maulana mau. husain azad ke valid maulavi bakar husain ko thodi hi der men jallad ke havale kar diya gaya tha. is silasile men pn. javahar lal neharoo ne kaha ki-

"sar saiyad ka faisala ki tamam koshishen musalamanon ko naye daur ki talim dene par poori taqat laga di ye bilkul sahi tha. bina is talim ke mera khyal hai ki musalaman naye tarah ki rashtriyata men koee hissa nahin le sakate. balki ve hamesha ke lie hinduon ke gulam ban jaenge. ja talim men age the aur arthik drishtikon se bhi mazaboot the."

sar saiyad ne qaum ki khidamat ke sath-sath matribhasha (urdoo) ka daman kabhi nahin chhoda. unhen poora vishvas tha ki jo sabhyata urdoo bhasha men payi jati hai, vah kisi any bhasha men nahin hai. lihaza is bhasha ko snvarane ke uddeshy se urdoo maigazin chhapane ka faisala kiya, jisase urdoo bhasha ko badhava mila.

seva se avakashaprapt

seva se avakashaprapt karane ke bad vah poori tarah se skool ke vikas aur dharmik sudhar men lag ge. halanki is dauran unhen dharmik netaon ke zoradar virodh ka samana karana pada. par sar saiyad ne ghutane nahin teke aur apane kam men lagatar lage rahe. is dauran unhen british raj ka samarthan mila. unake kee vicharon ko lekar vivad bhi hua jinamen 1857 urdoo ka mahattv adi hai. unhonne urdoo ko lokapriy banane aur am muslimon ki bhasha banane ke lie kafi prayas kiya. unaki dekh-rekh men pashchimi kritiyon ka urdoo men anuvad karaya gaya. unake dvara sthapit skoolon men shiksha ka madhyam urdoo ko banaya gaya.[1] sar saiyad ne samajik sarokaron ke lie bhi kam kiya aur 1860 men pashchimottar simant prant men akal pidi़ton ko rahat pahunchane ke lie sakriy roop se yogadan kiya.

mrityu

is mahanh shikshavidh aur samaj sudharak vyaktitv ki jivanalila 27 march 1898 ko samapt zaroor ho gee kintu usaka prakash aj bhi karodon bharatavasiyon ko roshani pradan kar raha hai.[3]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 adhunik shiksha ke himayati the sar saiyad ahamad (hindi) jagaran. abhigaman tithi: 19 aktoobar, 2010.
  2. d kaauzez aauf indiyan rivolt
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 sar saiyad ahamad khan (janm-divas par vishesh) (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) yug-vimarsh. abhigaman tithi: 19 aktoobar, 2010.
  4. abarar, daau. rahat. amuvi ka vistar:sar saiyyad ka sapana (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) samay-srijan. abhigaman tithi: 19 aktoobar, 2010.
  5. ke. punj, balabir. tushtikaran aur isake natije (hindi) pravakta. abhigaman tithi: 17 aktoobar, 2010.

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