घाघ  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ghagh ka hindi ke lok kaviyon men mahattvapoorn sthan hai. krishi sambandhi kahavaton ke lie ghagh bahut prasiddh rahe hain. ye akabar ke shasanakal men the. aisa mana jata hai ki ghagh ka janm kannauj (uttar pradesh) ke pas 'chaudhari saray' namak ek ganv men hua tha. ghagh uttar bharat men kisanon ke bich krishi sambandhi kahavaton ke lie kafi prasiddh the. inaka janm ek doobe brahman parivar men hua tha. ghagh ki likhi koee bhi pustak abhi tak prapt nahin huee hai. bharat men krishi, pashu-dhan, varsha adi ke sambandh men inaki kahavaten atyadhaki prachalit hain. sngrahakartaon ne inaki kahavaton ko snkalit kiya hai. in kahavaton se ghagh ke vyavaharik gyan ki gaharaee ka pata chalata hai.[1]

jivan parichay

madhyakalin any kaviyon ki bhanti ghagh ka jivanavritt bhi agyat hai. vibhinn vidvanon ne unhen apane-apane kshetr ka nivasi siddh karane ki cheshta hai. hindi sahity ke itihas grnthon men ghagh ke sambandh men sarvapratham ‘shivasinh saroj’ men ullekh milata hai. isamen “kanyakubj antarved vale” kavi ke roop men unaki charcha hai. achary ramachandr shukl ne ghagh ka keval namollekh kiya hai. ‘hindi shabd sagar’ ke anusar “ghagh gonde ke rahane vale ek bade chatur aur anubhavi vyakti ka nam hai jisaki kahi huee bahut si kahavaten uttari bharat men prasiddh hain. kheti-bari, ritu-kal tatha lagn-muhoort adi ke sambandh men inaki vilakshan uktiyan kisan tatha sadharan log bahut kahate hain.” shriyut pir muhammad yoonis ne ghagh ki kahavaton ki bhasha ke adhar par unhen champaran (bihar) aur muzaffarapur zile ki uttari sima par sthit aureyagadh athava bairaganiya athava kudava chainapur ke samip ke kisi ganv men utpann mana hai. ray bahadur mukund lal gupt ‘visharad’ ne ‘krishi ratnavali’ men unhen kanapur zila antargat kisi gram ka nivasi thaharaya hai. durga shnkar prasad sinh ne ghagh ka janm chhapara men mana hai. pn. ram naresh tripathi ne ‘kavita kaumudi’ bhag ek aur ‘ghagh aur ghagh aur bhaddari’ namak pustak men unhen kannauj ka nivasi mana hai. ghagh ki adhikansh kahavaton ki bhasha bhojapuri hai. daau. jaaurj griyarsan ne bhi ‘pijent laiph aph bihar’ men ghagh ki kavitaon ka bhojapuri path prastut kiya hai. is adhar par is dharana ko bal milata hai ki ghagh ka janm sthan bihar ka chhapara tha. vahan se ye kannauj gaye. is sambandh men janashruti milati hai ki ghagh ki unaki patohoo (putravadhoo) se anaban rahati thi. ghagh jo uktiyan kahate the log unhen unaki patohoo ke pas pahuncha dete the aur vah usake viparit kahavat kahati thi jise log ghagh ke pas late the. kaha jata hai ki apani patohoo se khinn hokar ve chhapara chhodakar kannauj chale gaye. kintu yah mat adhik vishvasaniy nahin pratit hota kyonki aisi samany bat par koee apana janm sthan chhodakar anyatr kyon jayega? kaha jata hai ki kannauj men ghagh ki sasural thi. aisa anuman hai ki ghagh jivikoparjan ke lie chhapara chhodakar apani sasural kannauj gaye honge aur vahin bas gaye honge. ritikalin kavi bihari lal se sambandhit bhi aisi ghatana hai. ve apana janm sthan gvaliyar chhodakar apani sasural mathura men rahane lage the.[2]

janm kal

ghagh ka janmakal bhi nirvivad nahin hai. shivasinh sengar ne unaki sthiti snvat 1753 vikrami ke uparant mana hai. isi adhar par mishr bandhuon ne unaka janm snvat 1753 vikrami aur kavita kal snvat 1780 vikrami mana hai. ‘bharatiy charitambudhi’ men inaka janm sanh 1696 ee. bataya jata hai. pn. ram naresh tripathi ne ghagh ka janm vikram snvat 1753 mana hai. yahi mat aj sarvadhik many hai. ghagh ke nam ke vishay men bhi nishchit roop se kuchh gyat nahin hai. ghagh unaka mool nam tha ya upanam tha isaka pata nahin chalata hai. uttar pradesh ke poorvi kshetr-bihar, bngal evn asam pradesh men dak namak kavi ki krishi sambandhi kahavaten milati hain jinake adhar par vidvanon ka anuman hai ki dak aur ghagh ek hi the. ghagh ki jati ke vishay men bhi vidvanon men matabhed hai. katipay vidvanon ne inhen ‘gvala’ mana hai. kintu ramanaresh tripathi ne apani khoj ke adhar par inhen brahman (devakali dube) mana hai. unake anusar ghagh kannauj ke chaudhari saray ke nivasi the. kaha jata hai ki ghagh humayoon ke darabar men bhi gaye the. humayoon ke bad unaka sambandh akabar se bhi raha. akabar gungy tha aur vibhinn kshetron ke labdhapratishthi vidvanon ka samman karata tha. ghagh ki pratibha se akabar bhi prabhavit hua tha aur upahar svaroop usane unhen prachur dhanarashi aur kannauj ke pas ki bhoomi di thi, jis par unhonne ganv basaya tha jisaka nam rakha ‘akabarabad saray ghagh’. sarakari kagajon men aj bhi us ganv ka nam ‘saray ghagh’ hai. yah kannauj steshan se lagabhag ek mil pashchim men hai. akabar ne ghagh ko ‘chaudhari’ ki bhi upadhi di thi. isilie ghagh ke kutumbi abhi tak apane ko chaudhari kahate hain. ‘saray ghagh’ ka doosara nam ‘chaudhari saray’ bhi hai.5 ghagh ki patni ka nam kisi bhi srot se gyat nahin hai kintu inake do putr-markandey dube aur dhiradhar dube hue. in donon putron ke khanadan men dube logon ke bis pachchis ghar ab usi basti men hain. markandey ke khanadan men bachchoolal dube, vishnu svaroop dube tatha dhiradhar dube ke khanadan men ramacharan dube aur krishn dube vartaman hain. ye log ghagh ki satavin-athavin pidhi men apane ko batate hain. ye log kabhi dan nahin lete hain. inaka kathan hai ki ghagh apane dharmik vishvason ke bade kattar the aur isi karan unako ant men mugal darabar se hatana pada tha tatha unaki zaminadari ka adhikansh bhag jabt ho gaya tha.[2]

prachalit kivadntiyan

prachin mahapurushon ki bhanti ghagh ke sambandh men bhi anek kinvadantiyan prachalit hain. kaha jata hai ki ghagh bachapan se hi ‘krishi vishayak’ samasyaon ke nidan men daksh the. chhoti umr men hi unaki prasiddhi itani badh gayi thi ki door-door se log apani kheti sambandhi samasyaon ko lekar unaka samadhan nikalane ke lie ghagh ke pas aya karate the. kinvadanti hai ki ek vyakti jisake pas krishi kary ke lie paryapt bhoomi thi kintu usamen upaj itani kam hoti thi ki usaka parivar bhojan ke lie doosaron par nirbhar rahata tha, ghagh ki gungyta ko sunakar vah unake pas aya. us samay ghagh hamumr ke bachchon ke sath khel rahe the. jab us vyakti ne apani samasya sunaee to ghagh sahaj hi bol uthe-

adha khet bataiya deke, oonchi dih kiari.
jo tor lika bhookhe marihen, ghaghave dih gari..

kaha jata hai ki ghagh ke kathananusar kary karane par vah kisan dhan-dhany se poorn ho gaya. ghagh ke sambandh men janashruti hai ki unaki apani putravadhoo se nahin patati thi. kuchh vidvanon ka anuman hai ki isi karan ghagh apana mool nivas chhapara chhodakar kannauj chale gaye the. ghagh jo kahavaten kahate the unaki putravadhoo usake viparit doosari kahavat banakar kahati thi. pn. ram naresh tripathi ne ghagh aur unaki putravadhoo ki is prakar nonkajhonk se sambandhit katipay kahavaten prastut ki hain-

ghagh-
muye cham se cham katavai, bhuin snkari man sovai.
ghagh kahain ye tinon bhakuva udhari jain pai rovai..
putr vadhoo-
dam dei ke cham katavai, nind lagi jab sovai.
kam ke mare udhari gee jab samujhi ai tab rovai..

ghagh-
taroon tiya hoi angane sovai ran men chadhi ke chhatri rovai.
sanjhe satuva karai biyari ghagh marai unakar mahatari..
putravadhoo-
pativrata hoi angane sovai bina ann ke chhatri rovai.
bhookh lagi jab karai biyari marai ghagh hi kai mahatari..

ghagh-
bin gaune sasurari jay bina magh ghiu khinchari khay.
bin varsha ke pahanai puva ghagh kahain ye tinon kuva..
putravadhoo-
kam pare sasurari jay man chahe ghiu khinchari khay.
karai jog to pahirai puva kahai patohoo ghaghai kuva.. [2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. pustak=bharatiy snskriti kosh, bhag-2 | prakashak=yoonivarsiti pablikeshan, nee dilli-110002 | snpadan=profesar devendr mishr |prishth snkhya=260
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 ghagh aur bhaddari (hindi) indiya vatar portal (hindi). abhigaman tithi: 18 apral, 2015.

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