उपन्यास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

upanyas gady lekhan ki ek vidha hai. upanyas aur kahani ka kala-roop adhunik yug ki upaj hai. vidvanon ka aisa vichar hai ki upanyas aur kahani snskrit ki katha-akhyayikaon ki sidhi sntan nahin hain. kavita aur natak ke sndarbh men yahi bat nahin kahi ja sakati. arthath natak aur kavita ki tarah upanyas aur kahani ki parampara purani nahin hai. upanyas ka snbndh yatharthavad se bataya jata hai. purani duniya adarshavadi thi. adhunik duniya yatharthavadi hai. yatharthavadi hone ka pahala lakshan hai jivan ke sare moolyon ka laukik hona. usamen jivan ki vyakhya mukhyat: do adharon par hoti hai-

  1. bhaugolik, samajik, rajanitik, arthik paristhitiyan
  2. aitihasik parampara

upanyas ki paribhasha

achary hajariprasad dvivedi ke shabdon men
janm se hi upanyas yatharth jivan ki or unmukh raha hai. purani katha-akhyayika se vah isi bat men bhinn hai. ve (yani, purani katha-akhyayikaen) jivan ke khatakane vale yatharth ke sngharshon ke bachakar svapnalok ki madak kalpanaon se manav ko ulajhane, bahakane aur phusalane ka prayatn karati thin, jabaki upanyas jivan ki yatharth se ras khinchakar chitt-vinodan ke sath hi sath manushy ki samasyaon ke sammukhin hone ka ahvan lekar sahity kshetr men aya tha. usake pair thos dharati par jame hain aur yatharth jivan ki kathinaiyon aur sngharshon se chhanakar ane vala “avyaj manohar” manaviy ras hi usaka pradhan akarshan hai.[1]
munshi premachnd ke shabdon men
main upanyas ko manav-charitr ka chitr matr samajhata hoon. manav charitr par prakash dalana aur usake rahasyon ko kholana hi upanyas ka mool tattv hai. sab adamiyon ke charitron men bhi bahut kuchh samanata hote hue bhi kuchh vibhinnataen hoti hain. yahi charitr snbndhi samanata aur vibhinnata-abhinnatv men bhinnatv aur vibhinnatv men abhinnatv-dikhana upanyas ka mool karttavy hai.[1]
arnest e. bekar ke shabdon men

arnest e. bekar ne upanyas ki paribhasha dete hue use gadyabaddh kathanak ke madhyam dvara jivan tatha samaj ki vyakhya ka sarvottam sadhan bataya hai. yon to vishvasahity ka prarnbh hi snbhavat: kahaniyon se hua aur ve mahakavyon ke yug se aj tak ke sahity ka merudnd rahi hain, phir bhi upanyas ko adhunik yug ki den kahana adhik samichin hoga. sahity men gady ka prayog jivan ke yatharth chitran ka dyotak hai. sadharan bolachal ki bhasha dvara lekhak ke lie apane patron, unaki samasyaon tatha unake jivan ki vyapak prishthabhoomi se pratyaksh snbndh sthapit karana asan ho gaya hai. jahan mahakavyon men kritrimata tatha adarshonmukh pravritti ki spasht jhalak dekhane ko milati hai, adhunik upanyasakar jivan ki vishrrinkhalataon ka nagn chitran prastut karane men hi apani kala ki sarthakata dekhata hai.

yatharth ke prati agrah ka ek any parinam yah hua ki katha sahity ke apaurushey tatha alaukik tatv, jo prachin mahakavyon ke vishisht ang the, poornataya lupt ho ge. kathakar ki kalpana ab simabaddh ho gee. yatharth ki paridhi ke bahar jakar manachahi udan lena usake lie pray: asnbhav ho gaya. upanyas ka avirbhav aur vikas vaigyanik pragati ke sath hua. ek or jahan vigyan ne vyakti tatha samaj ko samany dharatal se dekhane tatha chitrit karane ki prarena di vahin doosari or usane jivan ki samasayaon ke prati ek ne drishtikon ka bhi snket kiya. yah drishtikon mukhyat: bauddhik tha. upanyasakar ke oopar kuchh ne uttaradayitv a ge the. ab usaki sadhana kala ki samasyaonn tak hi simit n rahakar vyapak samajik jagarookata ki apeksha rakhati thi. vastut: adhunik upanyas samajik chetana ke kramik vikas ki kalatmak abhivyakti hai. jivan ka jitana vyapak evn sarvangin chitr upanyas men milata hai utana sahity ke any kisi bhi roop men upalabdh nahin.

samajik jivan ki vishad vyakhya prastut karane ke sath hi sath adhunik upanyas vaiyaktik charitr ke sookshm adhyayan ki bhi suvidha pradan karata hai. vastav men upanyas ki utpatti ki kahani yooropiy punarutthan (renaisan) ke phalasvaroop arjit vyaktisvatnty ke sath lagi huee hai. itihas ke is mahatvapoorn daur ke uparant manav ko, jo ab tak samaj ki ikaee ke roop men hi dekha jata tha, vaiyaktik pratashtha mili. samntavadi yug ke samajik bndhan dhile pade aur manav vyaktitv ke vikas ke lie unmukt vatavaran mila. yatharthonmukh pravrittiyon ne manav charitr ke adhyayan ke lie bhi ek naya drishtikon diya. ab tak ke sahity men manav charitr ke saral vargikaran ki parnpara chali a rahi hai. patr ya to poornataya bhale hote the ya ekadam ge gujare. achchhaiyon aur trutiyon ka sammishran, jaisa vastavik jivan men sarvatr dekhane ko milata hai, us samay ke kathakaron ki kalpana ke pare ki bat thi. upanyas men pahali bar manav charitr ke yatharth, vishad evn gahan adhyayan ki snbhavana dekhane ko mili.

angreji ke mahanh‌ upanyasakar henari filding ne apani rachanaon ko gady ke likhe ge vyngyatmak mahakavy ki sngya di. unhonne upanyas ki itihas se tulana karate hue use apekshakrit adhik mahatvapoorn kaha. jahan itihas kuchh vishisht vyaktiyon evn mahatvapoorn ghatanaon tak hi simit rahata hai, upanyas pradarshit jivan ke saty, shashvat aur snrvadeshiy mahatv rakhate hain. sahity men aj upanyas ka vastut: vahi sthan hai jo prachin yug men mahakavyon ka tha. vyapak samajik chitran ki drishti se donon men paryapt samy hai. lekin jahan mahakavyon men jivan tatha vyaktiyon ka adarshavadi chitr milata hai, upanyas, jaisa filding ki paribhasha se spasht hai, samaj ki alochanatmak vyakhya prastut karata hai. upanyasakar ke lie kahani sadhan matr hai, sadhy nahin. usaka dhyey pathakon ka manornjan matr bhi nahin. vah sachche arth men apane yug ka itihasakar hai jo saty aur kalpana donon ka sahara lekar vyapak samajik jivan ki jhanki prastut karata hai.[2]

upanyas ke samanantar idhar upanyasika namak navin gady vidha ka sootrapat hua hai jise laghu upanyas bhi kaha jata hai. upanyasika apani snghatana ki drishti se upanyas ke nikat hone par bhi kalaver tatha akar ke chalate kahani ke adhik nikat hoti hai. isamen n to kahani jaisi ekasootrata, saghan bunavat aur prabhavanviti hoti hai aur n hi upanyas jaisa phailav tatha niroopan vaividhy. dekha jae to upanyasika upanyas aur kahani ke bich ki vidha hai.[3]

bharatakosh par upalabdh upanyas


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 upanyas aur kahani (hindi) sahityalochan. abhigaman tithi: 25 faravari, 2013.
  2. sn.grn.-ee.em. forstar : aispekts aauv d navel; ralf faauks : di navel ainu d pipul; pasi kuvatak : d kraift aauv fikshan; edavin myor : d strakchar aauv d navel.
  3. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 119 |

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