उपेन्द्रनाथ अश्क  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

upendranath ashk
upendranath ashk
poora nam upendranath ashk
janm 14 disambar, 1910
janm bhoomi jalndhar, pnjab
mrityu 19 janavari, 1996
abhibhavak pandit madhoram
pati/patni kaushalya ashk
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr kavi, lekhak
mukhy rachanaen upanyas- girati divare, garmarakh, sitaron ke khel; natak- lautata hua din, bade khiladi, jayaparajay; kahani sngrah- sattar shreshth kahaniyan, judaee ki sham ke git, kale sahab, pinjara adi.
bhasha hindi, urdoo
vidyalay di. e. vi. kaaulej, jalndhar
shiksha bi.e., elel. bi
puraskar-upadhi 1972 ee. men 'soviyat laind neharoo puraskar', 1965 men 'sngit natak akadami puraskar'.
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari urdoo ke saphal lekhak upendranath 'ashk' ne munshi premachnd ki salah par hindi men likhana arambh kiya. 1933 men prakashit unake doosare kahani sngrah 'aurat ki phitarat' ki bhoomika munshi premachand ne hi likhi thi.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

upendranath 'ashk' (angrezi: Upendranath Ashk, janm- 14 disambar, 1910; mrityu- 19 janavari, 1996) upanyasakar, nibandhakar, lekhak, kahanikar hain. ashk ji ne adarshonmukh, kalpanapradhan athava kori romani rachanaen ki.

jivan parichay

upendranath ashk ji ka janm pnjab prant ke jalndhar nagar men 14 disambar, 1910 ko ek madhyamavargiy brahman parivar men hua tha. ashk ji chh: bhaiyon men doosare hain. inake pita 'pandit madhoram' steshan mastar the. jalndhar se maitrik aur phir vahin se di. e. vi. kaaulej se inhonne 1931 men bi.e. ki pariksha pas ki. bachapan se hi ashk adhyapak banane, lekhak aur sampadak banane, vakta aur vakil banane, abhineta aur dayarektar banane aur thiyetar athava film men jane ke anek sapane dekha karate the.

sahityik parichay

hindi-urdoo ke premachndottar katha sahity ke vishisht kathakar upendranath ashk ki pahachan, bahuvidhavadi rachanakar hone ke bavajood, kathakar ke roop men hi hai. rashtriy andolan ke behad uthalaputhal se bhare daur men unaka rachanatmak vikas hua, jaliyanvala bag jaisi nrishns ghatanaon ka unake bal mastishk par gahara prabhav pada tha. unaka gnbhir aur vyavasthit lekhan pragatishil andolan ke daur men shuroo hua. usaki adharabhoot manyataon ka samarthan karane ke bavajood unhonne apane ko us andolan se bandhakar nahin rakha. yadyapi jivan se unake saghan judav aur parivartanakami mooly-chetana ke prati jhukav, us andolan ki hi den thi. sahity men vyaktivadi-kalavadi rujhanon se bachakar jivan ki samajh ka shoor aur salika unhonne isi andolan se arjit kiya tha. bhasha evn shailigat prayog ki virat parinati unaki isi savadhani ki parinati thi. unaki kahaniyan manaviy niyati ke prashnon, jivanagat vidnbanaon, madhyavargiy manushy ke dainndin jivan ki gutthiyon ke chitran ke karan; nagarik jivan ke har pahaloo snbaddh rahane ke karan samany pathakon ko unaki kahaniyan apanape se bhari lagati hain, unamen rajanitik prakharata aur ugrata ke abhav se kisi riktata bodh nahin hota.[1]

karyakshetr

bi.e. pas karate hi upendranath ashk ji apane hi skool men adhyapak ho gaye. par 1933 men use chhod diya aur jivikoparjan hetu saptahik patr 'bhoochal' ka sampadan kiya aur ek any saptahik 'guru ghantal' ke lie prati saptah ek rupaye men ek kahani likhakar di. 1934 men achanak sab chhod laau kaaulej men pravesh le liya aur 1936 men laau pas kiya. usi varsh lambi bimari aur pratham patni ke dehant ke bad inake jivan men ek apoorv mod aya. 1936 ke bad ashk ke lekhak vyaktitv ka ati urvar yug prarambh hua. 1941 men ashk ji ne doosara vivah kiya. usi varsh 'aaul indiya rediyo' men naukari ki. 1945 ke disambar men bambee ke film jagat ke nimntran ko svikar kar vahan filmon men lekhan ka kary karane lage. 1947-1948 men ashk ji nirantar asvasth rahe. par yah unake sahityik sarjan ki urvarata ka svarn-samay tha. 1948 se 1953 tak ashk ji dampatti (patni kaushalya ashk) ke jivan men sngharsh ke varsh rahe. par inhin dinon ashk yakshma ke chngul se bachakar ilahabad aye, inhonne 'nilabh prakashan grih' ki vyavastha ki, jisase unake sampoorn sahityik vyaktitv ko rachana aur prakashan donon drishti se sahaj path mila. ashk ji ne apani kahani, upanyas, nibandh, lekh, snsmaran, alochana, natak, ekanki, kavita adi ke kshetron men kary kiya hai.

kritiyan

urdoo ke saphal lekhak upendranath 'ashk' ne munshi premachnd ki salah par hindi men likhana arambh kiya. 1933 men prakashit unake doosare kahani sngrah 'aurat ki phitarat' ki bhoomika munshi premachand ne hi likhi thi. ashk ne isase pahale bhi bahut kuchh likha tha. urdoo men 'nav-ratn' aur 'aurat ki fitarat' unake do kahani sngrah prakashit ho chuke the. pratham hindi sngrah 'judaee ki sham ka git' (1933) ki adhikansh kahaniyan urdoo men chhap chuki thin. jaisa ki ashk ji ne svny likha hai, 1936 ke pahale ki ye kritiyan utani achchhi nahin bani. anubhooti ka sparsh unhen kam mila tha. 1936 ke bad ashk ji ki kritiyon men sukh-du:khamay jivan ke vyaktigat anubhav se adabhut rng bhar gaya. 'urdoo kavy ki ek nee dhara' (alochak granth), 'jay parajay' (aitihasik natak), 'papi', 'veshya', 'adhikar ka rakshak', 'lakshmi ka svagat', 'jonk', 'paheli' aur 'apas ka samajhauta' (ekanki), 'svarg ki jhalak' (samajik natak): kahani sngrah 'pinjara' ki sabhi kahaniyan, 'chhinten' ki kuchh kahaniyan aur 'prat pradip' (kavita sngrah) ki sabhi kavitaen unaki patni ki mrityu (1936) ke do dhaee sal ke hi alp samay men likhi gee.[2]

natak

natak ke kshetr men 1937 se lekar unhonne jitani kritiyan sampoorn natak aur ekanki ke roop men likhi hain, sab pray: apane lekhanakal ke uparant usi varsh kram se prakashit huee hain. ashk ji ke natak 'alag alag raste' men vivah, prem, aur samajik pratishtha ki samasya ko prastut kiya gaya hain. vartaman samaj men vyavastha ke chakr men ulajhi do nariyon ke antarman men basane vali pida, ghayal snskar aur pyasi khoonkhar pravrittiyon ka pradarshan hua hai. isamen samay, sthan aur kary - sampadan ki ekata ka kalatmak dhng se nirvah kiya hain. ullekhaniy tathy yah hain ki is natak ka akalan rngamnch ke upayukt banane ke lie rng nirdeshon ka sundar prayog isamen hua hain. alag alag raste natak ka mnch bina kisi atirnjana ke sath hua hain jisake phalasvaroop natak ke ras ka sadharanikaran darshak ya pathak ko sahaj hi anubhoot hoti hain.

upendranath ashk ke natak
san kriti
1937 jay parajay
1938 ekanki-'papi
1938 veshya
1938 lakshmi ka svagat
1938 adhikar ka rakshak
1939 svarg ki jhalak
1939 jonk
1939 apas ka samajhauta
1939 paheli
1939 devataon ki chhaya men
1940 vivah ke din
1940 chhatha beta
1941 naya purana
1941 chamatkar
1941 khidaki
1941 sookhi dali
1942 bahanen
1942 kamada
1942 memoona
1942 chilaman
1942 chumbak
1943 tauliye
1944 pakka gana
1946 kisa sab kisi aya
1947 toofan se pahale
1948 charavahe
1950 adi marg
1950 batasiya
1950 kasbe k kriket klab ka udaghatan
1950 qaid aur udan
1951 maskebazon ka svarg
1951 parda uthao parda girao
1953 paintare
1954 alag-alag raste
1954 adarsh aur yatharth
1955 anjodidi
1956 andhi gali ke ath ekanki
1961 bhnvar

kahaniyan

ankur, nasur, chattan, dachi, pinjara, gokharoo, baigan ka paudha, memane, daliye, kale sahab, bachche, ubal, keptan rashid adi ashk ji ki pratinidhi kahaniyon ke namoone sahit kul dedh-do sau kahaniyon men ashk ji ka kahanikar vyaktitv saphalata se vyakt hua hai.

kavy granth

  • 'dip jalega' (1950)
  • 'chandani rat aur ajagar' (1952)
  • 'baragar ki beti' (1949)

snsmaran

  • 'manto mera dushman' (1956)
  • 'nibandh, lekh, patr, dayari aur vichar granth-'zyada apani kam parayi' (1959)
  • 'rekhaen aur chitr' (1955).

anuvad

  • 'rng saj' (1958)- roos ke prasiddh kahanikar 'aintan chekhav' ke laghu upanyas ka anuvad.
  • 'ye adami ye choohe' (1950)- stin baink ke prasiddh upanyas 'av mais end main' ka anuvad.
  • 'hij ekselensi' (1959)- amar kathakar daaustyaauvaski ke laghu upanyas 'darti stori' ka hindi anuvad.

sampadan

upanyas
san kriti
1940 sitaron ke khel
1945 badi-badi ankhen
1947 girati divar
1952 garm rakh
1957 patthar alapatthar
1963 shahar men ghoomata aeena
1969 ek nanhin kindil

samriddhata ka anuman

srijan ki itani kshamata se sahaj hi ashk ji ki lekhan shakti aur bhav jagath ki samriddhata ka anuman lagaya ja sakata hai. upanyas, natak, kahani aur kavy kshetr men ashk ji ki upalabdhi mukhyat: natak, upanyas aur kahani men vishesh roop se mahattvapoorn hai. 'girati divar' aur 'garm rakh' hindi upanyas ke kshetr men yatharthavadi parampara ke upanyas hain. sampoorn natakon men 'chhatha beta', 'anjodidi' aur 'qaid' ashk ji ki natyakala ke saphalatam udaharan hain. 'chhatha beta' ke shilp men hasy aur vyng, 'anjodidi' ke sthapaty men vyavaharik rngamnch ke saphalatam tattv aur shilp ka anoothapan tatha 'qaid' men stri ka hridayasparshi charitr chitran tatha usake rachana vidhan men adhunik natyatattv ki jaisi abhivyakti huee hai, usase ashk ji ki naty kala aur rngamnch ke parichay ka snket milata hai. ekanki natakon men 'bhnvar', 'charavahe', 'chilaman', 'taulie' aur 'sookhi dali' ashk ji ki ekanki kala ke sundaratam udaharan hain. sabhi ekanki rngamnch ke svayatt adhikari hain. ashk ji ki kahaniyan premachand ke adarshonmukh yatharthavad athava vikas kram se prapt vishuddh yatharthavadi parampara ki hain. kahani kala aur rachana shilp spasht katha tattv ke sahit moolat: charitr ke kendr bindu se poorn hota hai. ashk ji ke samast charitr upanyas, natak athava kahani kisi bhi sahity prakar men sarvatha yatharth hain. unase samajik aur vaiyaktik jivan ki samast samasyaon-rag dvesh ka pratinidhitv hota hai.

yadagar ghatanaen

  • hindi sahity ke yadagar baton men upendranath ashk se juda hua parachoonavala ullekh bhi mashahoor hai. ilahabad men ashkaji ne parachoon ki dukan kholi. midiya ne ise unake kisi kism ke asntosh ya mohabhng se jodate hue khabar pracharit ki. gauratalab hai ki tab ka midiya rajanitik danv pench ke sath sath sahity ki akhadebaji ko bhi khabaron men khoob tarajih deta tha. khair, parachoon tak to bat thik thi magar dhany hai anuvad adharit patrakarita jisane isamen sirph choona dekha aur bat choone ki dukan tak gee. kuchh logon ko yah choona sachamuch laim nazar aya aur kuchh ko ninboo. urvarabuddhi valon ne isamen pani aur jod diya aur pracharit ho gaya ki ashk ji ilahabad men ninboo pani bech rahe hain. mamala sahityakar ki durdasha se jud gaya. ashk ji ko khud sari baten saf karani padi.[3]
  • ilahabad ki ghatana hai. ek chhatra ne upendranath ashk se aautograph bahi par hastakshar karane ke lie kaha. ashk ji apani pustakon ki bikri men khud ruchi lete the. aautograph buk men likha- 'pustaken kharid kar padhon-ashk'. isake bad chhatr ne dharmavir bharati ko aautograph dene ke lie kaha to unhonne likha-
pustak kharidane ka pata- nilabh prakashan, khusaro bag, ilahabad
yah pata ashk ji ke prakashan snsthan ka tha.[4]

samman aur puraskar

upendranath ashk ji ko sanh 1972 ee. men 'soviyat laind neharoo puraskar' se bhi sammanit kiya gaya tha. isake alava upendranath ashk ko 1965 men sngit natak akadami puraskar se bhi sammanit kiya gaya tha.

nidhan

upendranath ashk ji ka 19 janavari, sanh 1996 ee. men nidhan ho gaya tha.

sahayak granth

  1. zyada apani kam parayi: upendr nath 'ashk':
  2. natakakar 'ashk': nilabh prakashan


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. upendranath ashk ki shreshth kahaniyan (hindi) (pi.ech.pi) bharatiy sahity sngrah. abhigaman tithi: 14 disambar, 2012.
  2. shri upendranath ashk ke alag alag raste (hindi) (pi.ech.pi). . abhigaman tithi: 14 disambar, 2012.
  3. parachoon ki paidaish se upendranath ashk tak (hindi) (pi.ech.pi) shabdon ka saphar. abhigaman tithi: 14 disambar, 2012.
  4. upendranath ashk ka prakashan vyavasay !! (hindi) (pi.ech.pi) navajanya. abhigaman tithi: 14 disambar, 2012.

snbndhit lekh

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