किपलिंग रुडयार्ड  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kipaling rudayard (1865-1936). suprasiddh angareji sahityakar. bnbee men janm. chhah varsh ki avastha men inglaind ge aur vahan par vah sthal tatha nausena ke sainikon ke putron ke lie rnidisht skool men bharti hue. vahan ke anubhavon ka sajiv chitran unhonne staki aind ko men kiya hai. skooli dinon men unhonne kuchh kavitaen bhi likhi thin jinhen unake pita ne skool bvay liriks ke nam se 1881 men prakashit karavaya. 17 varsh ki avastha men bharatavarsh lautakar ve sivil aind militari gajet ke sahayak snpadak niyukt hue. isi patr ke stnbho men unaki kavitaen tatha kahaniyan prakashit huee thi jo bad men ‘dipartamental ditiz’ tatha ‘plen tels phraaum hils’ ke nam se pustakakar prakashit hokar prasiddh huee : inamen unhonne ainglo indiyan samaj ke sajiv chitr ke sath-sath sadharan sainikon ki kathinaiyon tatha sahash‌ siviliyan aphasaron ki kary patuta tatha hindustani praja ke snkat tatha rahasyamay vyavaharon ko vishad varnan kiya hai. unake chin, japan tatha snyukt rajy amarika ke bhraman ka vritant ‘phraaum si tu si’ (1899) ke nam se prakashit hua hai.

kipaling ke pratham upanyas, ‘di lait dait feld’ ka prakashan 1891 men hua aur ek varsh bad hi unaka prasiddh bairak room bailads namak padyasngrah pathakon ke samane aya. 1893 men ‘meni invenshns’ ke nam se unaka dvitiy kahanisngrah prakashit hua. isake bad kramash: ‘di jngal buk’ aur ‘di seknd jngal buk’ ka prakashan hua. tatpashchat ‘di sevin siz’, ‘kaipten karejiyas’ tatha ‘di dez vark’ ka prakashan hua. julaee, sanh‌ 1897 ee. men maharani viktoriya ke shasan ki hirak jaynti ke avasar par ‘di seshanal’ namak prasiddh kavita ki rachana ki. boar yuddh ke samay unake prasiddh upanyas kim (1901) ka prakashan hua. boar yuddh ki samapti ke sath hi unaki khyati ghatane lagi aur unake vicharon men bhi parivartan hua. ve saseks prant men ja base. vahan ke snsmaranon ka samavesh unaki kritiyon, jaise ‘pak aav puks hil’ aur ‘rivardas aind pheyariz’ men hua hai. sanh‌ 1907 men unhen nobel puraskar prapt hua.

kipaling ki lokapriyata ka rahasy unaki sahityik kritiyon ki navinata thi. us navinata ka lop hote hi unaki khyati bhi kam hoti gee. unhonne hindustan men rahane vale sabhi sainikon ke jivan ka chitran kiya. unhonne kakani bhasha ko kavy ka madhyam banakar tatha use lokapriy svaralahari men anekanek chhndon men bandh kar anoothe lokagiton ka nirman kiya. isi prakar unhonne yntrayug ke anek avishkaron ko apane sahity ka ang banakar tatsnbndhi paribhashik shabdon ka asadharan gyan pradarshit kiya. isi karan unaki kavitaen apratyashit navinata se otaprot dikhalaee padin. parntu yah navinata kritrim kalee ke saman hi kshanik siddh huee aur usake ghisate hi unaki kala ki rukshata nagn roop men prakat huee. isi tarah unaka samrajyavad bhi tatkalin vicharadhara ke anukool hone se turnt lokapriy hua. unhonne shvet jatiyon ke prabhutv ka samarthan kiya aur angrejon ko bhagavan ke vishesh anugrah ka patr manakar unhen anunnat kale logon ko sabhy tatha anushasit karane ke punit kartavy ke lie prerit kiya. parntu kalantar men samrajyavad ke avasan ke sath hi unaka sndesh bhi sarahin tatha khokhala siddh hua.

kipaling gady tatha pady donon prakar ki rachanaon men patrakar ki pratibha se hi prerit rahe. unaka anubhav vistrit tha, shabdgyan bhi asadharan tha aur hindustan tatha any deshon ke bahy drishyon ka-chahe ve prakritik hon athava manavasamooh ke dainik vyavahar se snbndhit unhonne sajiv chitran kiya hai. parntu unaki bhasha men n to sahity ka sthayi saushthav hai aur n k vi ki paini drishti jo vastuon ki atma tak pahunchane men samarth hoti hai. phir bhi unaki kritiyon men kuchh aisi baten avashy hain jo uchch sahity ke tatvon se anupranit hai aur unake yash ko jivit rakhane ke lie paryapt hain.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 3 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 09 |

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