कथानक रूढ़ि  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kathanak roodhi vastavikata, kalpana athava snbhavana par adharit kisi chhoti ghatana, nishchit sanche men dhale hue kary vyapar ya us vichar ko kahate hain, jo saman sthiti men kathanak ko arnbh karane, gati dene, koee navin mod ya ghumav dene, katha ko chamatkarik dhng se samapt karane athava apane men hi snpoorn katha ka snghatan kar lene ke lie bar-bar prayukt hota hai.

sahityakaron ki vyakhya

hazari prasad dvivedi ne kathanak roodhi ke bare men[1] kaha hai ki- "sabhavanaon par bal dene ka parinam yah hua hai ki hamare desh ke sahity men kathanak ko gati aur ghumav dene ke lie kuchh aise abhipray bahut dirgh kal se vyavahrit hote ae hain, jo bahut thodi door tak yatharth hote hain aur jo age chalakar kathanak roodhi men badal ge hain."

abhipray[2] ki paribhasha dete hue shiple[3] ne bataya hai, "ek shabd ya nishchit sanche men dhale hue vichar jo saman sthiti ka bodh karane ya saman bhav jagane ke lie kisi ek hi kriti athava ek hi jati ki vibhinn kritiyon men bar-bar prayukt hon, abhipray kahalate hain." abhripay ki yah samany paribhasha hai, kyonki vibhinn kalaroopon men isaka vibhinn arthon men prayog hota hai aur pratyek kalaroop ke apane alag-alag abhipray hote hain. at: yahan abhipray ke bare men vichar kar lena samichin rahega.[4]

abhipray

anek parnparagat krity athava niyam nirntar janavishvas ka snbal pate rahane ke karan chalan ya roodhi man lie jate hain. inake vastavik arth ya mool tatpary ka pata kisi ko nahin hota, to bhi vishesh avasaron par log inaka palan karate hi hain. inamen se bahuton ka palan n karane se jahan keval samajik apratishtha ki ashnka rahati hain, vahin kuchh aise bhi chalan hote hain, jinhen poora n karane par daivi vipattiyon athava vibhinn prakar ki haniyon ka bhay rahata hai. kuchh roodhiyan is prakar ki bhi hoti hain, jinhen chhod dene par n to pratishtha ko kisi prakar ka dhakka lagata hai aur n hi jinaka palan n karane se kisi daivi vipatti ki ashnka rahati hai. to bhi avasar upasthit hone par log unaka palan yntravat pidhi-dar-pidhi karate chalate hain. janm, maran, vivah, putrotpatti tatha anyany puny avasaron evn vidhi snskaron ke samay kie jane vale vibhinn krityon ko inake antargat gina ja sakata hai.

pashchimi uttar pradesh men vidhur vyakti ka vivah kanya se pahale arkavriksh ke sath kar diya jata hai, taki ukt vyakti ki doosari patni ke marane ka bhi yadi vidhi-vidhan ho to usake sthan par arkavriksh hi nasht ho, nee vadhoo nahin. vivah ke avasar par varayatra ke samay var ki mata kuen men pair latakakar baith jati hai aur vahan se vah tabhi hilati hai, jab usaka putr usake doodh ka mooly chuka deta hai. kadachit is chalan ke pichhe yuddh jitane ke bad hi kanya ko prapt kar sakane ki madhy kal ki us samnti pratha ka avashesh kam kar raha hota hai, jisake anusar mata vivah ke pahale putr se vachan leti thi ki vah vadhoo ko sath lekar hi lautega, khali hath nahin. in sabhi roodhiyon ya chalanon ko 'samajik parnpara'[5] ki sngya di ja sakati hai. is samajik parnpara ki tarah sngit, kala tatha sahity athava kavy adi ke kshetron men bhi samay-samay par kuchh abhipray prayog kie jate hain. prayog dhire-dhire chalan ka roop dharan karake roodhigat ho jate hain, to bhi inaka abhipray: paksh mukhar rahata hai aur inhen roodhi se kuchh vishisht parnparagat abhiprayon ke roop men hi svikar kiya jata hai.[4]

paribhasha

kathanak roodhi snbndhi hazari prasad dvivedi ki paribhasha men tin baten kahi gee hain-

pratham yah ki snbhavanaon par bal dene ke karan kathabhiprayon[6] ka janm hota hai. is sndarbh men kaha ja sakata hai ki kathanak roodhiyon ka prayog pray: romanch, chamatkar tatha purakalin bimbon evn vatavaran ko upasthit karane ke lie kiya jata hai. at: unamen asnbhav, asadharan, asvabhavik aur kabhi-kabhi alaukik tatvon ka samavesh bhi kar diya jata hai. kintu, in kathanak roodhiyon ke mool men snbhavanashrit kalpana hi adhik kam kar rahi hoti hai. udaharanarth- "kisi rakshas ya yaksh dvara nayak ya nayika ko lekar ud jana" men atiprakrit shakti ke prati vishvas ki jhalak sabal hai. pakshi kisi chhote-mote janavar ko chonch men lekar ud sakata hai to parashaktidhari yaksh ya rakshas nayak athava nayika ko uthakar kyon nahin ud sakata? kam se kam isaki snbhavana to hai hi, phir romanch aur chamatkar utpann karane ke lie kyon n isaka upayog kar liya jae.

kathanak roodhiyon men se adhikansh ke mool srot un mithakon, lokakathaon, nijndhari akhyanon tatha gathaon men mil jate hain, jinaka nirman adim vishvason, prachalanon, anushthanon, vidhinishedhon tatha taautamon ko adhar banakar hua tha. paravarti kal men yadyapi sanskritik parishkar ho jane par kuchh kathanak abhipray prachalan se pichhad ge athava unake roopon men atyadhik parivartan ho gaya, tathapi jaisa nritatvashastriy shodhon se siddh ho chuka hai ki manav unnat sanskritik avastha men pahunch jane par bhi apani sabal dharanatmak shakti ke karan, adim avasheshon ko tyagane men asamarth rahata hai-ye kathanak roodhiyan, mithakon, lokakathaon, nijndhari akhyanon tatha gathaon men poorvavat bani rahin aur vahin se shisht sahity men grihit hoti rahin. sanskritik utthan aur parishkar ke sath nee kathanak roodhiyon ka nirman bhi hua. yug-yug men jaise-jaise ne-ne riti-rivaj, manyataen, vishvas adi sthapit hue, dharm, ayurved, jyotish, shakun, tntr-mntr, kam adi se snbndhit shastron ka nirman hua, vaise-vaise nee-nee kathanak roodhiyon ne bhi janm liya aur lok sahity se lekar shisht sahity tak men unaka jamakar upayog hone laga aur jo lagatar hota raha.[4]

doosara sootr

'kathanak ko gati aur ghumav dene ke lie in abhiprayon ka prayog hota hai.' kathanak men samay ki gati ghatanavali ko kholati chalati hai aur isake sath hi usaka ghatana snyojan, vishv ke yuktiyukt snghatan ke anuroop tarkasngat kary-karan-ant-snbndhon par adharit rahata hai. kathantargat is ghatanavali ko kholane ka arth katha ko gati dena hi hai aur isamen kathanak abhiprayon ka pramukh hath rahata hai. udaharan ke lie, 'upashruti' namak abhipray ko liya ja sakata hai. priya ki khoj men nikala hua nayak jab jngal men bhatak jata hai to katha ko age badhane ka marg bhi avaruddh ho jata hai. aise avasar par 'upashruti' namak ya kisi aisi hi any kathanak roodhi ka prayog karake katha ko gati di jati hai. kisi vriksh ke niche athava kotar men leta hua nirash premi vriksh ke oopar baithe pakshi yugal ki batachit athava pakshi-samooh ko kisi ek pakshi dvara kisi katha ke sunae jane ke bich koee aisi soochana pa jata hai ki use apane priya se milane ka tarika maloom ho jata hai ya yah vishvas ho jata hai ki vah apani priya ko avashy hi prapt kar sakega. kabhi-kabhi to vakta pakshi agali subah svayn usi jagah jane vala hota hai, jahan nayak ko pahunchana rahata hai aur phir nayak bade kaushal se pakshi ki poonchh men chhipakar abhisht sthal par pahunch jata hai.

kathanak ko ghumav ya naya mod dene ke sndarbh men 'stri ki dohad kamana' ko liya ja sakata hai. 'dohad' shabd ka nirman 'dvihrid' se hua hai. apannasatva nari ki dohad kamana stri ke jivan ki ati samany evn parichit ghatana hai. is sthiti men aurat kabhi khatta mitha khane ki ichchha vyakt karati hai to kabhi usaka man choolhe ki jali huee mitti khane ke lie atur ho uthata hai. pati garbhavati patni ki pratyek ichchha poori karane ke lie tatpar rahata hai aur usaki dohad kamana ko poorn karana apana param kartavy samajhata hai. kathakaron ne is dohad kamana ko abhipray ke roop men grahan karake vibhinn avasaron par vividh prakar se isake chamatkarik tatha adbhoot prayog kie hain aur jain kathakaron ne to ise apana sarvadhik priy abhipray bana liya tha. har arhat athava chakravartin ki utpatti ke poorv usaki mata koee pavitr aur shreshth kary karane ki dohad kamana karati dikhaee padati hai. 'samaradity snkshep' aur isake adhar par prakrit bhasha men rachit 'samaraichch kaha' men pramukh snbhrant vyaktiyon ke punarjanmon ke avasaron par lagabhag sabhi garbhini striyan dohad kamana vyakt karati hain.

any anek kathaon men bhi katha ko naya mod dene ke lie nayikaen chndrapan karane ki, pati ke rakt men snan karane ki athava kisi raktavapi men snan karane ki ichchha vyakt karati dekhi jati hain. nayak kritrim raktavapi banavakar priya ko usamen snan karavata hai. vapi se bahar nikalane par oopar se niche tak raktasnat stri ko akash men mndarata koee bharund, garud, athava giddh mansapind samajhakar chonch men dabakar uda le jata hai. tatpashchath nayak ko use pane ke lie anek prayatn karane padate hain. kahin rakshason se muthabhed hoti hai to kahin kisi mntravi se nipatana padata hai aur ant men vah patni ko pa leta hai. is prakar kathanak ek nee disha prapt karake hi samane nahin ata, usamen anek romanchak evn adbhut ghatanaon ka sannivesh bhi ho jata hai. keval yahin nahin katha arnbh karane evn usako chamatkarik dhng se samapt karane men bhi in kathanak abhiprayon se paryapt sahayata li jati hai. koee hns athava shuk nayak ke hath lag jata hai aur kisi sundari ka roop gun varnan karake use prematur bana deta hai. premika ko pane ke lie nayak yogi vesh men nikal padata hai. is prakar katha ka suprarnbh hota hai jo uttarottar kautoohalapoorn evn jigyasapoorn banata jata hai. katha ka chamatkarik ant karane ke lie bahut bar nayak ki anupasthiti men kisi manachale athava vishayi raja ya rajakumar ki or se koee kuttani nayika ke pas bhej di jati hai. kintu nayika sath‌ se nahin digati. nayak ke laut ane par vah ukt ghatana use sunati hai, jisase agaboobala hokar nayak pratidvndvi se yuddh than deta hai aur samarangan men shatru ko marane men itana ghayal ho jata hai ki usake svayn ke pran bhi nahin bachate aur nayika usake shav ke sath sati ho jati hai. par-kay-pravesh adi kuchh abhiprayon men snpoorn katha ka snghatan karane ki kshamata bhi rahati hai.[4]

tisara sootr

achary hazari prasad dvivedi ke uparyukt kathan se tisara sootr yah prapt hota hai ki 'dirghakal se vyavahrit hone vale ye abhipray thodi door tak yatharth hote hain aur age chalakar kathanak roodhiyon men badal jate hain.' prastut pnktiyon ko sarasari taur par dekhane se aisa abhas hota hai ki 'kathanak abhipray' aur 'kathanak roodhi' bhinnarthak hain. kintu jara gahare paithane par yah bhram chhinn-bhinn ho jata hai, kyonki arnbh men kisi bhi abhipray ka prayog kisi vishesh uddeshy ko lekar kiya jata hai aur aisa karate samay ukt abhipray ke mool men vastavikata ki koee n koee matra avashy rahati hai. pashchath‌ kalpana ke snyojan se ukt abhipray ko uttarottar aisa roop milata chala jata hai ki usamen vishvasiy tatv ki matra paryapt viral ho jati hai. parntu usaka snbhavanapaksh abhi bhi paryapt mukhar rahata hai aur rachayitavarg satyasaty anveshan se nirapeksh rahakar apani anukaran pravritti ke karan uparyukt avasaron par abhisht prayojanarth usaka prayog karata hi rahata hai. isi star par kathanak abhipray kathanak roodhi men badal jata hai, lekin isaka arth yah nahin hai ki kathanak roodhi matr roodhi hokar rah jati hai. kathanak abhipray ke saman hi kathanak roodhi ka bhi abhiprayapaksh poornaroopen sakriy rahata hai, katha ya akhyan ko age badhane, use koee navin mod dene ya chamatkarik dhng se samapt karane ki usaki kshamata men koee antar nahin padata. is drishti se ye donon ek doosare ke paryay rahate hain.

'kathanak abhipray' ko 'kathanak roodhi' nam dene men tatpary keval itana rahata hai ki isase yah bhi spasht ho jae ki isaka prayog chalan ya parnpara ke adhar par bhi kiya gaya rahata hai. udaharanarth, hns, kapot, shuk adi ke pair ya griva men patr bandhakar priy athava priya ke pas sndesh bhejane ke anek praman milate hain. at: arnbh men kathakaron ne yathavath‌ ise abhipray ke roop men prayukt kiya hoga. pashchath‌ shukadi dvara thoda bahut manav vani ka anukaran kar lene ki kshamata ke adhar par snbhavana ka sahara lekar bahut se pakshiyon ko manav vani men maulik sndeshavah ke roop men dikhaya jane laga. itana hi nahin, age chalakar unhen shastrgy, mukhar pndit aur paramarshadata ke roop men prayukt kar lene men bhi hichakichahat n rahi. malik muhammad jayasi krit 'padmavat' ka 'hiraman' shuk praman hai. nishkarshat:, arnbh men yatharth rahane par bhi 'sndeshavah pakshi' namak abhipray dirgh kal tak vyavahrit hote rahane ke bad n keval yatharth se door hi chala gaya, apitu usaka prayog bhi har premi-premika ke bich sndeshavahak, premasnghatak, marg nirdeshak adi ke roop men bar-bar kiya jane laga. yahi bat any sabhi abhiprayon ke lie bhi saty hai. prayog snbndhi is roodhi ka palan karane ke karan hi 'kathanak abhipray' ko 'kathanak roodhi' kah lene men koee anauchity nahin rah jata.[4]

'katharoodhi' ya 'roodhi'

kathanak roodhi jahan kathanak ko gati ya ghumav dene athava chamatkarik dhng se samapt karane adi men asamarth rahati hai, vahan use 'katharoodhi' ya matr 'roodhi' kaha jaega, kathanak roodhi nahin. udaharanasvaroop noor muhammad krit 'indravati' ke poorvardh men indravati se vivah karane ke lie samudr se moti nikal lane ka anubndh 'kathanak roodhi' hai, kyonki usi ko poora karane jane ke karan rajakunvar ko durjanaray ka bndi banana pada aur buddhasen tatha indravati donon ne prayatn karake kripa namak raja ke dvara durjanaray ka nash karavakar rajakunvar ko kaid se mukt karavaya. katha ka vistar bhi hua aur use ek naya mod bhi mila. lekin rasaratan men aisi koee shart n rahane se svaynvar men rnbha soorasen ka sidhe varan kar leti hai. katha ko isase n koee gati milati hai aur n hi kisi prakar ka ghumav athava vistar. at: yahan svaynvar ya vivah ek katharoodhi ya roodhi bhar hai, jisaka ayojan keval katha ke kalanukramik varnan ko vyavasthit rakhane ke lie hi kiya gaya hai.

katha vastushilp se sambndh

kathanak roodhi ya kathanak abhipray ka snbndh vishuddh roop se katha ke vastushilp[7] ya dhanche[8] se rahata hai. lekin kavy abhipray isase bilkul bhinn katha ya kavy ke abhivyakti paksh se snbndhit hote hain. sadrishy ke adhar par nirmit roodhiyon ka snbndh bhi abhivyakti paksh se hi hai, parntu inaka kary sadrishy ke adhar par arthabodh ya bhavabodh karana matr hai. nagar, upavan, ashram, nakhashikh, rituvarnan, barahamasa adi varnanatmak ya niyam snbndhi roodhiyan bhi katha ya kavy ke bahyakar se snbndh rakhati hain. lekin ye kaviniyam matr hain ya inhen varnanaroodhi bhi kah sakate hain aur inase us sadhe hue snketon ko prastut nahin kiya ja sakata, jo kavy abhiprayon ya kathanak roodhiyon ke madhyam se thode men bahut kuchh dyotit karane ki kshamata rakhate hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi sahity ka adikal, patana, 1947 ee. poo. 80
  2. motif
  3. dikshanari aauv varld litarechar
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 kathanak roodhi (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 29 julaee, 2014.
  5. soshal kaaunvenshan
  6. kathanak roodhiyon
  7. plat kaaunstrakashan
  8. farm

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