महावीर प्रसाद द्विवेदी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mahavir prasad dvivedi
mahavir prasad dvivedi
poora nam mahavir prasad dvivedi
janm 1864
janm bhoomi daulatapur ganv, rayabareli, uttar pradesh
mrityu 21 disambar, 1938
mrityu sthan rayabareli
abhibhavak ramasahay dvivedi
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr sahityakar, patrakar
mukhy rachanaen pady- devi stuti-shatak, kanyakubjavalivratam, kavy mnjoosha, suman adi.

gady-hindi bhasha ki utpatti, sampattishastr, sahityalap, mahilamod adi.

bhasha hindi, snskrit, gujarati, marathi aur angrezi
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari 'sarasvati' sampadak ke roop men inhonne hindi ke utthan ke lie jo kuchh kiya, us par koee sahity garv kar sakata hai.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

mahavir prasad dvivedi (angrezi: Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, janm: 1864; mrityu: 21 disambar, 1938) hindi gady sahity ke mahanh sahityakar, patrakar evn yugavidhayak hain.

jivan parichay

mahavir prasad dvivedi ka janm sanh 1864 ee. men uttar pradesh ke rayabareli zile ke daulatapur ganv men hua tha. inake pita ka nam ramasahay dvivedi tha. kaha jata hai ki unhen mahavir ka isht tha, isilie unhonne apane putr ka nam mahavir sahay rakha.

shiksha

mahavir prasad dvivedi ji ki prarambhik shiksha ganv ki pathashala men hi huee. pradhanadhyapak ne bhool se inaka nam mahavir prasad likh diya tha. hindi sahity men yah bhool sthayi ban gayi. terah varsh ki avastha men angrezi padhane ke lie yah rayabareli ke zila skool men bharti hue. yahan snskrit ke abhav men inako vaikalpik vishay farasi lena pada. inhonne is skool men jyon-tyon ek varsh kata. usake bad kuchh dinon tak unnav zile ke 'ranajit purava skool' men aur kuchh dinon tak fatehapur men padhane ke bad yah pita ke pas bambee chale ge. bambee men inhonne snskrit, gujarati, marathi aur angrezi ka abhyas kiya.

karyakshetr

mahavir prasad dvivedi ji ki utkrisht gyan-pipasa kabhi tript n huee, kintu jivika ke lie inhonne relave men naukari kar li. kuchh dinon tak nagapur aur ajamer men kary karane ke bad yah pun: bambee laut ae. yahan par inhonne tar dene ki vidhi sikhi aur relave men siganalar ho ge. relave men vibhinn padon par kary karane ke bad antat: yah jhansi men distrikt suparintendent ke aaufis men chif klark ho ge. panch varsh bad uchchadhikari se n patane ke karan inhonne naukari se istifa de diya. inaki sahity sadhana ka kram sarakari naukari ke niras vatavaran men bhi chal raha tha aur is avadhi men inake snskrit granthon ke kee anuvad aur kuchh alochanaen prakash men a chuki thin. san 1903 ee. men mahavir prasad dvivedi ne 'sarasvati' ka sampadan svikar kiya. 'sarasvati' sampadak ke roop men inhonne hindi ke utthan ke lie jo kuchh kiya, us par koee sahity garv kar sakata hai. 1920 ee. tak gurutar dayitv inhonne nishthapoorvak nibhaya. 'sarasvati' se alag hone par jivan ke antim atharah varsh inhonne ganv ke niras vatavaran men vyatit kie. ye varsh badi kathinaee men bite.

vyaktitv

mahavir prasad dvivedi ke krititv se adhik mahimamay unaka vyaktitv hai. astikata, kartavyaparayanata, nyayanishtha, atmasnyam, parahit-katarata aur lok-sngrah bharatiy naitikata ke shashvat vidhan hain. yah naitikata ke moortiman pratik the. inake vicharon aur kathanon ke pichhe inake vyaktitv ki garima bhi kary karati thi. vah yug hi naitik moolyon ke agrah ka tha. sahity ke kshetr men sudharavadi pravrittiyon ka pravesh naitik drishtikon ki pradhanata ke karan hi ho raha tha. bhasha-parimarjan ke moolon men bhi yahi drishtikon kary kar raha tha. inaka krititv shlaghy hai to inaka vyaktitv poojy. prachinata ki upeksha n karate hue bhi inhonne navinata ko prashray diya tha. 'bharat-bharati' ke prakashan par inhonne likha tha- “yah kavy vartaman hindi-sahity men yugantar utpann karane vala hai”. is yugantar mool men inaka hi vyaktitv kary kar raha tha. dvivedi ji ne anant akash aur anant prithvi ke sabhi upakaranon ko kavy-vishay ghoshit karake isi yugantar ki soochana di thi. yah navayug ke vidhayak achary the. us yug ka bade se bada sahityakar apake prasad ki hi kamana karata tha. sanh 1903 ee. se 1925 ee. tak (lagabhag 22 varsh ki avadhi men) dvivedi ji ne hindi-sahity ka netritv kiya.

alochak

alochak ke roop men 'riti' ke sthan par inhonne upadeyata, lok-hit, uddeshy ki gambhirata, shaili ki navinata aur nirdoshita ko kavyotkrishtata ki kasauti ke roop men pratishthit kiya. inaki alochanaon se lok-ruchi ka parishkar hua. nootan kavy vivek jagrit hua. sampadak ke roop men inhonne nirantar pathakon ka hit chintan kiya. inhonne navin lekhakon aur kaviyon ko protsahit kiya. rashtrakavi maithilisharan gupt inhen apana guru manate hain. guptaji ka kahana hai ki “meri ulti-sidhi prarambhik rachanaon ka poorn shodhan karake unhen 'sarasvati' men prakashit karana aur patr dvara mere utsah ko badhana dvivedi maharaj ka hi kam tha”. inhonne patrika ko nirdosh, poorn, saras, upayogi aur niyamit banaya. anuvadak ke roop men inhonne bhasha ki pranjalata aur mool bhasha ki raksha ko sarvadhik mahattv diya.

moolyankan

mahavir prasad dvivedi

hindi sahity men mahavir prasad dvivedi ka moolyankan tatkalin paristhitiyon ke sandarbh men hi kiya ja sakata hai. vah samay hindi ke kalatmak vikas ka nahin, hindi ke abhavon ki poorti ka tha. inhonne gyan ke vividh kshetron- itihas, arthashastr, vigyan, puratattv, chikitsa, rajaniti, jivani adi se samagri lekar hindi ke abhavon ki poorti ki. hindi gady ko manjane-snvarane aur parishkrit karane men yah ajivan snlagn rahe. yahan tak ki inhonne apana bhi parishkar kiya. hindi gady aur pady ki bhasha ek karane ke lie (khadiboli ke prachar-prasar ke lie) prabal andolan kiya. hindi gady ki anek vidhaon ko samunnat kiya. isake lie inako angrezi, marathi, gujarati aur bngala adi bhashaon men prakashit shreshth kritiyon ka barabar anushilan karana padata tha. nibandhakar, alochak, anuvadak aur sampadak ke roop men inhonne apana path svayn prashast kiya tha. nibandhakar dvivedi ke samane sadaiv pathakon ke gyan-varddhan ka drishtikon pradhan raha, isilie vishay-vaividhy, saralata aur upadeshatmakata unake nibandhon ki pramukh visheshataen ban gayin.

kritiyan

mahavir prasad dvivedi ki sahityik den kam nahin hai. inake maulik aur anudit pady aur gady granthon ki kul snkhya assi se oopar hai. gady men inaki 14 anudit aur 50 maulik kritiyan prapt hain. kavita ki or mahavir prasad dvivedi ji ki vishesh pravritti nahin thi. is kshetr men inaki anudit kritiyan, jinaki snkhya ath hai, adhik mahattvapoorn hain. maulik kritiyan kul 9 hain, jinhen svayn tukabandi kaha hai. inaki samast kritiyon ka snkshipt vivaran nimnalikhit roop men upasthit kiya ja sakata hai.

pady (anuvad)

  • vinay vinod 1889 ee.- bhritahari ke 'vairagy shatak' ka dohon men anuvad
  • vihar vatika 1890 ee.- git govind ka bhavanuvad
  • sneh mala 1890 ee.- bhritahari ke 'shrringar shatak' ka dohon men anuvad
  • shri mahimn stotr 1891 ee.- snskrit ke 'mahimn stotr ka snskrit vritton men anuvad
  • gnga lahari 1891 ee.- panditaraj jagannath ki 'gnga lahari' ka savaiyon men anuvad
  • ritutarngini 1891 ee.- kalidas ke 'ritusnhar' ka chhayanuvad
  • sohagarat aprakashit- bairan ke 'braidal nait' ka chhayanuvad
  • kumarasambhavasar 1902 ee.- kalidas ke 'kumar sambhavam' ke pratham panch sargon ka saransh.

gady (anuvad)

  • bhamini-vilas 1891 ee.- panditaraj jagannath ke 'bhamini vilas' ka anuvad
  • amrit lahari 1896 ee.- panditaraj jagannath ke 'yamuna stotr' ka bhavanuvad
  • bekan-vichar-ratnavali 1901 ee.- bekan ke prasiddh nibandhon ka anuvad
  • shiksha 1906 ee.- harbart spensar ke 'ejyukeshan' ka anuvad
  • 'svadhinata' 1907 ee.- jaaun stuart mil ke 'aaun libarti' ka anuvad
  • jal chikitsa 1907 ee.- jarman lekhak luee kone ki jarman pustak ke angrezi anuvad ka anuvad
  • hindi mahabharat 1908 ee.-'mahabharat' ki katha ka hindi roopantar
  • raghuvnsh 1912 ee.- 'raghuvnsh' mahakavy ka bhashanuvad
  • veni-snhar 1913 ee.- snskrit kavi bhattanarayan ke 'venisnhar' natak ka anuvad
  • kumar sambhav 1915 ee.- kalidas ke 'kumar sambhav' ka anuvad
  • meghadoot 1917 ee.- kalidas ke 'meghadoot' ka anuvad
  • kiratarjuniy 1917 ee.- bharavi ke 'kiratarjuniyamh' ka anuvad
  • prachin pandit aur kavi 1918 ee.- any bhashaon ke lekhon ke adhar par prachin kaviyon aur panditon ka parichay
  • akhyayika saptak 1927 ee.- any bhashaon ki chuni huee sat akhyayikaon ka chhayanuvad

maulik pady rachanaen

  • devi stuti-shatak 1892 ee.
  • kanyakubjavalivratam 1898 ee.
  • samachar patr sampadan stav: 1898 ee.
  • nagari 1900 ee.
  • kanyakubj- abala-vilap 1907 ee.
  • kavy mnjoosha 1903 ee.
  • suman 1923 ee.
  • dvivedi kavy-mala 1940 ee.
  • kavita kalap 1909 ee.|

maulik gady rachanaen

  • tarunopadesh (aprakashit)
  • hindi shikshavali tritiy bhag ki samalochana 1901 ee.
  • vaigyanik kosh 1906 ee.,
  • 'natyashastr' 1912 ee.
  • vikramankadevacharitacharcha 1907 ee.
  • hindi bhasha ki utpatti 1907 ee.
  • sampattishastr 1907 ee.
  • kautily kuthar 1907 ee.
  • kalidas ki nirakunshata 1912 ee.
  • vanita-vilap 1918 ee.
  • audyagiki 1920 ee.
  • rasgy rnjan 1920 ee.
  • kalidas aur unaki kavita 1920 ee.
  • sukavi snkirtan 1924 ee.
  • atit smriti 1924 ee.
  • sahity sandarbh 1928 ee.
  • adabhut alap 1924 ee.
  • mahilamod 1925 ee.
  • adhyatmiki 1928 ee.
  • vaichitry chitran 1926 ee.
  • sahityalap 1926 ee.
  • vigy vinod 1926 ee.
  • kovid kirtan 1928 ee.
  • videshi vidvanh 1928 ee.
  • prachin chihn 1929 ee.
  • charit charya 1930 ee.
  • puravritt 1933 ee.
  • drishy darshan 1928 ee.
  • alochananjali 1928 ee.
  • charitr chitran 1929 ee.
  • puratattv prasng 1929 ee.
  • sahity sikar 1930 ee.
  • vigyan varta 1930 ee.
  • vagvilas 1930 ee.
  • snkalan 1931 ee.
  • vichar-vimarsh 1931 ee.

uparyukt kritiyon ke atirikt terahaven hindi sahity sammelan (1923 ee.), kashi nagari pracharini sabha dvara kiye gaye abhinandan (1933 ee. aur prayag men ayojit 'dvivedi mela', 1933 ee.) ke avasar par inhonne jo bhashan diye the, unhen bhi pustakakar roop men prakashit kiya gaya hai. apaki banayi huee chh: balopayogi skooli pustaken bhi prakashit hain.

mrityu

21 disambar sanh 1938 ee. ko rayabareli men mahavir prasad dvivedi ji ka svargavas ho gaya. hindi sahity ka achary pith anishchitakal ke lie soona ho gaya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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