सआदत हसन मंटो  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

sadat hasan mnto
Saadat-Hasan-Manto.jpg
poora nam sadat hasan
any nam mnto
janm 11 mee, 1912
janm bhoomi samarala, pnjab
mrityu 18 janavari, 1955
mrityu sthan lahaur, pnjab
abhibhavak gulam hasan, saradar begam
pati/patni safiya
sntan tin putri
karm bhoomi bharat
mukhy rachanaen tamasha, boo, thnda gosht, toba tek sinh, khol do, ghate ka sauda, halal aur jhataka, khabaradar, karamat, bekhabari ka fayada, peshakash adi.
vishay kahani, film aur rediyo patakatha lekhak, patrakar
bhasha hindi, urdoo
vidyalay muslim haeeskool, amritasar, aligadh muslim vishvavidyalay
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari sadat hasan mnto ki ginati aise sahityakaron men ki jati hai jinaki kalam ne apane vaqt se age ki aisi rachanaen likh dalin jinaki gaharaee ko samajhane ki duniya aj bhi koshish kar rahi hai.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

sadat hasan mnto (angrezi: Saadat Hasan Manto, janm:11 mee, 1912, samarala, pnjab; mrityu: 18 janavari, 1955, lahaur) kahanikar aur lekhak the. mnto film aur rediyo patakatha lekhak aur patrakar bhi the. mnto ki kahaniyon ki bite dashak men jitani charcha huee hai, utani shayad urdoo aur hindi aur shayad duniya ke doosari bhashaon ke kahanikaron ki kam hi huee hai. anton chekhav ke bad mnto hi the, jinhonne apani kahaniyon ke dam par apani jagah bana li.

jivan parichay

sadat hasan mnto ki ginati aise sahityakaron men ki jati hai jinaki kalam ne apane vaqt se age ki aisi rachanaen likh dalin jinaki gaharaee ko samajhane ki duniya aj bhi koshish kar rahi hai.[1] prasiddh kahanikar mnto ka janm 11 mee 1912 ko pushtaini bairistaron ke parivar men hua tha. unake pita gulam hasan nami bairistar aur seshan jaj the. unaki mata ka nam saradar begam tha, aur mnto unhen bibijan kahate the. mnto bachapan se hi bahut hoshiyar aur shararati the. mnto ne entrens imtahan do bar phel hone ke bad pas kiya. isaki ek vajah unaka urdoo men kamazor hona tha. mnto ka vivah safiya se hua tha. jinase mnto ki tin putri huee.

unhin dinon ke asapas mnto ne tin-char doston ke sath milakar ek drametik klab khola tha aur aga hashr ka ek natak prastut karane ka irada kiya tha. "yah klab sirf 15-20 din raha tha, isalie ki mnto ke pita ne ek din dhava bolakar haramoniyam aur tabale sab tod-phod die the aur kah diya tha, ki aise vahiyat kam unhen bilkul pasnd nahin."[2]

mnto ki kahaniyon ki bite dashak men jitani charcha huee hai utani shayad urdoo aur hindi aur shayad duniya ke doosari bhashaon ke kahanikaron ki kam hi huee hai. anton chekhav ke bad mnto hi the jinhonne apani kahaniyon ke dam par apani jagah bana li. unhonne jivan men koee upanyas nahin likha.[3]

shiksha

mnto ne entrens tak ki padhaee amritasar ke muslim haeeskool men ki thi. 1931 men unhonne hindoo sabha kaaulej men dakhila liya. un dinon poore desh men aur khasataur par amritasar men azadi ka andolan poore ubhar par tha. jaliyanvala bag ka narasnhar 1919 men ho chuka tha jab mnto ki umr kul sat sal ki thi, lekin unake bal man par usaki gahari chhap thi.[2]

rachanaen

'tamasha'

sadat hasan ke krantikari dimag aur atisnvedanashil hriday ne unhen mnto bana diya aur tab jaliyanvala bag ki ghatana se nikal kar kahani 'tamasha' aee. yah mnto ki pahali kahani thi. krantikari gatividhiyan barabar chal rahi thin aur gali-gali men “inqalab zidabad” ke nare sunaee padate the. doosare naujavanon ki tarah mnto bhi chahata tha ki julooson aur jalason men badh chadhakar hissa le aur nare lagae, lekin pita ki sakhti ke samane vah man masosakar rah jata. akhirakar unaka yah rujhan adab se mukhatib ho gaya. unhonne pahali rachana likhi “tamasha”, jisamen jaliyanvala narasnhar ko ek sat sal ke bachche ki nazar se dekha gaya hai. isake bad kuchh aur rachanaen bhi unhonne krantikari gatividhiyon ke asar men likhi.

1932 men mnto ke pita ka dehant ho gaya. bhagat sinh ko usase pahale phansi di ja chuki thi. mnto ne apane kamare men pita ke foto ke niche bhagat sinh ki moorti rakhi aur kamare ke bahar ek takhti par likha-“lal kamara.”[2]

any kritiyan

kuchh lekh
  • main kya likhata hoon?
  • main afasana kyon kar likhata hoon?
kuchh kahaniyan

toba tek sinh, khol do, ghate ka sauda, halal aur jhataka, khabaradar, karamat, bekhabari ka fayada, peshakash, kamyunizm, tamasha, boo, thnda gosht, ghate ka sauda, halal aur jhataka, khabaradar, karamat, bekhabari ka fayada, peshakash, kali shalavar

roos ke samyavadi sahity se prabhavit

mnto ka rujhan dhire-dhire roosi sahity ki or badhane laga. jisaka prabhav hamen unake rachanakarm men dikhaee deta hai. roosi samyavadi sahity men unaki dilachaspi badh rahi thi. mnto ki mulaqat inhin dinon abdul bari nam ke ek patrakar se huee, jisane unhen roosi sahity ke sath-sath fransisi sahity bhi padhane ke lie prerit kiya. isake bad mnto ne viktar hyoogo, laaurd litan, gorki, anton chekhav, pushkin, aauskar vaild, mopasan adi ka adhyayan kiya.

abdul bari ki prerana par hi unhonne viktar hyoogo ke ek drame "d last dez aauf e kndemd" ka urdoo men anuvad kiya, jo “saraguzasht-e-asir” shirshak se lahaur se prakashit hua. yah drama hyoogo ne mrityudnd ke virodh men likha tha, jisaka anuvad karate hue mnto ne mahasoos kiya ki isamen jo bat kahi gee hai vah usake dil ke bahut qarib hai. agar mnto ke kahaniyon ko dhyan se padha jae, to yah samajhana mushkil nahin hoga ki is drame ne usake rachanakarm ko kitana prabhavit kiya tha. viktar hyoogo ke is anuvad ke bad mnto ne aauskar vaild se drame “vera” ka anuvad shuroo kiya. do dramon ka anuvad kar lene ke bad mnto ne abdul bari ke hi kahane par roosi kahaniyon ka ek snkalan taiyar kiya aur unhen urdoo men roopantarit karake “roosi afasane” shirshak se prakashit karavaya.[2]

rachanatmakata

ek taraph mnto ki sahityik gatividhiyan chal rahi thin aur doosari taraph unake dil men age padhane ki khvahish paida ho gee. akhir faravari, 1934 ko 22 sal ki umr men unhonne aligadh muslim yoonivarsiti men dakhila liya. yah yoonivarsiti un dinon pragatishil muslim naujavanon ka gadh bani huee thi. yahin mnto ki mulaqat ali saradar jafari se huee aur yahan ke mahaul ne usake man men kulabulati rachanatmakata ko ukasaya. mnto ne kahaniyan likhana shuroo kar diya. “tamasha” ke bad kahani “inaqilab pasnd” (1935) nam se likhi, jo aligadh maigazin men prakashit huee.[2]

karyakshetr

1936 men mnto ka pahala maulik urdoo kahaniyon ka sngrah prakashit hua, usaka shirshak tha “atishapare”. aligadh men mnto adhik nahin thahar sake aur ek sal poora hone se pahale hi amritasar laut gaye. vahan se vah lahaur chale gaye, jahan unhonne kuchh din “paras” nam ke ek akhabar men kam kiya aur kuchh din ke lie “musavvir” namak saptahik ka snpadan kiya. janavari, 1941 men dilli akar aaul indiya rediyo men kam karana shuroo kiya. dilli men mnto sirf 17 mahine rahe, lekin yah saphar unaki rachanatmakata ka svarnakal tha. yahan unake rediyo-natakon ke char sngrah prakashit hue 'ao', 'mnto ke drame', 'janaze' tatha 'tin auraten'. usake vivadaspad 'dhuan' aur samasamiyak vishayon par likhe ge lekhon ka sngrah 'mnto ke mazamin' bhi dilli-pravas ke dauran hi prakashit hua. mnto julaee, 1942 men lahaur ko alavida kahakar bnbee pahunch gaye. janavari, 1948 tak bnbee men rahe aur kuchh patrikaon ka snpadan tatha filmon ke lie lekhan ka kary kiya.[2]

pakistan yatra

pakistan men mnto ki smriti men jari dak tikat

1948 ke bad mnto pakistan chale ge. pakistan men unake 14 kahani sngrah prakashit hue jinamen 161 kahaniyan sngrahit hain. in kahaniyon men siyah hashie, nngi avazen, laisens, khol do, tetaval ka kutta, mammi, toba tek sinh, phundane, bijali pahalavan, boo, thnda gosht, kali shalavar aur hatak jaisi charchit kahaniyan shamil hain. jinamen kahani boo, kali shalavar, oopar-niche, daramiyan, thnda gosht, dhuan par lnbe muqadame chale. halanki in muqadamon se mnto manasik roop se pareshan zaroor hue lekin unake tevar jyon ke tyon the.

musharraph alam jauki ke anusar

urdoo afasananigar musharraf alam jauki ke anusar duniya ab dhire-dhire mnto ko samajh rahi hai aur un par bharat aur pakistan men bahut kam ho raha hai lekin aisa lagata hai ki mnto ko poori tarah samajh pane ke liye 100 sal bhi kam hain. jauki ke mutabik shuruat men mnto ko dngon, firakavarana varadat aur veshyaon par kahaniyan likhane vala samany sa sahityakar mana gaya tha lekin darasal mnto ki kahaniyan apane ant ke sath khatm nahin hoti hain. ve apane pichhe insan ko jhakajhor dene vali sachchaiyan chhod jati hain. unaki sapat bayani vali kahaniyan fikr ke asaman ko chhoo leti hain.[1]

mrityu

mnto ke 19 sal ke sahityik jivan se 230 kahaniyan, 67 rediyo natak, 22 shabd chitr aur 70 lekh mile. tamam zillaten aur pareshaniyan uthane ke bad 18 janavari, 1955 men mnto ne apane unhin tevaron ke sath, is duniya ko alavida kah diya.[4]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 sadat hasan mnto (hindi) (ech ti em) vebaduniya. abhigaman tithi: 10 mee, 2011.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 sadat hasan mnto / parichay (hindi) gady kosh. abhigaman tithi: 10 mee, 2011.
  3. sadat hasan mnto (hindi) (ech ti em el) brand bihar. abhigaman tithi: 10 mee, 2011.
  4. sadat hasan mnto (hindi) (ech ti em el) apani hindi. abhigaman tithi: 10 mee, 2011.

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