जैनेन्द्र कुमार  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

jainendr kumar
Jainendra kumar.jpg
poora nam jainendr kumar
any nam anndi lal (moolanam)
janm 2 janavari, 1905
janm bhoomi kaudiyalagnj, aligadh, uttar pradesh
mrityu 24 disambar, 1988
pati/patni bhagavati devi
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr lekhak, upanyasakar, kahanikar
mukhy rachanaen 'parakh', 'sunita' (upanyas)
vishay samajik
bhasha hindi
vidyalay kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay
shiksha snatak
puraskar-upadhi sahity akadami puraskar (1966), padm bhooshan (1971), sahity akadami phailoship (1974)
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari jainendr kumar ne mahatma gandhi ke sath bharatiy svatntrata sngram ke asahayog andolan men bhag liya th.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

jainendr kumar (angrezi: Jainendra Kumar janm: 2 janavari, 1905 - mrityu: 24 disambar, 1988) hindi sahity ke prasiddh manovaigyanik kathakar, upanyasakar tatha nibndhakar the. ye hindi upanyas ke itihas men manovishleshanatmak parnpara ke pravartak ke roop men many hain. jainendr apane patron ki samanyagati men sookshm snketon ki nihiti ki khoj karake unhen bade kaushal se prastut karate hain. unake patron ki charitrik visheshataen isi karan se snyukt hokar ubharati hain.

jivan parichay

aligadh men 2 janavari, 1905 ko janme jainendr ne balyavastha se hi alag tarah ka jivan jiya. inake mama ne hastinapur men gurukul sthapit kiya tha, vahin inaki padhaee bhi huee. do varsh ki ayu men hi pita ko kho chuke the. jainendr to bad men bane, apaka moolanam 'anndi lal' tha. uchch shiksha kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay men huee. 1921 men padhaee chhodakar asahayog andolan men kood pade. 1923 men rajanitik snvadadata ho ge. british sarakar ne giraphtar kar liya. chhootane ke kuchh samay bad lekhan prarnbh kiya.[1]

sahityik parichay

'phansi' inaka pahala kahani sngrah tha, jisane inako prasiddh kahanikar bana diya. upanyas 'parakh' se sanh‌ 1929 men pahachan bani. 'sunita' ka prakashan 1935 men hua. 'tyagapatr' 1937 men aur 'kalyani' 1939 men prakashit hue. 1929 men pahala kahani-sngrah 'phansi' chhapa. isake bad 1930 men 'vatayan', 1933 men 'nilam desh ki rajakanya', 1934 men 'ek rat', 1935 men 'do chidiyan' aur 1942 men 'pajeb' ka prakashan hua. ab to 'jainendr ki kahaniyan' sat bhagon upalabdh hain. unake any mahattvapoorn upanyas hain- 'vivart,' 'sukhada', 'vyatit', 'jayavardhan' aur 'dashark'. 'prastut prashn', 'jad ki bat', 'poorvoday', 'sahity ka shrey aur prey', 'mnthan', 'soch-vichar', 'kam aur parivar', 'ye aur ve' inake nibndh sngrah hain. talastoy ki rachanaon ka inaka anuvad ullekhaniy hai. 'samay aur ham' prashnottar shaili men jainendr ko samajhane ki drishti se sarvadhik mahattvapoorn pustak hai. [1]

pramukh kritiyan

upanyas
  • 'parakh' (1929)
  • 'sunita' (1935)
  • 'tyagapatr' (1937)
  • 'kalyani' (1939)
  • 'vivart' (1953)
  • 'sukhada' (1953)
  • 'vyatit' (1953)
  • 'jayavardhan' (1956)
kahani sngrah
  • 'phansi' (1929)
  • 'vatayan' (1930)
  • 'nilam desh ki rajakanya' (1933)
  • 'ek rat' (1934)
  • 'do chidiyan' (1935)
  • 'pajeb' (1942)
  • 'jayasndhi' (1949)
  • 'jainendr ki kahaniyan' (sat bhag)
nibndh sngrah
  • 'prastut prashn' (1936)
  • 'jad ki bat' (1945)
  • 'poorvoday' (1951)
  • 'sahity ka shrey aur prey' (1953)
  • 'mnthan' (1953)
  • 'soch vichar' (1953)
  • 'kam, prem aur parivar' (1953)
  • 'ye aur ve' (1954)
anoodit grnth
  • 'mndalini' (natak-1935)
  • 'prem men bhagavanh' (kahani sngrah-1937)
  • 'pap aur prakash' (natak-1953).
sah lekhan
  • 'tapobhoomi' (upanyas, rishabhacharan jain ke sath-1932).
snpadit grnth
  • 'sahity chayan' (nibndh sngrah-1951)
  • 'vicharavallari' (nibndh sngrah-1952)

hindi sahity men sthan

jainendr kumar ka hindi sahity men vishesh sthan hai. jainendr pahale aise lekhak hain jinhonne hindi gady ko manovaigyanik gaharaiyon se joda. jis samay premachand samajik prishthabhoomi ke upanyas aur kahaniyan likh kar janata ko jivan ki sachchaiyon se jodane ke kam men maharath siddh kar rahe the, jab hindi gady 'premachand yug' ke nam se jana ja raha tha, tab us nayi lahar ke madhy ek bilkul nayi dhara prarambh karana saral kary nahin tha. alochakon aur pathakon ki pratikriya ki chinta kiye bina, kahani aur upanyas likhana jainendr ke liye kitana kathin raha hoga, isaka anuman kiya ja sakata hai. bahut se alochakon ne jainendr ke sahity ke vyaktinishth vatavaran aur svatntr manasikata vali nayikaon ki alochana bhi ki parntu vyakti ko roodhiyon, prachalit manyataon aur pratishthit snbndhon se hat kar dekhane aur dikhane ke snkalp se jainendr vichalit nahin hue. jivan aur vyakti ko bndhi lakiron ke bich se hata kar dekhane vale jainendr ke sahity ne hindi sahity ko nayi disha di jis par bad men hamen agyey chalate hue dikhaee dete hain.

premachand sahity ke poorak

manushy ka vyaktitv samajik sthitiyon aur bhitari chintan-chintaon se mil kar banata hai. donon men se kisi ek ka abhav usake hone ko khndit karata hai. is drishti se jainendr, premachand yug aur premachand sahity ke poorak hain. premachand ke sahity ki samajikata men vyakti ke jis nijatv ki kami kabhi- kabhi khalati thi vah jainendr ne poori ki. is drishti se jainendr ko hindi gady men 'prayogavad' ka prarambhakarta kaha ja sakata hai. unake prarambh ke upanyason 'parakh' (1929), 'sunita'(1935) aur 'tyagapatr' (1937) ne vayask pathakon ko sochane ke lie bahut si nayi samagri di. 'hindi sahity ka itihas' men gopal ray ji likhate hain 'unake upanyason ki kahani adhikatar ek parivar ki kahani hoti hai aur ve ’shahar ki gali aur kothari ki sabhyata’ men hi simat kar vyakti-patron ki manasik gaharaiyon men pravesh karane ki koshish karate hain.' jainendr ke patr bane-banaye samajik niyamon ko svikar kar, unamen apana jivan bitane ki cheshta nahin karate apitu un niyamon ko chunauti dete hain. yah chunauti pray: unaki nayikaon ki or se ati hai jo unaki lagabhag sabhi rachanaon men mukhy patr bhi hain. sanh 1930-35 ya 40 men striyon ka samaj ki chinta kiye bina, vivah snstha ke prati prashn uthana svayn men nayi bat thi.

jainendr ke patron ka vyaktittv

jainendr ke patron men yah shnka, ulajhan dikhaee deti hai ki striyan snbndhon ki maryada men rahate hue bhi svatntr vyaktittv banae rakhana chahati hain jo ni:sndeh bharatiy parivesh men aj, yani jainendr ke in upanyason ke samay ke 60-70 varsh bad bhi yatharth nahin hai jainendr janate the ki vah jis nari svatntrata ke vishay men soch rahe hain, vah ek durlabh vastu hai. samaj ke svikar aur pratikriya ke prashnon se ve bhi ulajhe the isaliye ve prashnon ko uthate to hain kintu unaka uttar spasht roop se nahin dete balki kahani ko ek mod par lakar chhod dete jahan se pathak ki kalpana aur bhav-buddhi apane ichchhanusar vicharati hai. bahudha yah sthiti khij bhi utpann karati thi visheshakar us samay men, jab ye upanyas likhe gaye the. premachand ke upanyason men samasyaon ka pray: samadhan hua karata tha, us samay ek bhinn prakar ki samasya utha kar, bina nidan die, chhod dena nissndeh ek nee shurooat thi.

unake upanyason- 'kalyani', 'sukhada', 'vivart', 'vyatit', 'jayavardhan' adi men unake stri-patr samaj ki vicharadhara ko badalane men asamarth hone ke karan antat: atmayatana ke shikar banate hain yah atmayatana unake jivan darshan ka ek ang ban jati hai. unamen samaj se alag hat kar apane astitv ko dhoondhane ka atmatosh to hai kintu us svatntr astitv ke sath rah n pane ki nirasha bhi hai. jainendr ke upanyason ne nissndeh sahityik vicharadhara aur darshan ko nee disha di agyey ke upanyas isi disha men age badhe hue lagate hain.

jainendr ki kahaniyon men bhi hamen yah nee disha dikhaee deti hai. alochakon ka manana hai ki 'unhonne kahani ko ’ghatana’ ke star se uthakar ’charitr’ aur ’manovaigyanik saty’ par lane ka prayas kiya. unhonne kathavastu ko samajik dharatal se samet kar vyaktigat aur manovaigyanik bhoomika par pratishthit kiya.' chahe unaki kahani 'hatya' ho ya 'khel', 'apana-apana bhagy', 'bahubali', 'pajeb', dhruvatara, 'do chidiyan' adi sabhi kahaniyon men vyakti-man ki shnkaon, prashnon ko prastut karati hain.

kaha ja sakata hai ki jainendr ke upanyason aur kahaniyon men vyakti ki pratishtha, hindi sahity men nee bat thi jisane n keval vyakti aur samaj ke parasparik snbndh nee vyakhya ki balki vyakti man ko uchit mahatta bhi dilavaee. jainendr ke is yogadan ko hindi sahity kabhi nahin bhool sakata.[2]

premachnd aur jainendr

jainendr kumar premachnd yug ke mahatvapoorn kathakar mane jate hain. unaki pratibha ko premachnd ne bharapoor man diya. ve samakalin daur men premachnd ke nikatatam sahayatriyon men se ek the magar donon ka vyaktitv juda tha. premachnd lagatar vikas karate hue antat: mahajani sabhyata ke ghinaune chehare se parda hatane men poori shakti lagate hue 'kafan' jaisi kahani aur kisan se mazadoor banakar rah ge. hori ke jivan ki mahagatha godan likhakar vida hue. jainendr ne javani ke dinon men jis vaicharik pithika par khade hokar rachanaon ka srijan kiya jivan bhar usi se tike rahakar manovigyan, dharm, eeshvar, ihalok, paralok par gahan chintan karate rahe. samay aur ham unaki vaicharik kitab hai. premachnd ke antim dinon men jainendr ne apani astha par jor dete hue unase poochha tha ki ab eeshvar ke bare men kya sochate hain. premachnd ne duniya se vidaee ke avasar par bhi tab javab diya tha ki is badahal duniya men eeshvar hai aisa to mujhe bhi nahin lagata. ve antim samay men bhi apani vaicharik dridhata barakarar rakh sake yah dekhakar jainendr behad prabhavit hue. vamapnthi vicharadhara se jude lekhakon ke varchasv ko mahasoos karate hue jainendr ji kalavad ka jhnda bulnd karate hue apani thasak ke sath samakalin sahityik paridrishy par alag najar ate the. gahari mitrata ke bavajood premachnd aur jainendr ek doosare ke vicharon men bhinnata ka bharapoor samman karate rahe aur sath- sath chale.[3]

samman aur puraskar

  • hindustani akadami puraskar, 1929 men 'parakh' (upanyas) ke lie
  • bharat sarakar shiksha mntralay puraskar, 1952 men 'prem men bhagavanh' (anuvad) ke lie
  • 1966 men sahity akadami puraskar 'muktibodh' (laghu upanyas) ke lie
  • padm bhooshan, 1971
  • sahity akadami phailoship, 1974
  • hastimal dalamiya puraskar (nee dilli)
  • uttar pradesh rajy sarakar (samay aur ham-1970)
  • uttar pradesh sarakar ka shikhar samman 'bharat-bharati'
  • manad di. lith (dilli vishvavidyalay, 1973, agara vishvavidyalay,1974)
  • hindi sahity sammelan, prayag (sahity vachaspati-1973)
  • vidya vachaspati (upadhiah gurukul kangadi)
  • sahity akadami ki prathamik sadasyata
  • pratham rashtriy yoonesko ki sadasyata
  • bharatiy lekhak parishadh ki adhyakshata
  • dilli pradeshik hindi sahity sammelan ka sabhapatitv[4]

jainendr-sa doosara nahin

hindi ke alochak pro. namavar sinh ne kaha hai ki vishv sahity men bharatiy kahaniyon ka apana maulik charitr hai aur vishv sahity men jab kabhi bharatiy kahaniyon ki bat hogi to premachnd ke sath jainendr ko zaroor yad kiya jaega. unhonne jainendr ko yad karate hue kaha ki "nee kahani se jude logon ne un par bade arop lagae. ek adhiveshan men kolakata bulakar khoob kharikhoti sunaee lekin jainendr jara bhi uttejit nahin hue. aj aise kam sahityakar hain jo apani alochanaon ko itani sahajata se sunate hain." unhonne kaha ki vah kissagoee ke kathakar nahin the aur n hi unaki kahaniyan ghatana pradhan hoti thin. vah to pratikriyavadi the. is mauke par unhonne jainendr ki 'khel' aur 'nilam desh ki rajakanya' namak kahaniyon ki yad dilaee. jainendr ke sath lnbe samay tak rahe pradip kumar ne kaha, "vah kahani kisi bhi pnkti se shuroo kar dete the. kahate the- tumhin pahali pnkti kah do! vah kabir ke bhakt the aur hamesha kabir ke dohe gate rahate the. kathin paristhitiyon men bhi sarakar se sahayata ki ummid nahin rakhate the aur n hi use svikarate the." kavi ashok vajapeyi ne kaha, "satta ke galiyaron men gahari paith rakhane valon se vah barabari ka snvad karate the aur spashtat: apani bat kahate the. vah manate the ki bhasha ho to shrringarahin ho. unhen shabd ke snkoch ka kathakar kaha ja sakata hai."[5]

nidhan

24 disnbar 1988 ko unaka nidhan ho gaya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 jainendr kumar (hindi) hindi bhavan. abhigaman tithi: 1 faravari, 2013.
  2. jainendr kumar / parichay (hindi) gadyakosh. abhigaman tithi: 1 faravari, 2013.
  3. jainendr kumar ki kahani kala (hindi) udnti daaut kaaum. abhigaman tithi: 1 faravari, 2013.
  4. jainendrakumar janmashati (hindi) hindi bhavan. abhigaman tithi: 1 faravari, 2013.
  5. jainendr kumar sa doosara n hua (hindi) hindinest.com. abhigaman tithi: 1 faravari, 2013.

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