सूफ़ी आन्दोलन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

madhy kal ke dauran do paraspar virodhi asthaon evn vishvason ke khilaf sudhar ati avashyak ho gaya tha. is samay samaj men aise sudhar ki sakht avashyakata thi, jisake dvara hindoo dharm ke karmakand evn islam dharm men kattar pnthiyon ke prabhav ko kam kiya ja sake. dasavin shatabdi ke bad in paramparagat roodhivadi pravritiyon par ankush lagane ke lie islam evn hindoo dharm men do mahattvapoorn rahasyavadi andolanon-soofi andolan evn bhakti andolan ka shubharnbh hua. in andolanon ne vyapak adhyatmikata evn advaitavad par bal diya, sath hi nirarthak karmakand, adambar evn kattarapnth ke sthan par prem, udaratavad evn gahan bhakti ko apana adarsh banaya.

soofi shabd ki utpatti

aboo nasr al siraj ki pustak ‘kitab-ul-luma’ men kiye gaye ullekh ke adhar par mana jata hai ki, soofi shabd ki utpatti arabi shabd ‘soof’ (oon) se huee, jo ek prakar se ooni vastr ka soochak hai, jise prarambhik soofi log pahana karate the. ‘safa’ se bhi utpatti mani jati hai. safa ka arth 'pavitrata' ya 'vishuddhata' se hai. is prakar achar-vyavahar se pavitr log soofi kahe jate the. ek any mat ke anusar- hajarat muhammad sahab dvara madina men nirmit masjid ke bahar safa arthath 'makka ki pahadi' par kuchh logon ne sharan lekar apane ko khuda ki aradhana men lin kar liya, isalie ve soofi kahalaye. soofi chintak islam ka anusaran karate the, parantu ve karmakand ka virodh karate the. inake pradurbhav ka ek mahattvapoorn karan yah bhi tha ki, us samay (saltanat kal) ulema (dharmavetta) varg men logon ke kattarapnthi drishtikon ki pradhanata thi. saltanat kalin sultan sunni musalaman hone ke karan sunni dharmavettaon ke adeshon ka palan karate the aur sath hi shiya sampraday ke logon ko mahatv nahin dete the. soofiyon ne inaki pradhanata ko chunauti di tatha ulemaon ke mahatv ko nakara.

vicharadhara

vibhinn sampraday tatha unake snsthapak
sampraday snsthapak
chishti sampraday khvaja mueenuddin chishti (12 vin shatabdi)
suharavardi sampraday shihabuddin suharavardi (12vin shatabdi)
kadiri sampraday shekh abdul kadir jilani (16vin shatabdi)
shattari sampraday shah abdul shattari (15vin shatabdi)
firadausi sampraday badarooddin
naqshabandi sampraday khvaja baki villah (16vin shatabdi)

prarambhik soofiyon men ‘rabiya’ (8vin sadi) evn 'mnsoor hallaj' (10 vin sadi) ka nam mahattvapoorn hai. mnsoor hallaj aise pahale soofi sadhak the, jo svayn ko ‘analahak’ ghoshit kar soofi vicharadhara ke pratik bane. soofi snsar men sabase pahale ibnul arabi dvara diye gaye siddhant 'vahadat-ul-vujood' ka ulemaon ne jamakar virodh kiya. vahadat-ul-vujood ka arth hai - eeshvar ek hai aur vah snsar ki sabhi vastuon ka nimitt hai. is prakar vahadat-ul-vujood ekeshvaravad ka samanarthi hai. ulema varg ke logon ne brahma tatha jiv ke madhy malik evn gulam ke rishte hi kalpana ki, doosari or soofiyon ne eeshvar ko adrishy, sampoorn vastavikata aur shashvat saundary ke roop men mana. soofi sant eeshvar ko ‘priyatama’ evn svayn ko ‘priyatam’ manate the. unaka vishvas tha ki, eeshvar ki prapti prem-sngit se ki ja sakati hai. atah soofiyon ne saundary evn sngit ko adhik mahatv diya. soofi guru ko adhik mahatv dete the, kyonki ve guru ko eeshvar prapti ke marg ka path pradarshak manate the. soofi sant bhautik evn bhog vilas se yukt jivan se door saral, sade, snyamapoorn jivan men astha rakhate the. prarambh men soofi andolan khurasan prant ke as-pas visheshakar balkh shahar evn irak tatha misr men kendrit raha. bharat men is andolanon ka arambh dilli saltanat se poorv hi ho chuka tha.

soofi shikshaon ka prachar-prasar

gyarahavin evn barahavin shatabdi men lahaur evn multan men kee soofi snton ka jamaghat hua. muslim srot ke adhar par qarib 125 soofi dharm snghon ke astitv ki bat kahi jati hai. abul fazal ne aina-e-akabari men qarib 14 soofi silasilon ke bare men ullekh kiya hai. inamen se keval do silasilon ka hi gahara prabhav bharatiy jan-jivan par pada. ve log jo soofi snton se shishyata grahan karate the, unhen ‘murid’ kaha jata tha. soofi jin ashramon men nivas karate the, unhen ‘khanakah’ v ‘math’ kaha jata tha. ek soofi ko paramapad prapt karane se poorv das avasthaon - 'tauba' (pashchatap), 'baja' (snyam), 'tabakul' (pratigya), 'juhad' (bhakti), 'phagr' (nirdhanata), 'sabr' (sntosh), 'rija' (atm samarpan), 'shukr' (abhar), 'khauf' (dar), 'raja' (ummid) adi se guzarana padata tha. soofi santon ne apani shikshaon ka prachar-prasar jan sadharan ki bhasha men kiya. inake prayatnon se hindi, urdoo ke sath any prantiy bhashaon ka bhi vikas hua. soofiyon ke dharmasngh ‘ba-shara’ (islami siddhant ke samarthak), aur ‘be-shara’ (islami siddhant se bndhe nahin) men vibhajit the. bharat men dono mat ke log the. bharat men chishti evn suharavardi silasile ki jade kafi gahari thin.

chishti dharm sngh evn sant

soofi sant evn unaki upadhiyan
soofi sant upadhi
shekh nizamuddin auliya mahaboobe ilahi
shekh nasiruddin mahamood chirag-e-dilli
saiyyad muhammad gesoodaraj banda navaj
shekh ahamad sarahindi mujadih aliphasani

12vin shatabdi men anek soofi sant bharat aye. 'chishti dharm sngh' ki sthapana khvaja aboo ahamad abdal chisht (874-965 ee.) ne herat men ki thi. 1192 ee. men muhammad gori ke sath 'khvaja mueenuddin chishti' bharat aye. unhonne yahan ‘chishtiya parampara’ ki sthapana ki. unaki gatividhiyon ka mukhy kendr ajamer tha. inhen 'gari-e-navaj' kaha jata hai. sath hi any kendr naranaul, hansi, sarabar, badayoon tatha nagaur the. kuchh any soofi santon men 'baba farid, 'bakhtiyar kaki' evn 'shekh burahanuddin garib' the. inhen bhi dekhen: chishti sampraday

hindoo-muslim ekata par bal

nizamuddin auliya ke sabase priy shishy amir khusaro the. amir khusaro ne auliya ki mrityu ka samachar sunane ke doosare din hi pran tyag diye the. shekh nizamuddin auliya ne amir khusaro ko “tarkullah” kahakar snbodhit kiya tha. auliya ne yog ki pranayam paddhati ko is had tak apanaya ki, unhen “yogi siddh” kaha jane laga. khvaja nizamuddin auliya ko sngit se vishesh lagav tha. bngal men chishtiya mat ka prachar shekh sirajuddin usmani ne kiya. inhe ‘akhiri siraj’ kaha gaya. shekh burahanuddin garib ne 1340 ee. men dakshini bharat ke kshetron men chishti sampraday ki shuruat ki aur daulatabad ko apana mukhy kendr banaya. chishtiyon ne hindoo-muslim ke madhy kisi bhi prakar ke bhedabhav ka kada virodh kiya. unho^ne snyamapoorn, sadharan jivan vyatit karate hue logon se unhin ki bhasha men vichar-vinimay kiya. is sampraday ke soofi sant hindoo evn muslim donon samudayon men saman bhav se poojaniy the. burahanapur ke ek pramukh soofin snt 'saiyyad muhammad gesoodaraj' ko 'banda navaj' kaha jata hai.

suharavardi sampraday

is sngh ko 'silasila' bhi kaha jata hai. isaki sthapana shekh shihabuddin umar suharavardi ne ki, kintu 1262 ee. men isake sudridh snchalan ka shrey shekh badaruddin jakariya ko hai, jinhonne multan men ek shanadar math ki sthapana ki tatha sindh evn multan ko mukhy kendr banaya. shekh bahauddin jakariya ke baba farid gnj-e-shakar se ghanishth sambandh the. is sampraday ke any pramukh snt the- jalaluddin tabariji, saiyyad surkh josh, burahan adi. sindh, gujarat, bngal, haidarabad evn bijapur ke kshetron men is silasile ka prachar-prasar hua.

kadiri sampraday

is sampraday ki sthapana saiyyad abul kadi al gilani ne ki thi. inako 'piran-e-pir' (snto ke pradhan) tatha 'pir-e-dastagir' (madadagar snt) adi ki upadhiyan prapt thin. bharat men is sngh ya silasile ke pravartak muhammad gaus the. kadiri silasile ke anuyayi gane-bajane ke virodhi the. ve hare rng ki pagadiyan pahanate the.

naqshabandi sampraday

isaki sthapana khvaja ubedulla ne ki. bharat men is silasile ka prachar 'khvaja baki villah' ke shishy evn akabar ke samakalin 'shekh ahamad sarahindi' ne kiya. shekh ahamad sarahindi ‘mujahid’ arthath islam ke navajivanadata ya sudharak ke roop men prasiddh the. khvaja mir dard nakshabndi sampraday ke antim vikhyat sant the. unhonne ek alag mat ‘ilme ilahi muhammadi’ chalaya. isase sambandhit tarah-tarah ke nakshe banakar usamen rng bharate the. aurngazeb, shekh ahamad sarahindi ke putr shekh masoom ka shishy tha.

firadausi silasila

is silasile ke snsthapak madhy eshiya ke saiphuddin bakharaji the. yah silasala suharavardi silasile ki hi ek shakha thi. is silasile ka bharat men kary kshetr bihar men tha. badaruddin samarngaji, ahamad yahaya manairi adi is silasile ke pramukh sant the. soofi siddhanton evn paddhatiyon ne hindoo darshan aur bhakti ke vibhinn tatvon ko atmasat kiya. soofiyon ke mathavasiy sngathanon evn unaki kuchh paddhatiyon, jaise- prayashyit, upavas evn pranayam men bauddh evn hindoo yogiyon ka prabhav jhalakata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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