नाथूरामशर्मा 'शंकर'  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

nathooramasharma 'shnkar'
Blankimage.png
poora nam nathooram sharma
any nam shnkar
janm 1859
janm bhoomi hnraduagnj, aligadh
mrityu 1935
mrityu sthan hnraduagnj, aligadh
karm-kshetr sahity, kavy
mukhy rachanaen 'anurag ratn', 'shnkar saroj', 'garmaranda-rahasy',
bhasha hindi, urdoo, farasi tatha snskrit
prasiddhi sahityakar
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari nathooram sharma ne ayurved ka adhyayan kiya aur shighr hi piyooshapani vaidy ke roop men vikhyat ho gaye. khadiboli ke kavy ke pratham nirnayakon men nathooram sharma agrani hain evn kavita ko samaj ke sath sambndhit karane ka aitihasik dayitv unhonne nibhaya hai.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

nathooramasharma 'shnkar' (angrezi: Nathuram Sharma, janm- 1859, hnraduagnj, aligadh; mrityu- 1935) bade sahityanuragi the. ye hindi, urdoo, farasi tatha snskrit bhashaon ke achchhe gyata the aur padyarachana men atynt siddh hast the.

parichay

nathooram sharma ka janm 1859 ko hnraduagnj, aligadh, uttar pradesh men hua tha. inaka any nam shnkar bhi hai. ye hindi, urdoo evn farasi bhashaon ke achchhe gyata the tatha bad men snskrit bhasha men bhi poori tarah yogyata arjit kar li thi. nakshanavisi aur paimais ka kam sikhakar ve kanapur men nahar vibhag men naukari karane lage. apane kary men to ve daksh the hi daphtar ke angrez aphasaron ko hindi bhi sikhate the. lagabhag sadhe sat sal kanapur men is pad par kam karate rahe, phir achanak hi ek din svabhimani nathooram sharma ne apane samman ke prashn par naukari se tyagapatr de diya aur janm-sthan ko laut gaye. jivika ke liye unhonne naye sire se ayurved ka adhyayan kiya aur shighr hi piyooshapani vaidy ke roop men vikhyat ho gaye.

rachana

rachana ka strot unamen prarambh se hi vidyaman tha. kahate hain ki terah varsh ki ayu men hi apane ek sathi par unhonne doha likha tha. vah urdoo-pharasi ka jamana tha. mushayaro ka jor tha. balak nathooram ki srijanashakti pahale se is urdoo madhyam ki or hi akrisht huee aur ve haraduagnj ke mushayaron men shighr hi apana 'kalam' padhane ke liye amntrit hone lage. parntu is samay tak ary samaj ki hava bahane lagi thi- balak nathooram par usaka bhi prabhav pada evn kanapur ane par vah prabhav hi gahara nahin hua, bharatendu mandal ke anyatam nakshatr pn. pratapanarayan mishr aur unake 'brahman' ke sampark men aye. unaki pratibha 'hindi' ke madhyam se yahi se phooti.

kavyagrnth

'anurag ratn', 'shnkar saroj', 'garmaranda-rahasy', namak grnth apake jivanakal men hi prakashit ho gaye the. san 1951 ee. men unaki muktak kavitaon ke panch sngrah (gitavali, kavita kunj, doha, samasya poortiyan, vividh rachanaen) 'shnkar sarvasv' namak sngrah men ek sath sngrahit hokar prakashit ho gaye hain. inake atirikt 'kalit kalevar' namak nakh-sikh varnan sambandhit ritikalin parampara ka kavyagrnth aur unhonne likha tha, par samasamayik jivan aur prakritiyon ke prati jagarook shnkar ji ne use apane hi hathon nasht kar diya. 'shnkar satasee' namak unaka ek any grnth jal kar nasht ho gaya tha.

shnkar ji ka rachanakal bharatendu-yug se lekar dvivedi yug tak prasarit hai. ve vastav men ek prakar se snkranti yug ke kavi the. unaka rachanakal ka sabase adhik urvat samay vah tha, jab ary samaj evn bharatiy rashtriy andolan jor pakad rahe the. bharatendu-yug ki parinati dvivedi yug men ho rahi thi. sahity ke vishay hi nahin, bhasha bhi badal gayi thi. us samay purane ke prati moh bhi tha, vivek ke alok men naye ko grahan karane ki cheshta bhi ki thi. mahakavi 'shnkar' men ye sabhi pravrittiyan baddhamool thin.

'shnkar' ji apani shiksha-diksha, snskar tatha yugin ruchiyon men do poorvavarti paramparaon se sambndhit the. ek parampara urdoo-kavy aur usake mushayaron ki thi tatha doosari ritikalin brajabhasha ke kavitt, savaiya evn dohon ki shrringari parampara thi. donon hi paramparaen evn vakri-kaushal par bal deti thin. donon men hi abhyas evn lakshanashastr par atyadhik bal diya tha. padak, puraskar upahar evn vah-vahi kavi liye nitant gaurav ka vishay hote the. 'shnkar' bhi urdoo aur hindi men chamatkarapoorn kavitaen likhate the. samasya poortiyon men to ve nishnat the. jivan men saikadon samasya poortiyan unhonne kin aur unake adhar par sammanit hue. 'bharat prgyendu', 'sahity sudhadhar' adi darjanon upadhiyan unhen apani is sahaj chamatkarini kavitv shakti ke lie prapt huee thi. unaki abhivynjana ka yah vaidagdhy navin bhasha evn kavy ke navin vishayon ko apanane ke bad bhi surakshit raha.[1]

sahity kshetr

unaka vastavik mahattv un chamatkarapoorn vynjanaon ki apeksha us shakti men nihit hai, jisake karan ve naye jivan ki samasyaon ko samajh sake the. us jivan nen unhen andolit evn prerit kiya tha. yadi yah shakti unamen n hoti to n to ritikal ke ram-bodh men paga unaka man desh-bhakti evn samaj-sudhar ki saikadon kavitaen evn 'garbharanda rahasy' jaisa prabndh-kavy ek samajik samasya par likh pate aur n ve khadiboli ko kavy ke kshetr men itane saras shaktipoorn dhng se atmavishvasapoorvak prayukt kar pate. mahavir prasad dvivedi ne jab gady-pady ki bhashaon ko ek roop karane ke lie 'sarasvati' ke madhyam se prayas prarambh kiya, tab khadiboli ki 'sarasvati' men prakashit kavitaon ke bare men apani ray likhate hue da. grisarsan ne unhen niras bataya tha. dvivedi ji ne 'shnkar ji' se 'sarasvati' ki laj rakhane ki prarthana ki. is prarthana ke parinamasvaroop 'shnkar' ki 'sarasvati' men prakashit kavitaen padhakar griyarsan ne khadiboli ki kavitaon ke sambndh men apani sammati ko parivartan karate hue dvivedi ji ko likha- "ab main nishchay poorvak kah sakata hoon ki khadiboli men bhi sundar aur saras kavitaen ho sakati hai." khadiboli men unake likhe kavitt aj bhi bejod mane jate hain. men gatanurgatikata aur adambar ko chhinnn-bhinn karake sarvatha navin pranaliyon ke prayoktaon men se ek pramukh prayokt ka gaurav unhen milana chahiye. desh ki arthik duravastha, kisanon ki garibi aur daridrata ka unhonne marmasparshi chitran kiya hai- "kaise pet akinchan soy rahe, bin bhojan balak roy rahe, chithade tak bhi n rahe tan pai, dhik dhool pade is jivan pai." sampradayavad gurudam, dhrirtata ko unhonne dhikkara hai, bharat ki shastrahinata par kshobh prakat kiya hai. paradhinata par marmantak vedana ka prakashan kiya hai. rishvatakhor aphasaron evn soodakhor ko dant pilayi hai. shilpakala ki durdasha par ansoo bahaye hain, koopamandookata ka tiraskar kiya hai. dharm ke pakhandiyon ke pakhand ka nirmam-bhav se udaghatan kiya hai. apane yug ki samast naitik, samajik, rajanitik evn dharmik samasyaon par unhonne apane kavy ke madhyam se vichar kiya hai.

sudhar evn sngharsh-yug ki pravritti ke anukool yah jagarookata yadyapi pratyaksh evn sthool roop se prakat huee hai par isase un pradesh ke aitihasik mahattv men kami nahin ati, jo 'shnkar' ki vani dvara hindi kavy ke vishay kshetr evn bhasha ko prapt hua hai. unake man men kavy evn chhnd ki ekata gahare roop men vidyaman thi- isi karan purane vishayon men hi nahin, nayi shaili men bhi chhnd sambndhi tratiyan unamen apavad ke liye bhi prapt nahin hoti. chhndon ke anek naye evn sashakt prayog bhi unhonne kiye hain. do chhndon ke mishran se naye chhnd bhi unhonne banaye hain jaise trotakatmak (milindapad) tatha kajali gaise lokachhndon ko bhi unhonne apanaya hai. matrik chhndon men bhi saman varnon ki yojana ka dassadhy kary unhonne kiya hai. kavitt chhnd ke to ve pandit the. 'sanehi' ji ne apane prarambhik rachanakal men unase prashnsa payi thi. vastav men 'sanehi' evn 'ratnakar' ki parampara ke ve bij the. unaka brajabhasha kavi ka roop ratnakar men nikharata hai evn khadiboli ki ghanakshari-savaiya ki parampara 'sanehi skool' men pashpit-pallavit hoti hai.

apane hasy evn vyngy ke lie jis sachot bhasha ka unhonne upayog kiya hai, usake karan 'shnkar ji' ki bhasha ke bare men ek bhram phail gaya hai ki ve purush shabdavali ka prayog karate hain. yah bat saty nahin hai. unake shrringar, karun evn shant rasasambndhi chhndon ki bhasha mridul evn shrritipriy hai. apane vyngy-kavy avashy unhonne madhurata ki or dhyan nahin diya. par yah vishay ka takaja tha. vyngy-vyay likhane ke lie bhasha ko adhik samarth aur shaktishali hona bhi chahie. nathooram ji ki bhasha men yah saty poornima nirhit hai. 'garbharanda rahasy' men vidhavaon ki buri sthiti evn mandiron men chalane vale durachar ki isi karari bhasha men bakhiya udhedan ki gayi hai. vastav men anek samajik vishayon par likhe gaye kavy ka mrilasvar ojapoorn hai. padmasinh sharma unake kavy men ras, alnkar, chhnd adi paramparagat tattvon par mugdh the aur isi karan adhunik kaviyon men unhen sarvashreshth evn anek anshon men prachin kaviyon se hi achchha samajhate the. itihasgy kashiprasad jayasaval ne unhen nayi pady-rachana ke mool acharyon men se mana tha evn is navinata se abhibhoot ganesh shnkar vidyarthi ne unamen 'jabaradast maulikata' dekhi thi.

rajanitik jivan

svatantrata kavy-rachana ke atirikt urdoo-pharasi aur snskrit ki kavitaon evn sooktiyon ke ve uttam anuvadak bhi the. padmasinh sharma unase bahudha aise anuvad karaya karate the. kanapur pravas men unhonne pratap narayan mishr ke 'brahman' ke sampadan men bhi apana bahumooly sahayog diya tha. phir ve keval kore sahityik hi nahin the, rashtriy svatntry sngram evn aryasamaj ke andolanon men unhonne khulakar nirbhayatapoorvak kam kiya tha.

khadiboli ke kavy ke pratham nirnayakon men nathooram sharma agrani hain evn kavita ko samaj ke sath sambndhit karane ka aitihasik dayitv unhonne nibhaya hai. khadiboli ko unhonne kavyashaili evn chhndon ke sanche hi nahin diye, abhivynjanagat samarthy bhi pradan ki. unake isi aitihasik mahattv ko dhyan men rakhate hue hi premachndaji ne dilli prantiy hindi sahity ke sammelan ke adhyakshiy bhashan men kaha tha- "shayad koee jamana aye ki haraduagnj ('shnkar' ki janmabhoomi) hamara tirthasthan ban jae." kavy men jise 'retasik' tattv kahate hain, vah hamen unake kavy men prabhrit matra men upalabdh hota hai, balki kahana yon chahie ki hindi-kavy men unaki paramparaon men hi yah tattv aj bhi apramukh nahin ho saka hai.

mrityu

nathooram sharma ki mrityu hnraduagnj namak kasbe men san 1935 ee. men hua thi.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi sahity kosh |lekhak: dhirendr varma (pradhan) |prakashak: gyanamandal limited varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari |prishth snkhya: 297 |

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah