काव्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Disamb2.jpg kavy ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- kavy (bahuvikalpi)


kavy
'ramacharitamanas' (prabandh kavy)
vivaran 'kavy' vah vaky rachana hai, jisase chitt kisi ras ya manoveg se poorn ho. arthath vah kala jisamen chune hue shabdon ke dvara kalpana aur manovegon ka prabhav dala jata hai.
shabdik arth kavy ya kavita ka shabdik arth hai- "kavyatmak rachana ya kavi ki kriti, jo chhandon ki shrinkhalaon men vidhivat bandhi jati hai."
prakar kavy tin prakar ke kahe ge hain, 'dhvani', 'gunibhoot vyngy' aur 'chitr'.
snbndhit lekh khnd kavy, kavita, mahakavy, prabodhak kavy, prabandh kavy
any janakari hindi kavy ya pady sahity ka itihas lagabhag 800 sal purana hai aur isaka prarnbh terahavin shatabdi se samajha jata hai. har bhasha ki tarah hindi kavita bhi pahale itivrittatmak thi, yani kisi kahani ko lay ke sath chhnd men bandh kar alnkaron se saja kar prastut kiya jata tha.

kavy athava kavita ya pady sahity ki vah vidha hai jisamen kisi kahani ya manobhav ko kalatmak roop se kisi bhasha ke dvara abhivyakt kiya jata hai. bharat men kavita ka itihas aur kavita ka darshan bahut purana hai. isaka prarnbh bharat muni se samajha ja sakata hai.

shabdik arth

kavy ya kavita ka shabdik arth hai kavyatmak rachana ya kavi ki kriti, jo chhandon ki shrinkhalaon men vidhivat bandhi jati hai. kavy vah vaky rachana hai jisase chitt kisi ras ya manoveg se poorn ho. arthath vah kala jisamen chune hue shabdon ke dvara kalpana aur manovegon ka prabhav dala jata hai. 'rasagngadhar' men 'ramaniy' arth ke pratipadak shabd ko 'kavy' kaha hai. 'arth ki ramaniyata' ke antargat shabd ki ramaniyata (shabdalnkar) bhi samajhakar log is lakshan ko svikar karate hain. par 'arth' ki 'ramaniyata' kee prakar ki ho sakati hai. isase yah lakshan bahut spasht nahin hai. 'sahity darpanakar' vishvanath ka lakshan hi sabase thik mana gaya hai. unake anusar 'rasatmak vaky hi kavy hai.' ras arthath manovegon ka sukhad snchar ki kavy ki atma hai.

itihas

hindi kavy ya pady sahity ka itihas lagabhag 800 sal purana hai aur isaka prarnbh terahavin shatabdi se samajha jata hai. har bhasha ki tarah hindi kavita bhi pahale itivrittatmak thi, yani kisi kahani ko lay ke sath chhnd men bandh kar alnkaron se saja kar prastut kiya jata tha. bharatiy sahity ke sabhi prachin grnth kavita men hi likhe ge hain. isaka vishesh karan yah tha ki lay aur chhnd ke karan kavita ko yad kar lena asan tha. jis samay chhapekhane ka avishkar nahin hua tha aur dastavezon ki anek pratiyan banana asan nahin tha us samay mahattvapoorn baton ko yad rakh lene ka yah sarvottam sadhan tha. yahi karan hai ki us samay sahity ke sath sath rajaniti, vigyan aur ayurved ko bhi pady (kavita) men hi likha gaya. bharat ki prachinatam kavitaen snskrit bhasha men rigved men hain jinamen prakriti ki prashasti men likhe ge chhndon ka sundar snkalan hain. jivan ke anek any vishayon ko bhi in kavitaon men sthan mila hai.

kavy ke prakar

kavy tin prakar ke kahe ge hain, dhvani, gunibhoot vyngy aur chitr.

  • dhvani vah hai jisamen shabdon se nikale hue arth (vachy) ki apeksha chhipa hua abhipray (vyngy) pradhan ho.
  • gunibhoot vyngy vah hai jisamen vyngy arth agoodh ban jae to dhvanikavy nahin rahata, gunobhoot vyngy ya madhyam kavy vah ho jata hai.[1]
  • chitr ya alnkar vah hai jisamen bina vyngy ke chamatkar ho. in tinon ko kramashah uttam, madhyam, aur adham bhi kahate hain.

kavyaprakashakar ka jor chhipe hue bhav par adhik jan padata hai, ras ke udrek par nahin. kavy do prakar ka mana gaya hai, drishy aur shravy. drishy kavy vah hai jo abhinay dvara dikhalaya jay, jaise, natak, prahasan adi. jo padhane aur sunane yogy ho, vah shravy hai. shravy kavy do prakar ka hota hai, gady aur pady. pady kavy ke mahakavy aur khndakavy do bhed kahe ja chuke hain. gady kavy ke bhi do bhed kie ge hain. katha aur akhyayika. chnpoo, virud aur karnbhak tin prakar ke kavy aur mane ge hai.

pady kavy ke bhed

kavy ke do bhed kie ge hain-

  1. mahakavy
  2. khnd kavy

mahakavy

kamayani (pady kavy)

mahakavy sargabaddh aur usaka nayak koee devata, raja ya dhirodatt gunn snpann kshatriy hona chahie. usamen shrringar, vir ya shant rason men se koee ras pradhan hona chahie. bich bich men karuna; hasy ityadi aur ras tatha aur aur logon ke prasng bhi ane chahie. kam se kam ath sarg hone chahie. mahakavy men sndhya, soory, chndr, ratri, prabhat, mrigaya, parvat, van, ritu sagar, snyog, vipralnbh, muni, pur, ygy, ranaprayan, vivah adi ka yathasthan sannivesh hona chahie.

khnd kavy

khand kavy men mukhy charitr ki kisi ek pramukh visheshata ka chitran hone ke karan adhik vividhata aur vistar nahin hota. muktak kavy men katha-sootr avashyak nahin hai. isalie usamen ghatana aur charitr ke anivary prasng men bhav-yojana nahin hoti. vah kisi bhav-vishesh ko adhar bana kar ki gee svatntr rachana hai. hindi sahity men khndakavy prabndh kavy ka ek roop hai.

shaili ke anusar kavy ke bhed

shaili ke anusar kavy ke tin bhed hain-

  1. pady kavy- isamen kisi katha ka varnan kavy men kiya jata hai, jaise jayashnkar prasad ka kamayani .
  2. gady kavy- isamen kisi katha ka varnan gady men kiya jata hai, jaise ravindranath taigor ki gitanjali. gady men kavy rachana karane ke lie kavi ko chhnd shastr ke niyamon se svachchhndata prapt hoti hai.
  3. chnpoo kavy- isamen gady aur pady donon ka samavesh hota hai. maithilisharan gupt ki 'yashodhara' chnpoo kavy hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. trilochan ke bare men |prakashak: vani prakashan |snkalan: bharatakosh pustakalay |snpadan: gobind prasad |prishth snkhya: 174 |

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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