रामचन्द्र शुक्ल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Disamb2.jpg ramachndr shukl ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- ramachndr shukl (bahuvikalpi)
ramachandr shukl
RamChandraShukla.jpg
poora nam achary ramachandr shukl
janm 4 aktoobar, 1884
janm bhoomi agona, basti zila, uttar pradesh
mrityu 1941 ee.
abhibhavak pn. chndrabali shukl
karm bhoomi varanasi
karm-kshetr sahityakar, lekhak, nibndhakar
mukhy rachanaen 'hindi sahity ka itihas', 'chintamani', 'hindi shabd sagar', 'nagari pracharini patrika'.
vishay yatravritt, snsmaran, nibndh
bhasha hindi
vidyalay mishan skool, kayasth pathashala intar kaaulej
nagarikata bharatiy
sahityik andolan alochanaen, kavy men rahasyavad, kavy men abhivynjanavad, ras mimansa
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

ramachandr shukl (angrezi: Ramchandra Shukla, janm- 4 aktoobar, 1884, basti zila, uttar pradesh; mrityu- 1941 ee. bharat) bisavin shatabdi ke hindi ke pramukh sahityakar the. unaki dvara likhi gee pustakon men hindi sahity ka itihas pramukh hai, jisaka hindi pathyakram ko nirdharit karane me pramukh sthan hai.

jivan parichay

ramachandr shukl ji ka janm basti zile ke agona namak ganv men sanh 1884 ee. men hua tha. sanh 1888 ee. men ve apane pita ke sath rath hamirapur gaye tatha vahin par vidyadhyayan prarambh kiya. sanh 1892 ee. men unake pita ki niyukti mirzapur men sadar qanoonago ke roop men ho gee aur ve pita ke sath mirzapur a gaye.

shiksha

ramachandr shukl ji ke pita ne shiksha ke kshetr men in par urdoo aur angrezi padhane ke lie zor diya tatha pita ki ankh bachakar ve hindi bhi padhate rahe. sanh 1901 ee. men unhonne mishan skool se skool fainal ki pariksha uttirn ki tatha prayag ke kayasth pathashala intar kaaulej men ef.e. (barahavin) padhane ke lie aye. ganit men kamazor hone ke karan unhonne shighr hi use chhodakar 'plidaraship' ki pariksha uttirn karani chahi, usamen bhi ve asaphal rahe. parantu in parikshaon ki saphalata ya asaphalata se alag ve barabar sahity, manovigyan, itihas adi ke adhyayan men lage rahe. mirzapur ke pandit kedaranath pathak, badari narayan chaudhari 'premaghan' ke sampark men akar unake adhyayan-adhyavasay ko aur bal mila. yahin par unhonne hindi, urdoo, snskrit evn angrezi ke sahity ka gahan anushilan prarambh kar diya tha, jisaka upayog ve age chal kar apane lekhan men jamakar kar sake.

karyakshetr

mirzapur ke tatkalin kalaktar ne ramachandr shukl ko ek karyalay men naukari bhi de di thi, par haid klark se unake svabhimani svabhav ki pati nahin. use unhonne chhod diya. phir kuchh dinon tak ramachandr shukl mirzapur ke mishan skool men chitrakala ke adhyapak rahe. sanh 1909 se 1910 ee. ke lagabhag ve 'hindi shabd sagar' ke sampadan men vaitanik sahayak ke roop men kashi a gaye, yahin par kashi nagari pracharini sabha ke vibhinn karyon ko karate hue unaki pratibha chamaki. 'nagari pracharini patrika' ka sampadan bhi unhonne kuchh dinon tak kiya tha. kosh ka kary samapt ho jane ke bad shukl ji ki niyukti kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay men hindi ke adhyapak ke roop men ho gee. vahan se ek mahine ke lie ve alavar rajy men bhi naukari ke liye ge, par ruchi ka kam n hone se pun: vishvavidyalay laut ae. sanh 1937 ee. men kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay ke hindi vibhagadhyaksh niyukt hue evn is pad par rahate hue hi sanh 1941 ee. men unaki shvas ke daure men hriday gati band ho jane se mrityu ho gee.

rachanaen

anuvad

shukl ji ka sahityik vyaktitv vividh pakshon vala hai. unhonne apane sahityik jivan ke prarambh men lekh likhe hain aur phir gambhir nibandhon ka pranayan kiya hai, jo chintamani (do bhag) men snkalit hai. unhonne brajabhasha aur khadiboli men phutakar kavitaen likhin tatha edavin arnald ke 'lait aauf eshiya' ka brajabhasha men 'buddhacharit' ke nam se padyanuvad kiya. shukl ji ne manovigyan, itihas, snskriti, shiksha evn vyavahar sambandhi lekhon evn patrikaon ke bhi anuvad kiye hain tatha josef edisan ke 'plejars aauf imejineshan' ka 'kalpana ka anand' nam se evn rakhal das vandyopadhyay ke 'shashank' upanyas ka bhi hindi men rochak anuvad kiya.

ramachandr shukl ne 'jayasi granthavali' tatha 'buddhacharit' ki bhoomika men kramash: avadhi tatha brajabhasha ka bhasha-shastriy vivechan karate hue unaka svaroop bhi spasht kiya hai. anuvadak roop men unhonne 'shashank' jaise shreshth upanyas ka anuvad kiya hai. anuvad ke roop men unaki shakti ya nirbalata yah thi ki unhonne apani pratibha ya adhyayan ke bal par unamen apekshit parivartan kar liye hain. 'shashank' mool bngala men du:khant hai, par unhonne use sukhant bana diya hai. anuvadak ki is pravritti ko adarsh bhale hi n mana jaye, par usake vyaktitv ki shakti evn jivan ka pratik avashy mana ja sakata hai.

samikshaen

unhonne saiddhantik samiksha par likha, jo unaki mrityu ke pashchath snkalit hokar 'ras mimansa' nam ki pustak men vidyaman hai tatha tulasi, jayasi ki granthavaliyon evn 'bhramar gitasar' ki bhoomika men lambi vyavaharik samikshaen likhin, jinamen se do 'gosvami tulasidas' tatha 'mahakavi sooradas' alag se pustak roop men bhi upalabdh hain.

hindi sahity ka itihas

shukl ji ne hindi sahity ka itihas likha, jisamen kavy pravrittiyon evn kaviyon ka parichay bhi hai aur unaki samiksha bhi likhi hai. darshan ke kshetr men bhi unaki 'vishv prapnch' pustak upalabdh hai. pustak yon to 'ridal aauf di yunivars' ka anuvad hai, par usaki lambi bhoomika shukl ji ke dvara kiya gaya maulik prayas hai. is prakar shukl ji ne sahity men vicharon ke kshetr men atyant mahatvapoorn kary kiya hai. is sampoorn lekhan men bhi unaka sabase mahatvapoorn evn kalajayi roop samikshak, nibandh lekhak evn sahityik itihasakar ke roop men prakat hua hai.

samikshak

nalinavilochan sharma ne apani pustak 'sahity ka itihas darshan' men kaha hai ki shukl ji se bada samikshak sambhavat: us yug men kisi bhi bharatiy bhasha men nahin tha. yah bat vichar karane par saty pratit hoti hai, balki aisa lagata hai ki samikshak ke roop men shukl ji ab bhi aparajey hain. apani samast simaon ke bavazood unaka painapan, unaki gambhirata evn unake bahut se nishkarsh evn sthapanaen kisi bhi bhasha ke samiksha sahity ke lie garv ka vishay ban sakati hai.

apane 'hindi sahity ka itihas' men svayn ramachandr shukl ji ne kaha hai, “is tritiy utthan (san 1918 ee. se) men samalochana ka adarsh bhi badala. gun-dosh ke kathan ke age badhakar kaviyon ki visheshataon aur ant:pravritti ki chhanabin ki or bhi dhyan diya gaya”[1] kahana n hoga ki kaviyon ki visheshataon evn unaki ant:pravritti ki chhanabin ki or dhyan, sabase pahale shukl ji ne diya hai. is prakar hindi sahity ko apekshit dharatal dene men sabase bada hath unaka hi raha hai. samikshak ke roop men shukl ji par vichar karate hi ek tathy samane a jata hai, ki unhonne apani paddhati ko yuganukool navin banaya tha. ras aur alnkar adi ka prayog apane samikshatmak prayason men shukl ji se pahale ke logon ne bhi kiya tha, par unhonne is siddhanton ki, manovigyan ke alok men evn pashchaty shaili par kuchh aisi abhinav vyakhya di ki ye siddhant samiksha se bahishkrit n hokar poori tarah svikar kar liye gaye. is prakar jahan unhonne ek or apani alochanaon ka dhancha bharatiy rahane diya hai, vahin par usaka bahy roop evn rachana-vidhan pashchim se liya hai. kabhi-kabhi to aisa lagata hai ki yah nirnay karana kathin hai ki unaki samiksha men deshi aur videshi tatvon ka mishran kis anupat men hua hai. is sambandh men unhonne tulasi, soor ya jayasi jaise shreshth kaviyon ki samikshaon men hi nahin, apane itihas men chhote kaviyon par bhi, utani hi saphalata se kiya hai.

manadand-nirdharan

ramachandr shukl ke samikshak-vyaktitv ki doosari visheshata ya mahanata hai ki unhonne manadand-nirdharan aur unaka prayog donon kary ek sath kie hain tatha is dohare kary men kathani aur karani ka antaral kahin bhi upalabdh nahin hota, balki yon kahen ki apane manovikaron vale nibandhon men jivan, sahity aur bhavon ke madhy jo sambandh dekha tha, usi ke adhar par unhonne apani samiksha ke manadand nirdharit kiye evn in siddhanton ka vyavaharik upayog unhonne phir kiya. siddhant evn vyavahar ke madhy aisi sngit shreshthatam alochakon men hi prapt hoti hai.

mahatvapoorn visheshata

unaki ek any mahatvapoorn visheshata samasamayik kavy chintan sambandhi jagarookata hai. unhonne jin sahity-mimansakon evn rachanakaron ko uddhrit kiya hai, unamen se adhikansh ko aj bhi hindi ke tamam achary aur svanam dhany alochak nahin padhate. sambhavat: ramachandr shukl un prarambhik vyaktiyon men honge, jinhonne iliyat aur kamingj jaise rachanakaron ka bharatavarsh men pahali bar ullekh kiya hai. 1935 ee. men indaur ke hindi sahity sammelan ki sahity parishadh ke adhyaksh pad se diya gaya bhashan 'kavy men abhivynjanavad'[2] men is jagarookata ke sambandh men sabase adhik darshan hote hain. unhonne je.es. flint ki charcha ki hai tatha herald munaro ki tarif ki hai tatha kailiforniya yunivarsiti ke adhyapakon dvara likhit sady: prakashit alochanatmak nibandhon ke sngrah ke uddharan diye hain.

is prasng men yah ullekhaniy hai ki pahali bar hindi men shukl ji ne samajik manovaigyanik adhar par kisi kavi ki vivechana karake alochana ko ek vyaktitv pradan kiya, use jad se gatishil kiya. ek or unhonne samajik sandarbh ko mahatv pradan kiya evn doosari or rachanakar ki vyaktigat man:sthiti ka havala diya. shukl ji ke vyaktitv ka ek gun yah bhi hai ki ve shruti nahin, muni-marg ke anuyayi the. kisi bhi mat, vichar ya siddhant ko unhonne bina apane vivek ki kasauti par kase svikar nahin kiya. yadi unaki buddhi ko vah thik nahin jncha, to usake pratyakhyan men tanik bhi moh nahin dikhaya. isi vishvas ke karan ve kroche, ravindr, kuntak, blek ya spingarn ki tikhi samiksha kar sake the.

alochana ke kshetr men unhonne sadaiv lok-sngrah ki bhoomika par kavy ko parakhana chaha tatha lokasngrah sambandhi dharana men unaki madhyavargiy tatha kuchh madhyayugin naitikata evn sthool adarshavad ka bhi mishran tha. is karan unaki alochana yatr-tatr skhalit bhi huee hai. shukl ji ne apane samikshadarsh men 'ek ki anubhooti ko doosare tak pahunchaya' kavy ka lakshy mana hai tatha is preshan ke dvara manushy ki sajivata ke praman manovikaron ko parishkrit karake unake upayukt alamban lane men usaki sarthakata aur siddhi dekhi hai. kavi ki anubhooti ko sampoorn vishv men vyapt samajhane ke karan unhonne kavikarm ke lie yah mahatvapoorn mana ki “vah pratyek manav sthiti men apane ko dhalakar usake anuroop bhav ka anubhav kare”. is kasauti ki hi agali parinati hai ki aisi bhavadashaon ke lie adhik avakash hone ke karan unhonne mahakavy ko khand-kavy ya muktak-kavy ki apeksha adhik mahatvapoorn svikar kiya. kuchh isi karan 'romantik', 'rahasyatmak' ya 'lirikal' snvedana vale kavy ko ve utani sahanubhooti nahin de sake hain.

sadharanikaran

shukl ji asadharan vastu yojana athava gyanatit dashaon ke chitran ke pakshapati bhi isilie nahin the ki unase preshaniyata men badha pahunchati hai. is siddhant ke svikaran ke phalasvaroop sadharanikaran ke sambandh men kuchh nayi vyakhya dete hue unhonne 'alambanatv dharm ka sadharanikaran' mana. yah unake svatntr kavy-chintan tatha apane adhyayan (vishesh roop se tulasi ke adhyayan) ke dvara prapt nishkarsh ka parichayak bhi hai. apani klasikal ras drishti ke karan hi unhonne kavy men kalpana ko adhik mahatv nahin diya. anubhooti prasoot bhavukata unhen svikary thi, kalpana prasoot nahin. is dharana ke karan hi ve chhayavad jaise kavyandolanon ko uchit mooly nahin de sake. isi karan shuddh chamatkar evn alnkar vaichitry ko bhi unhonne nimn koti pradan ki. alnkar ko unhonne varnan pranali matr mana. unake anusar alnkar ka kam “vastu nirdesh” nahin hai. isi prasng men yah bhi ullekhaniy hai ki unhonne lakshanikata, aupacharikata adi ko alnkar se bhinn shailitatv ke antargat mana hai. kavy shaili ke kshetr men unaki sarvadhik mahatvapoorn sthapana 'bimb grahan' ki shreshth manane sambandhi hai, vaise hi jaise kavy vastu ke kshetr men prakriti chitranasambandhi vishesh agrah unaki apani den hai.

bhavayog

shukl ne kavy ko karmayog evn gyanayog ke samakaksh rakhate hue 'bhavayog' kaha, jo manushy ke hriday ko muktavastha men pahunchata hai. kavy ko 'manornjan' ke halke-phulke uddeshy se hatakar is gambhir dayitv ko saunpane men unaki maulik evn achary drishti drashtavy hai. ve “kavita ko shesh srishti ke sath ragatmak sambandh” sthapit karane vala sadhan manate hain, vastut: kavy ko shakti ke shil-vikas ka mahatvapoorn evn shreshthatam sadhan unhonne mana.

sarvangin vichar

navin sahity roopon evn charitravidhan ki nayi paripatiyon ke karan unhonne apane ras-siddhant men keval sadharanikaran ka hi naye sire se vivechan nahin kiya, sath hi “rasatmak bodh ke vividh roopon” ki charcha karate hue apekshakrit hinatar ras-dashaon ya 'shil-vaichitry' bodh ka vichar kiya hai. varny-vishay ki drishti se bhi unhonne 'siddhavastha' aur 'sadhanavastha' ki drishti se vibhajan kiya hai. kavy ke atirikt unhonne apane sahity men nibandh, natak, kahani, upanyas adi sahityaroopon ke svaroop par bhi snkshipt, par mahatvapoorn sarvagin vichar prakat kiye hain.

samiksha-drishti ki sambhavanaen

shukl ji ki samiksha ka moolasvar yadyapi vyakhyatmak hai, par avashyakata padane par unhonne akalanasambandhi nirnay lene men sahas ki kami nahin dikhaee hai. isaka sabase bada praman unake itihas ka adhunik kal se sambandhit ansh hai. yah avashy hai ki in nirnayon ya vyakhyaon men unake vaiyaktik evn vargagat agrah tatha us yug tak ki itihas drishti ki simaen thin. vastut: shukl ji samiksha ke pratham uthan ke charam vikas the aur age jin logon ne unaka anugaman kiya, ve vahin mahatvapoorn hue. shuklaji ki samiksha-drishti ki sambhavanaen bahut vikasashil nahin thin.

sahityik itihas lekhak

ramachandr shukl hindi ke pratham sahityik itihas lekhak hain, jinhonne matr kavi-vritt-sngrah se age badhakar, “shikshit janata ki jin-jin pravrittiyon ke anusar hamare sahity ke svaroop men jo-jo parivartan hote aye hain, jin-jin prabhavon ki prerana se kavyadhara ki bhinn-bhinn shakhaen phootati rahi hain, un sabake samyak niroopan tatha unaki drishti se kiye hue susngathit kal vibhag” ki or dhyan diya.[3] is prakar unhonne sahity ko shikshit janata ke sath sambaddh kiya aur unaka itihas keval kavi-jivani ya “dhile sootr men gunthi alochanaon” se age badhakar samajik-rajanitik paristhitiyon se snkalit ho utha. vah kavi matr vyakti n rahakar, paristhitiyon ke sath abaddh hokar jati ke kary-kalap ko bhi soochit karane lage. isake atirikt unhonne samany pravrittiyon ke adhar par kalavibhajan aur un yugon ka namakaran kiya. is pravritti-samy evn yug ke anusar kaviyon ko samudayon men rakhakar unhonne “samoohik prabhav ki or” dhyan akarshit kiya. vastut: unaka samikshak roop yahan par bhi ubhar aya hai, aur unaki rasik drishti kaviyon ke kavy samarthy ke udghatan men adhik pravritt huee hain, tathyon ki khojabin ki or kam. yon sahityik pravah ke utthan-patan ka nirdharan unhonne apani lok-sngrah vali kasauti par karana chaha hai, par unaki itihas drishti nirmal nahin thi. yah us samay tak ki prabuddh varg ki itihas sambandhi chetana ki sima bhi thi. shighr hi yug aur kaviyon ke kary-karan sambandh ki asngatiyan samane ane lagin. jaise ki bhaktikal ke udabhavasambandhi unaki dharana bahut shighr ayatharth siddh huee. vastut: sahity ko shikshit jan nahin, samany jan-chetana ke sath sambaddh karane ki avashyakata thi. unaka ausatavad ka siddhant bhi avaigyanik hai. is avaigyanik siddhant ke karan hi unhen kaviyon ka ek phootakal khata bhi kholana pada tha. yadi ve yugon ke vividh antarvirodhon ko prabhavit kar sake hote to aisi asngatiyan n atin.

nibandhakar

ramachandr shukl ka tisara mahatvapoorn vyaktitv nibandhakar ka hai. unake nibandhon ke sambandh men bahudha yah prashn uthaya gaya hai ki ve vishayapradhan nibandhakar hain ya vyaktipradhan. vastut: unake nibangh atmavynjak ya bhavatmak to kisi prakar bhi nahin kahe ja sakate han itana avashy hai ki bich-bich men atmaparak ansh a gaye hain. par aise ansh itane kam hain ki unako praman nahin mana ja sakata. unake nibandh atyant gahare roop men bauddhik evn vishayanishth hain. unhen ham lalit nibandh ki koti men nahin rakh sakate. par in nibandhon men jo gambhirata, vivechan men jo pandity evn tarkikata tatha shaili men jo kasav milata hai, vah inhen abhootapoorv dipti de deta hai. vasvat men nibandhon ke kshetr men shukl ji ki parampara hindi men barabar chalati ja rahi hai. ise yon bhi kaha ja sakata hai ki unake nibandhon ke alokapunj ke samaksh kuchh dinon ke lie lnlit bhavatmak nibandhon ka pranayan ekadam viral ho gaya. unake mahatvapoorn nibandhon ko manovikar sambandhi, saiddhantik samiksha sambandhi evn vyavaharik samiksha sambandhi tin bhagon men banta ja sakata hai. yadyapi inamen antarik sambandh sootr bana rahata hai. inamen bhi pratham prakar ke nibandh shukl ji ke mahattam lekhan ke antargat parigananiy hain.

mrityu

sanh 1937 ee. men banaras hindoo vishvavidyalay ke hindi vibhagadhyaksh ke pad par rahate hue hi sanh 1941 ee. men unaki shvas ke daure men hriday gati band ho jane se mrityu ho gee. sahityik itihas lekhak ke roop men unaka sthan hindi men atyant gauravapoorn hai, nibandhakar ke roop men ve kisi bhi bhasha ke lie garv ke vishay ho sakate hain tatha samikshak ke roop men to ve hindi men apratim hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. prishth 516, gyarahavan snskaran
  2. chintamani, dvitiy bhag, pri. 248
  3. “hindi sahity ka itihas”: ramachandr shukl, bhoomika, prishth 1

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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