आर्य धर्म  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(3) ary dharm aur snskriti - ary dharm prachin aryon ka dharm aur shreshth dharm donon samajhe jate hain. prachin aryon ke dharm men prathamat: prakritik devamndal ki kalpana hai jo bharat, eeran, yoonan, rom, jarmani adi sabhi deshon men paee jati hai. isamen dyaush‌ (akash) aur prithvi ke bich men anek devataon ki srishti huee hai. bharatiy aryon ka mool dharm rigved men abhivyakt hai, eeraniyon ka avesta men, yoonaniyon ka ulisiz aur eeliyad men. devamndal ke sath ary karmakand ka vikas hua jisamen mntr, ygy, shraddh (pitaron ki pooja), atithisatkar adi mukhyat: sammilit the. ary adhyatmik darshan (brahm, atma, vishv, moksh adi) aur ary niti (samany, vishesh adi) ka vikas bhi samanantar hua. shuddh naitik adhar par avalnbit parnparavirodhi avaidik snpradayon-bauddh, jain adi-ne bhi apane dharm ko ary dharm athava saddharm kaha.

samajik arth men 'ary' ka prayog pahale snpoorn manav ke arth men hota tha. kabhi-kabhi isaka prayog samany janata vish ke lie ('ary' shabd se) hota tha. phir abhijat aur shramik varg men antar dikhane ke lie ary varn aur shoodr varn ka prayog hone laga. phir aryon ne apani samajik vyavastha ka adhar varn ko banaya aur samaj char varnon men vritti aur shram ke adhar par vibhakt hua. riksnhita men charon varnon ki utpatti aur kary ka ullekh is prakar hai:

brahmanoasy mukhamasidh bahoo rajany: krit:.
ooroo tadasy yadvaishy: padabhyan shoodroajayat ..[1]

(is virath purush ke munh se brahman, bahu se rajasv (kshatriy), ooru (jngha) se vaishy aur pad (charan) se shoodr utpann hua.) ajakal ki bhasha men ye varg bauddhik, prashasakiy, vyavasayik tatha shramik the. mool men inamen taralata thi. ek hi parivar men kee varn ke log rahate aur paraspar vivahadi snbadh aur bhojan, pan adi hote the. kramash: ye varg paraspar varjanashil hote ge. ye samajik vibhajan aryaparivar ki pray: sabhi shakhaon men pae jate hain, yadyapi inake namon aur samajik sthiti men deshagat bhed milate hain.

prarnbhik ary parivar pitrisattatmak tha, yadyapi adity (aditi se utpann), daity (diti se utpann) adi shabdon men matrisatta ki dhvani vartaman hai. dnpati ki kalpana men pati patni ka grihasthi ke oopar saman adhikar paya jata hai. parivar men putrajanm ki kamana ki jati thi. dayitv ke karan kanya ka janm parivar ko gnbhir bana deta tha, kintu usaki upeksha nahin ki jati thi. ghosha, lopamudra, apala, vishvavara adi striyan mntradrashta rishipad ko prapt huee thin. vivah pray: yuvavastha men hota tha. pati patni ko paraspar nirvachan ka adhikar tha. vivah dharmik krityon ke sath snpann hota tha, jo paravarti brahm vivah se milata julata tha.

prarnbhik ary snskriti men vidya, sahity aur kala ka ooncha sthan hai. bharopiy bhasha gyan ke sashakt madhyam ke roop men vikasit huee. isamen kavy, dharm, darshan adi vibhinn shastron ka uday hua. aryon ka prachinatam sahity ved bhasha, kavy aur chintan, sabhi drishtiyon se mahatvapoorn hai. rigved men brahmachary aur shikshanapaddhati ke ullekh pae jate hain, jinase pata lagata hai ki shikshanavyavastha ka sngathan arnbh ho gaya tha aur manav abhivyaktiyon ne shastriy roop dharan karana shuroo kar diya tha. rigved men kavi ko rishi (mntradrashta) mana gaya hai. vah apani antadrishti se snpoorn vishv ka darshan karata tha. usha, savitri, aranyani adi ke sookton men prakritinirikshan aur manav ki saundaryapriyata tatha rasanubhooti ka sundar chitran hai. rigvedasnhita men pur aur gram adi ke ullekh bhi pae jate hain. lohe ke nagar, patthar ki saikadon puriyan, sahasradvar tatha sahasrastnbh attalikaen nirmit hoti thin. sath hi samany grih aur kutir bhi banate the. bhavananirman men ishtaka (eetn) ka upayog hota tha. yatayat ke lie pathon ka nirman aur yan ke roop men kee prakar ke rathon ka upayog kiya jata tha. git, nrity aur vaditr ka sngit ke roop men prayog hota tha. van, kshoni, karkari prabhriti vadyon ke nam pae jate hain. putrika (puttalika, putali) ke nrity ka bhi ullekh milata hai. alnkaran ki pratha vikasit thi. striyan nishk, ajji, basi, vakh‌, rukm adi gahane pahanati thin. vividh prakar ke manovinod men kavy, sngit, dyoot, ghudadaud, rathadaud adi sammilit the.

(4) shreshth, shisht athava snjjan - naitik arth men 'ary' ka prayog mahakul, kulin, sabhy, sajjan, sadhu adi ke lie paya jata hai. (mahakulakulinaryasabhyasajjanasadhav:.-amar. 7.3). sayanachary ne apane rigbhashy men 'ary' ka arth vigy, ygy ka anushthata, vigy stota, vidvanh‌ adaraniy athava sarvatr gntavy, uttamavarn, manu, karmayukt aur karmanushthan se shreshth adi kiya hai. adaraniy ke arth men to snskrit sahity men ary ka bahut prayog hua hai. patni pati ko aryaputr kahati thi. pitamah ko ary (hin. aja) aur pitamahi ko arya (hin. aji, aiya, aiya) kahane ki pratha rahi hai. naitik roop se prakrit acharan karanevale ko ary kaha gaya hai:

kartavyamachanaranh‌ karyamakartavyamanacharanh‌ .
tishthati prakritachare s ary iti uchyate ..

prarnbh men 'ary' ka prayog prajati athava varn ke arth men bhale hi hota raha ho, age chalakar bharatiy itihas men isaka naitik arth hi adhik prachalit hua jisake anusar kisi bhi varn athava jati ka vyakti apani shreshthata athava sajjanata ke karan ary kaha jane laga.[2]

ary prajati ki adibhoomi ke snbndh men abhi tak vidvanon men bahut matabhed hain. bhashavaigyanik adhyayan ke prarnbh men pray: bhasha aur prajati ko abhinn manakar ekodbhav (monojenik) siddhant ka pratipadan hua aur mana gaya ki bharopiy bhashaon ke bolanevale ke poorvaj kahin ek hi sthan men rahate the aur vahin se vibhinn deshon men ge. bhashavaigyanik sakshyon ki apoornata aur anishchitata ke karan yah adibhoomi kabhi madhy eshiya, kabhi pamir-kashmir, kabhi astriya-hngari, kabhi jarmani, kabhi svidan-narve aur aj dakshin roos ke ghas ke maidanon men dhoondhi jati hai. bhasha aur prajati anivary roop se abhinn nahin. aj aryon ki vividh shakhaon ke bahoodbhav (paaulijenik) hone ka siddhant bhi prachalit hota ja raha hai jisake anusar yah avashyak nahin ki ary-bhasha-parivar ki sabhi jatiyan ek hi manavavnsh ki rahi hon. bhasha ka grahan to snpark aur prabhav se bhi hota aya hai, kee jatiyon ne to apani mool bhasha chhodakar vijatiy bhasha ko poornat: apana liya hai. jahan tak bharatiy aryon ke udgam ka prashn hai, bharatiy sahity men unake bahar se ane ke snbndh men ek bhi ullekh nahin hai. kuchh logon ne parnpara aur anushruti ke anusar madhyadesh (sthoon) (sthanvishvar) tatha kajngal (rajamahal ki pahadiyan) aur himalay tatha vindhy ke bich ka pradesh athava aryavart (uttar bharat) hi aryon ki adibhoomi mana hai. pauranik parnpara se vichchhinn keval rigved ke adhar par kuchh vidvanon ne saptasindhu (simant evn pnjab) ko aryon ki adibhoomi mana hai. lokamany bal gngadhar tilak ne rigved men varnit dirgh ahoratr, pralnbit usha adi ke adhar par aryon ki moolabhoomi ko dhruvapradesh men mana tha. bahut se yooropiy vidvanh‌ aur unake anuyayi bharatiy vidvanh‌ ab bhi bharatiy aryon ko bahar se aya hua manate hain.[3]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 10..90.22..
  2. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 438 |
  3. sn.grn.-gaaurdan chaild: di eriyans (lndan, 1926); ech.ech. bendar: d hom av di indo-yooropiyanyas (aauksaphord, 1922); bens: ethanographi (straisabarg, 1912); eph. boaz: jenaral ainhthraopaloji (nyooyark, 1939); i. sepir: laingvej, res aind kalchar (nyooyark, 1931); sunitikumar chatarji: bharatiy aryabhasha aur hindi (rajakamal prakashan, dilli, 1954); a.ch. das: rigvaidik indiya, kainbre aind ko. (kalakatta, 1925); snpoornannd: aryon ka adi desh; bi.es. guh: ain autalain aauv reshal ethanolaauji aauv indiya, (kalakatta, 1937); hindi vishvakosh, bhag 1, kalakatta 1917; enasaiklopidiya britainika, bhag 2, shikago-lndan-tornto.

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