बाइबिल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

baibil
Bible

baibil (angrezi:Bible, arthath 'kitab') eesaee dharm[1] ki adharashila hai aur eesaiyon[2] ka pavitratam 'dharmagranth' hai. baibil ke do bhag hain-

  1. poorvavidhan (old testamaint)
  2. navavidhan (nyoo testament)

baibil ka 'poorvadh' arthath poorvavidhan yahoodiyon ka bhi dharmagrnth hai. baibil eeshvaraprerit[3] hai, kintu use apaurushey nahin kaha ja sakata. eeshvar ne baibil ke vibhinn lekhakon ko is prakar prerit kiya hai ki ve eeshvarakrit hote hue bhi unaki apani rachanaen bhi kahi ja sakati hain. eeshvar ne bolakar unase baibil nahin likhavaee. ve avashy hi eeshvar ki prerana se likhane men pravritt hue, kintu unhonne apani snskriti, shaili tatha vicharadhara ki visheshataon ke anusar hi use likha hai. at: baibil eeshvariy prerana tatha manaviy parishram donon ka sammilit parinam hai.

itihas

manav jati tatha yahoodiyon ke lie eeshvar ne jo kuchh kiya aur isake prati manushy ki jo pratikriya huee, usaka itihas aur vivaran hi 'baibil' ka vishay hai. baibil goodh darshanik satyon ka snkalan nahin hai, balki isamen dikhalaya gaya hai ki eeshvar ne manav jati ki mukti ka kya prabndh kiya hai. vastav men baibil eeshvariy muktividhan ke karyanvayan ka itihas hai, jo 'old testament' men prarnbh hokar eesa ke dvara 'nyoo testament' men snpadit hua hai. at: baibil ke donon bhagon men ghanishth snbndh hai. old testament ki ghatanaon dvara eesa ke jivan ki ghatanaon ki prishthabhoomi taiyar ki gee hai. nyoo testament men dikhalaya gaya hai ki muktividhan kis prakar eesa ke vyaktitv, chamatkaron, shiksha, maran tatha punarutthan dvara snpann hua hai. kis prakar eesa ne charch ki sthapana ki aur is charch ne apane prarnbhik vikas men eesa ke jivan ki ghatanaon ko kis drishti se dekha hai ki unamen se kya nishkarsh nikala hai.

uddeshy

baibil men prasngavash laukik gyan-vigyan snbndhi baten bhi a gee hain. un par tatkalik dharanaon ki poori chhap hai, kyonki baibil unake vishay men shayad hi koee nirdesh dena chahati hai. manav jati ke itihas ki eeshvariy vyakhya prastut karana aur dharm evn mukti ko samajhana, yahi baibil ka pradhan uddeshy hai. baibil ki tatsnbndhi shiksha men koee bhranti nahin ho sakati. usamen anek sthalon par manushyon ke papacharan ka bhi varnan milata hai. aisa acharan anukaraniy adarsh ke roop men nahin prastut hua hai, kintu usake dvara spasht ho jata hai ki manushy kitane kalushit hain aur unako eeshvar ki mukti ki kitani avashyakata hai.

purana niyam

isamen prachin yahoodi dharm aur yahoodi logon ki gathaen, pauranik kahaniyan, mithak[4] adi ka varnan hai. isaki moolabhasha 'ibrani' aur 'arami' thi.

naya niyam

ye eesa masih ke bad ki hai, jise eesa ke shishyon ne likha tha. isamen eesa[5] ki jivani, upadesh aur shishyon ke kary likhe gaye hain. isaki moolabhasha kuchh arami aur adhikatar bolachal ki prachin grik thi. isamen khas taur par char shubhasndesh hain, jo eesa ki jivani ka unake char shishyon dvara varnan hai-

  1. matti
  2. looka
  3. yuhanna
  4. marakus

yahoodi baibil

  • yahoodi dharm ki dharmapustak bhi baibil[6] hi hai, par usamen sirf purana niyam shamil hai.
  • baibil kul milakar 72 grnthon ka snkalan hai- poorvavidhan men 45 tatha navavidhan men 27 grnth hain.

poorvavidhan ki samagri

  1. aitihasik grnth - pentatukh, josue athava yahoshoo, nyayadhish, rooth, samuel, raja, puravritt[7], ejra[8], nehemiya, estar, tobiyas, yoodith, makabi .
  2. shikshapradhan grnth - iyayov, bhajanasnhita, nitivachan, upadeshak[9] shreshthagit, prgya, elkesiyastikas athana sirah.
  3. nabiyon ke grnth - yashayah, jeremiya, vilapagit, barooh, aijekiel, athava yahejakel, daniel aur barah gaun nabi arthath osea athava hoshe, joel, yoel amos, obadyah, yona, mikeyah, nahoom, habakuk, sofoniya, haggai, jakaria, malaki.

navavidhan ki samagri

navavidhan ke pratham panch grnth aitihasik hain, arthath charon susamachar[10] tatha aikts av di eposals[11] ke patt shishyon ke kary. antim grnth epokalips[12] kahalata hai. isamen susamachar lekhak snt yohan pratikatmak shaili men charch ke bhavishy tatha muktividhan ki parinati ka chitr ankit karate hain. navavidhan ke shesh 21 grnth shiksha pradhan hain, arthath snt pal ke 14 patr, sntapitar ke do patr, susamachar lekhak snt yohan ke tin patr, snt yakoob aur snt jood ka ek ek patr. snt pal ke patr ya to kisi sthan vishesh ke nivasiyon ke lie likhe ge hain[13] ya kisi vyaktivishesh ko.[14] ibraniyon ke nam jo patr baibil men sammilit hain, inaki pramanikata ke vishay men sndeh nahin hai, kintu snt pal ke vicharon se prabhavit hote hue bhi inaka lekhak koee doosara hi hoga.

baivil ke pramanik grnthon ki uparyukt soochi men se poorvavidhan ke kuchh grnth 'ibrani baibil' men sammilit nahin the, arthath tobiyas, yoodith, makabi, prgya sirah aur daniel evn ester ke kuchh ansh. yahoodi aur bahut-se protestaint snpraday in grnthon ko apramanit manakar apani baibil men sthan nahin dete.

bhasha aur rachanakal

pray: samast poorv-vidhan ki mool bhasha ibrani hai. anek grnth 'yoonani bhasha' men tatha thode se ansh 'arameyik'[15] men likhe ge hain. samast navavidhan ki bhasha 'koine' namak yoonani bolachal hai. baibil ka rachanakal 1400 ee. poo. se sanh 100 ee. tak mana jata hai. isake bahusnkhyak lekhakon men se moosa sabase prachin hai, unhonne lagabhag 1400 ee. poo. men poorv-vidhan ka kuchh ansh likha tha. poorv-vidhan ki adhikansh rachanaen 900 ee. poo. aur 100 ee. poo. ke bich ki hain. samast navavidhan 50 varsh ki avadhi men likha gaya hai, arthath sanh 50 ee. se sanh 100 ee. tak.

baibil men jo grnth sammilit kie ge hain, ve ek hi shaili men nahin, anek shailiyon men likhe ge hain- isamen lokakathaen, kavy aur bhajan, upadesh aur nitikathaen adi anek prakar ke sahityik roop pae jate hain. adhyayan tatha vyakhyan karate samay pratyek ansh ki apani shaili ka dhyan rakhana atynt avashyak hai.

anuvad

shatabdiyon se baibil ke anuvad ka kary chala a raha hai. isaraeli log ibrani baibil kra chhayanuvad arameyik bolachal men kiya karate the. sikndariya ke yahoodiyon ne doosari shatabdi ee.poo. men ibrani baibil ka yoonani anuvad kiya tha, jo 'septuarjit'[16] ke nam se vikhyat hai. lagabhag sanh 400 ee. men snt jerom ne samast baibil ki laitin anuvad prastut kiya tha, jo 'vulagata'[17] kahalata hai aur shatabdiyon tak baibil ka sarvadhik prachalit roop raha hai. adhunik kal men ibrani tatha yoonani mool ke adhar par sahastr se bhi adhik bhashaon men baibil ka anuvad hua hai. poorv-vidhan ka sarvottam pramanik ibrani path kittal dvara sanh 1937 ee. men tatha yoonani path ralfas dvara 1914 ee. prastut kiya gaya hai. nav vidhan ke anek uttam pramanik yoonani path milate hain, jaise tishanadarph, vestakot hort, nestale, vogels, merk aur sotar ke snskaran.

yoonani baibil

yoonani baibil ki prachin hastalipiyon ka vivaran is prakar hai-

  1. vatikanus (chauthi shatabdi ee. - rom men surakshit
  2. sinaitikus (chauthi shatabdi ee. - british myooziyam
  3. eleksaindrikus (panchavin shatabdi ee. - british myooziyam
  4. ephraem (panchavin shatabdi ee. - peris ka loogr myooziyam

inake atirikt 15 snpoorn tatha 4000 se adhik anshik navavidhan ki yoonani hastalipiyan prapt hain, jinaka lipikal sanh 200 ee. tatha 700 ee. ke bich hai. navavidhan ki prachinatam hastalipi sanh 214 de. ka paipiras chestar biri hai. angrezi bhasha ke nimnalikhit anuvad sabase adhik prasiddh hain- 'aauyaauraizad varshan' athava 'king jems baibil' (san 1811ee.), hue varshan (1609 ee.), kaphratarniti varshan (1941 ee.) ar.e. niks baibil (1944 ee.); nyoo inglish baibil (1961 ee..). unnisavin shatabdi ke prarnbh men protestaint mishanari kaire ne baibil ka hindi anuvad taiyar kiya tha. 'dharmashastr' ke nam se isake bahut se snskaran chhap chuke hain aur usamen snshodhan bhi hota raha hai.

vyakhya

baibil eeshvar prerit bhi hai aur sadharan manushyon ki rachana bhi hai. at: isaki vyakhya men is dohare kartritv ka dhyan rakhana avashyak hai. manushy ki kriti hone ke karan any laukik sahity ki tarah baibil ka adhyayan kiya jana chahie. at:

  • pathanusndhan ke niyamon ke anusar shuddh path ka nirdharan karana hai.
  • paroksh evn pratyaksh sndarbh ke anusar shabdon tatha vakyon ka arth lagana hai.
  • is kary men samanantar rachanaon, prachin anuvadon tatha pramanik vyakhyaon ka sahara lena hai.
  • vibhinn lekhakon ke samay, sthan, shaili tatha uddeshy ka dhyan rakhana hai.

isase yah spasht ho jata hai ki baibil ke vyakhyata ke lie baibil men ullekhit deshon ki vistrit janakari ke atirikt bhasha-vigyan, itihas, bhoogol, puratattv, dharmon ke tulanatmak adhyayan jaisi anek sahayak vidhaen atynt avashyak hain.

baibil eeshvar ki prerana se likhi gee hai, at: isaki vyakhya karate samay isake dharmik uddeshy ki raksha honi chahie. isaki shiksha bhrantirahit siddh ho jani chahie, kyonki eeshvar bhranti nahin sikhala sakata. dharm tatha naitikata ke prashnon ke vishay men eeshvar dvara sthapit charch ki adhikarik vyakhya di jani chahie. pratyek vyakhya ko eesaee dharm ke samoohik saty ke sath samnjasy rakhana chahie.

uparyukt niyamon ke dohare paksh ka sntulan rakhana avashyak hai. charch ki parnpara ke anusar hi baibil ki vaigyanik vyakhya sarthak ho sakati hai.

angrezi sahity men baibil

bhaugolik drishti se baibil ka prabhav bahut hi vistrit hai. shayad yah ek akasmikata ho. moolat: ek damit janata ke dharm ke roop men eesaiyat anek parikshanon ke pashchath apane vijiton ka dharm bani.

baibil ka prachin dharmaniyam[18] adhyatmikata ki drishti se quran aur islam se snyukt hai aur ek chune hue vishisht janasamooh se snbaddh hai. moosa athava eesa, abraham]] ya suleman muslimon men shraddhey nam hain. baibil isase bhinn hai. yah kee grnthon ka nichod hai. yah yahoodi janata ki samoochi kahani hai, aur shayad prachin logon men yahoodiyon ke anubhav sarvadhik vaividhyapoorn hain. yah aisi jati thi, jo khoonkhar kabilon se ghiri thi aur jo svayn bhi kam khoonkhar n thi. kabhi-kabhi unhen nicha dikhaya gaya, vijit kiya gaya aur gulam bhi banaya gaya. is jati ne kabhi apane shatruon ko vijit kiya tatha unaki shakti ajamaee, phir bhoomisat kar dala.

yah ek aisi hi janata ki akanksha aur prerana tatha jay aur parajay hai, jisaka varnan baibil men adbhut sajivata ke sath kiya gaya hai. usane hamen apane abraham aur moosa jaise mahanh netaon, daood aur suleman jaise mahanh rajaon tatha mahanh avataron ke vishay men gyan karaya hai, jinhonne samay-samay par utpann hokar apane dridh vachanon dvara anuchit marg par aroodh janata ko toka. sevanorola tak to yahi kram raha hai. unhonne unaki hinsaparayan vritti ko svayn bhog liya, alasy aur kroorata ki ninda ki, jisaki or janata svabhavat: abhimukh thi. baibil[19] ne abraham sarikhe raktapipasu, bhaynkar hinsak rajaon aur asabhy raniyon ke vishay men bhi darshaya hai. yah janata ki aitihasik ghatanaon aur tithiyon ki snhita hai. kisi grnth ki aparihary laghu simaon men yah vastut: ek jatiy itihas hote hue bhi ashcharyachakit kar dene vale satyon se paripoorn hain.

prachin dharm niyam ki samapti ke sath usamen ek akasmik parivartan hota dikhaee deta hai. itihas vahi rahata hai, kintu usaki prakriti badal jati hai. yahoodiyon ka bhaynkar eeshvar hata diya jata hai aur kalpana men bharatiy dhng ka ek snehi eeshvar ubhar ata hai. kadachit ek aisi hi pravritti ke pratham dhundhale chitr svayn prachin dharm niyam ke hridayadesh ke madhy kuchh avataron men, visheshakar 'isaiyah' adi men pae jate hain.

kintu eeshvar ke snbndh men yah ibraniyon ki koee anupatik kalpana nahin hai. unaki bhavana netr ke lie netr ki thi. lekin jab eesa ne unase kaha ki ve unake daen gal par thappad jamane vale ke samane apana bayan gal bhi pher den, ve aise krantikari darshan aur hinsa ke nipat asvikar ki baten n samajh sake. is prakar unhonne is navin dharmik dharana ke lekhak ko amany ghoshit kar diya aur antat: unhen shooli de di. kintu us din galagotha namak sthan par kraaus se pravahit rakt-binduon ki dhara ne ek ne dharm ko janm diya. eesaee jan usako apane lie jaise ek pratik roop men dekhate hain aur eesa ke vachanon ka upadesh dete hain. is prakar, buniyadi taur par dhairy aur prem ne tvara aur ghrina par vijay prapt ki. koee nahin sochata tha ki rom ke andar gupt tatha susajjit kndaraon ya kutiyon men mile samavet roop se mnd uchcharit gayan men sammilit hone vale log, jo pahale bhaynkar roman parvon ki jamaton ke prasannarth hi upayukt the, ek n ek din keval rom ki rajakiy shakti ko hi nahin hila denge, apitu agami dinon men ek mahattar aur adhik gauravashali rom jaise sanatan nagar ka nirman karenge.

phir eesaee log kraaus roopi shastr se susajjit hokar tamam rom men phail ge. yadyapi yahan vah roman sainyadal nahin tha, balki talapatron se yukt padari aur bhikshapatr lie snt the, jo hazaron ki snkhya men hnsate-hnsate mrityu ki bhent chadh ge, unhonne yoorop ke vikaral aur asabhy janon ke bich baibil ke sndeshon ka prachar kiya. baibil[20] ke shabdon ne un asabhyon ko anshik roop se sabhy banaya. is prakar charch ya eesaee dharm snsthan kam se kam hazar varshon tak apani snpoorn vyapti ke sath yoorop ke man par adhikar kie raha. yahan tak ki sadharan se sadharan achar athava vichar-kalpana par bhi eesaiyat ki chhap rakhati padati thi. kintu vahi charch jo moolat: atyachar aur daman ke viruddh sngharsh karane ke lie vikasit hua tha, ab svayn julm aur nirnkushata ka sabase bada vahak yntr ban gaya.

pun: baibil janata ko snkatamukt karane ke lie age aee. yah apane ap men ek virodhabhas hai. jab charch apani asim shakti ke karan many ho gaya tha aur padariyon ne kraaus ko vismrit kar diya tatha mahnth log anuchit labh uthane lage the janata bedaauv hokar pun: eeshvari vachanon ko dhoondhane lagi. mool roop se ibrani aur arabheik men[21] likhi jakar yah 400 ee. men sent jerom si. dvara laitin men anoodit huee aur yah pramanik anuvad roman kaitholik girajagharon dvara upayog men laya gaya. kintu laitin sarvasamany logon ki bhasha n thi, doosare eesaee dharmaguru bhashaon ya phoohad boliyon men hue baibil ke anuvadon se bahut chidhate the.

yah keval isilie hi nahin ki eesaee dharmaguru apane visheshadhikar ki sthiti banae rakhana chahate the, yadyapi vahan isaki adhikata thi, ve darate yah the ki kahin bolachal ki bhasha men anoodit hone se usake vachan eeshvariy vachanon ki shakti aur ashay n kho den. keval ek chiraparichit muhavara poojy bhav aur bhakti ko uttejit karane vala madhyam nahin hai athava anivary roop se gahan satyon ka sarvopari snpreshak nahin hai.

kisi n kisi prakar charch ke duracharan se hi dharm aur dharmik snsthan men naya sngharsh arnbh ho gaya. is avadhi men, sath hi sath bhoomadhyasagar ke poorvi taton par ek nee shakti ka uday ho raha tha, aur islam ke umadate jvar ke poorv anek eesaee matavalnbi pashchim ki or badh chadh ae the. yadyapi vastavik punarjagaran kee dashakon bad aya tathapi eesaee dharm ke ye vidvanh aur upasak usake agradoot the. unhonne logon ko anirdisht uttejanaon se bhar diya.

inglaind men pahale-pahal apani avaz bulnd karane vale 'lolard' the. yah ek snpraday tha, jo janata men eesa masih ke upadeshon ki shiksha deta tha aur charch tatha math ke vichar ka virodh karata tha. unaka neta viklif adbhut sahas aur pandityasnpann vyakti tha. usane anubhav kiya ki vichar parivartan ke lie logon ko eesa ke upadesh, vachanon ki janakari avashyak hai. isake lie janabhasha men baibil ka anuvad avashyak ho gaya. is prakar us kal ki navin chetana viklif ki avaz men dhvanit huee.

viklif us samay hua tha, jab angrezi gady men baibil ke poorn aishvary aur saundary ko abhivyakt karane ki bahut hi kam shakti thi. isaka apana anuvad bahut hi ruksh hai. shayad angrezi bolachal ke sngit ke lie usake pas kan hi nahin tha. ibrani pady ki kuchh apani niji visheshataon ke karan usake mool snskaran men ek aisi bhavyata bhi thi aur prayog se kahin adhik mahattv hibroovali baibil ke shabdasaundary ka tha, jo kuchh prachin anuvadon men sahaj hi kho gaya tha. vakyakhnd men sngya ka ek vishesh sthan hota hai aur vibhaktiyon ki aj jaisi anivaryata us samay thi bhi nahin, kyonki yah ek mahanh vastavik kalpana thi, jo yahoodiyon ki apani thi tatha shabdon ke prati unaka snvedan marmasparshi tha.

is prakar kuchh shabdon men hi samarthy aur tivrata hoti thi, kyonki ve shabd lagoo n hokar bij roop men hote the. isake atirikt prachin dharm niyam ki vishayavastu vyapak roop se sugam hai. vishayavastu ke ruchikar hone aur alp-samay-sadhy hone ke gunon ke karan isaki gathaen,varnan, natyagiti[22] bhavishyavaniyan, sooktiyan, laghu kathaen[23] sabhi ne milakar ek savayav akar-prakar dharan kar liya tha. ant men navin dharm niyam[24] men eesa ke vachan hain. at: unhen samajhane men thodi bhi chook athava bhram ho jane par n keval ulajhan hi badh jati hai, balki snpoorn ashay hi bhrasht ho jata hai. isalie isamen ashchary nahin ki girajagharon ne anuvadon ko uchit nahin samajha.

phir bhi viliyam tinden ne baibil ke angrezi anuvad ka pratham pramanik prayas kiya. usane mool italiy[25] snskaran ka upayog kiya, jo pndrahavin shatabdi men itali men taiyar kiya gaya tha tatha chaudahavin shatabdi men kie ge viklif ke anuvad ka sahara bhi liya tha. anuvad ke lie usane saralatam angl shabdon ko chuna aur is prakar janasadharan ki bhasha se naikaty sthapit karate hue apana anuvad prastut kiya. tindel ne 'iraismas aur loothar' (1522-32) aur zinvagli (1524-29) ke joorikh snskaran ka bhi upayog kiya tha. phir bhi tindel ki sahajata kahin kahin atapate prayogon se snbaddh thi. kintu tindel ki baibil ke nikat hokar hi kabaradel ek mahanh dharmopadeshak tha. vah tindel ki spashtata ko nibhane men saphal hua hai, kintu usane use vagmiyata se bhar diya hai. isi nate vah gady ka asadharan shilpi siddh ho jata hai.

kavaradel ke pashchath sanh 1611 tak is disha men kee prayas kie ge. sat varshon ke athak parishram se pramanik snskaran prastut hua. 47 vidvanon, vishapon ne laisalaaut aindÜju ki adhyakshata men, vestaminstar ke do vishvavidyalayon men, is kary ko tin khndon men poora kiya.

vidvanon ne buddhimattapoorvak tindel ki spashtata aur kavaradel ki layatmak vakpatuta ko kafi had tak chhod diya. unhonne any anuvadon se bhi sahayata li aur is prakar apane pramanik anuvad ko ek suvyavasthit saundary tatha sngitatmak svar madhuri pradan ki jisaka angrezi bhasha men dubara paya jana snbhav nahin hai. isase keval yahi bhar nahin hua ki usamen ibrani ka sahaj saundary aur tatvik shakti akshunn rahi balki uchit shabdon men, use ek "chitratmak" aur gitatmak gun prapt ho gaya jo atyuttam angrezi pratibha ka parinam hai. yah janata ki boli men ghulamil gaya hai. vidvanon ka kahana hai ki usake 93a shabd angrezi ke hain. usaka shabd kabhi bhi prapt ya sikha hua nahin hai tatha anuvad men grihit shabd bilakul hi nahin hai.

ashay ka spasht hona zaroori bhi tha kyonki eeshvari pustak mane jane vale grnth men duroohata ki koee gunjaish nahin honi chahie thi. yadyapi shaili bolachal ki hi honi avashyak thi taki log samajh saken, tathapi gnvaroopan ke lie bilakul hi sthan n tha. phir, shabdon ka saral hona bhi zaroori ya aur yatha avasar saundary tatha snyam bhi apekshit tha. pramanik anuvad men in sabhi gunon ka prachury tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. masihi dharm
  2. masihiyon
  3. inspayard
  4. khas taur par srishti
  5. yishu
  6. ibrani : tanakh
  7. pairaliyomenon
  8. estras
  9. elkesiastes
  10. gaspail
  11. eesa
  12. prakashana
  13. korinthiyon tatha thessalunikiyon ke nam do do patr, romiyon, ephisiyon, philipiyon aur kulisiyon ke nam ek ek patr
  14. timothi ke nam do aur titus tatha philemon ke nam ek ek patr
  15. ibrani bolachal
  16. saptati
  17. prachalit path
  18. testament
  19. prachin dharmaniyam
  20. navin dharmaniyam
  21. jisamen snbhavat: navin dharm niyam ke kuchh ansh grik men likhe ge the.
  22. yanjab ki pustak
  23. rooth ke adhyayan ki katha
  24. nyoo testament
  25. itailiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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