रासो काव्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hindi sahity men 'ras' ya 'rasak' ka arth lasy se liya gaya hai jo nrity ka ek bhed hai. at: isi arth ke adhar par git nrity parak rachanaen 'ras' ke nam se jani jati hain. 'raso' ya 'raus' men vibhinn prakar ke adill, dhoosa, chhappay, kundaliyan, paddhatika adi chhnd prayukt hote hain. is karan aisi rachanaen 'raso' ke nam se jani jati hain.

vidvanon ke mat

kuchh vidvanon ne 'rason' ki vyutpatti 'rahasy' shabd ke 'rasah' ya 'rahasy' ke prakrit roop se mani hai.

  • shri ramanarayan doogad likhate hain - 'raso shabd 'rahas' ya rahasy ka prakrit roop maloom padata hai. isaka arth gupt bat ya bhed hai, jaise ki shiv rahasy, devi rahasy adi grnthon ke nam hain, vaise shuddh nam prithviraj rahasy hai jo ki prakrit men prithviraj ras, rasa ya raso ho gaya.
  • daau. kashi prasad jayasaval aur kaviraj shyamadas ke anusar 'rahasy' pad ka prakrit roop 'rahasso' banata hai, jisaka kalantar men uchcharan bhed se bigadata hua roopantar raso ban gaya hai. rahasy, rahasso, rasso, raso isaka vikas kram hai.
  • achary ramachandr shukl 'raso' ki vyutpatti 'rasayan' se manate hain. daau. udayanarayan tivari 'rasak shabd se raso' ka udbhav manate hain.

visaladev men 'ras' aur 'rasayan' shabd ka prayog kavy ke lie hua hai. 'nalh rasayan arnbhee' evn 'ras rasayan sunai sab koee' adi. ras ko utpann karane vala kavy rasayan hai. visaladev raso men prayukt 'rasayan' evn 'rasiy' shabdon se 'raso' shabd ban hai.

  • pro. lalita prasad sukul rasayan ko ras ki nishpatti ka adhar manate hain.
  • mahamahopadhyay daau. haraprasad shastri 'rajasthan ke bhat charan adi rasa (krida ya jhagada) shabd se raso ka vikas batate hain.'
  • daau. griyarsan 'raso ka roop rasa athava raso manate hain tatha usaki nishpatti 'rajadesh' se huee batate hain. inake anusar - ' is raso shabd ki nishpatti 'rajadesh' se huee hai, kyonki adesh ka roopantar ayasu hai.'
  • mahamahopadhyay daau. gaurishnkar hirachand ojha hindi ke rasa shabd ko snskrit ke ras shabd se anusyoot kahate hain. unake matanusar - 'main rasa shabd ki utpatti snskrit ke ras shabd se manata hoon. ras shabd ka arth vilas bhi hota hai ( shabd kalpadum chaturth kand) aur vilas shabd charit, itihas adi ke arth men prachalit hai.'
  • daau. dasharath sharma evn daau. hazariprasad dvivedi ka kathan hai ki "ras' parampara ki git nrity parak rachanayen hi age chalakar vir ras ke padyatmak iti vritton men parinat ho gee. 'raso pradhanatah ganayukt nrity vishesh se kramashah vikasit hote-hote uparupak aur kinphar uparupak se vir ras ke padyatmak prabandhon men parinat ho gaya. is gey natyon ka git bhag kalantar men kramashah svatantr shravy athava pathy kavy ho gaya aur inake charit nayakon ke anusar isamen yuddh varnan ka samavesh hua.
  • pn. vindhyeshvari prasad dvivedi raso shabd ko "rajayash' shabd se vinishrat hua manate hain.
  • sahityachary mathura prasad dikshit raso pad ka janm raj se batalate hain.

in abhimaton ke vishleshan ka nishkarsh raso shabd "ras' ka vikas hai.

ukti v kahavaton men

bundelakhand men kuchh aisi uktiyan bhi paee jati hai, jinase raso shabd ke svaroop par bahut kuchh prakash padata hai, jaise - hon lage sas bahoo ke rachhare. yah 'rachhara' shabd raso se hi sambandhit hai. sas bahoo ke bich hone vale vakyuddh ko prakat karane vala yah 'rachhara' shabd badi svabhavikata se rayasa ya raso ke shabdik mahatv ko pragat karata hai. vir kavy parampara men yah raso shabd yuddh sambandhi kavita ke lie hi prayukt hua hai. isaka hi bundelakhandi snskaran "rachharau' hai. uparyukt sabhi maton ke nishkarshasvaroop yah ek aisa kavy hai jisamen rajaon ka yash varnan kiya jata hai aur yash varnan men yuddh varnan svatah samahit hota hai.

raso kavy parampara

raso kavy parampara hindi sahity ki ek vishisht kavyadhara rahi hai, jo viragatha kal men utpann hokar madhy yug tak chali aee. kahana yon chahie ki adi kal men janm lene vali is vidha ko madhyakal men vishesh poshan mila. prithviraj raso se prarambh hone vali yah kavy vidha deshi rajyon men bhi milati hai. tatkalin kavigan apane ashrayadataon ko yuddh ki prerana dene ke lie unake bal paurush adi ka atirnjit varnan in raso kavyon men karate rahe hain.

  • raso kavy parampara men sarvapratham granth 'prithviraj raso' mana jata hai.
  • snskrit, bauddh aur jain sahity men "ras', "rasak' nam ki anek rachanayen likhi geen. gurjar evn rajasthani sahity men to isaki ek lambi parampara paee jati hai. yah nirvivad saty hai ki snskrit kavy granthon ka hindi sahity par bahut prabhav pada. snskrit kavy granthon men vir ras poorn varnanon ki kami nahin hai.
  • rigved men tatha shatapath brahman men yuddh evn virata sambandhi sookt hain.
  • mahabharat to vir kavy hi hai. yahin se soot, magadh adi dvara rajaon ki prashnsa ka sootrapat hua jo age chalakar bhat, charan, dhuliyon adi dvara atirnjit rup ko prapt kar saka.
  • vir kavy ki drishti se 'ramayan' men bhi yuddh ke atishayokti poorn varnan hain.
  • 'kiratarjuniy, men viroktiyon dvara vir ras ki srishti badi svabhavik hai.
  • 'uttar ramacharit' men jahan 'eko rasah karun ev' ka pratipadan hai vahin chandraketu aur lav ke vir ras se bhare vad vivad bhi hain.
  • narayan krit "veni snhar' men vir ras ka atyant sundar paripak hua hai. isase spasht hai ki hindi ki vir kavy pravritti snskrit se hi vinishrit huee hai.
  • daau. uday narayan tivadi ne "vir kavy' men hindi ki vir kavyadhara ka udgam snskrit ki vari ras rachanaon se mana hai.

raso kavy ka svaroop

raso parampara do rupon men milati hai -

  1. prabandh kavy
  2. viragit kavy.
  • prabandh kavy men 'prithviraj raso' tatha vir git ke rup men 'visaladev raso' jaisi rachanayen hain. jaganik ka raso apane mool rup men to aprapt hai kintu, 'alha khand' nam ki vir ras rachana usi ka parivartit rup hai. alha, oodal evn prithviraj ki ladaiyon se sambandhit vir giton ki yah rachana hindi bhasha kshetr ke janamanas men goonj rahi hai.

adi kal ki pramukh rachanayen prithviraj raso, khamman raso evn visaladev raso hain. hindi sahity ke prarambh kal ki ye rachanayen vir ras evn shrringar ras ka mila-jula rup prastut karati hain.

jain sahity men raso

jain sahity men "ras' evn "rasak' nam se abhihit anek rachanayen hain jinamen sandesh rasak, bharateshvar bahubali ras, kachchhooliras adi pratinidhi hain.

raso ka samay

  • prithviraj raso evn visaladev raso ko kuchh vidvanh solahavin evn satrahavin shatabdi ki rachana manate hain.
  • daau. mataprasad gupt inhen terahavin, chaudahavin shatabdi ka manate hain. yah raso parampara hindi ke janm se poorv apabhrnsh men vartaman thi tatha hindi ki utpatti ke sath sath gurjar sahity men bhi vidyaman thi.
  • pn. mohanalal vishnulal pndaya ne raso ke paksh samarthan men is bat ki or dhyan dilaya ki raso ke sab snvaton men, yatharth snvaton se 90-91 varsh ka antar ek niyam se padata hai. unhonne yah vichar upasthit kiya ki yah antar bhool nahin hai, balki kisi karan se rakha gaya hai. isi dharana ko lie hue unhonne raso ke is dohe ko pakada -

ekadas sai pnchadah vikram sak annd.
tihi ripujay puraharan ko bhe prithiraj narind
aur 'vikram sak annd' ka arth kiya a = shoony aur nnd = 9 arthath 90 rahit vikram snvath. ab kyon ye 90 varsh ghatae ge, isaka ve koee upayukt karan nahin bata sake.[1]

rachanaen

  • apabhrnsh men "munjaras' tatha 'sandesh rasak' do rachanayen hain. inamen se 'munjaras' anupalabdh hai. keval 'hemachandr' ke 'siddh hem' vyakaran granth men tatha 'meru tung' ke 'prabandh chintamani' men isake kuchh chhand uddhrit kie gaye hain.
  • daau. mata prasad gupt 'munjaras' ki rachana kal 1054 vi. aur 1197 vi. ke bich manate hain, kyonki munj ka samay 1007 vi. se 1054 vi. ka hai.
  • 'sndesh rasak' ko vidvanon ne 1207 vi. ki rachana mana hai. prithviraj raso ki tarah 'munjaras' evn 'sndesh ras' bhi prabandh rachanayen hain. prithviraj raso dukhant rachana hai. visaladev raso sukhant rachana hai evn isi tarah 'sndesh ras' sukhant evn 'munjaras' dukhant rachanayen hain.
  • apabhrnsh kal ki ek aur rachana jindatt soori ka 'upadesh rasayan ras' hai. yah bhakti parak dharmik rachana hai. daau. mata prasad gupt jinadatt soori ka svargavas sn. 1295 vi. men manate hain. atah rachana sn. 1295 vi. ke kuchh poorv ki hi honi chahie. apabhrashn ki uparyukt rachanayen raso kavy ki mukhy pravrittiyon ki poorn abhivyakti nahin karati.
  • gurjar sahity men likhi raso rachanayen akar men chhoti hain. inake rachayita jain kavi the aur unhonne inaki rachana jain dharm siddhanton ke anusar ki.
  • sarvapratham 'shalibhrad soori' ki 'bharateshvar bahubali ras' evn 'vaddhi ras' rachanayen upalabdh hoti hai. 'bharateshvar bahubali ras' rajasatta ke lie hua bharateshvar evn bahubali ka sngharsh hai jo jain tirthnkar svami rishabhadev ke putr the. isaki rachana vir ras men huee hai. 'buddhi ras' shant ras men likha gaya upadesh parak granth hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi sahity ka itihas, ramachndr shukl, adhyay 3

sambndhit lekh

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