मरसिया  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

marasiya urdoo sahity men karun ras se bhari huee shokapoorn kavita ko kaha jata hai. arabi-farasi ki paddhati par urdoo ka vah shok-git jo kisi mrit vyakti ki yad men likha jay, 'marasiya' kahalata hai. parntu isaka vishisht arth bhi hai. urdoo kavy men jab keval 'marasiya' shabd ka prayog kiya jay, to pray: usaka tatpary hazarat muhammad sahab ke navase imam husen aur unake sathiyon ki smriti men likhe shok git se hota hai, jo karbala ke maidan men saty ki raksha karate hue shahid hue the. kintu marasiye ka mahattv keval is dharmik karan se hi nahin hai, balki is dhanche men urdoo kaviyon ne bahut-se vishay sammilit karake ise kavy ka bahut mahattvapoorn roop bana diya hai.

prarambhik kal

marasiye urdoo men prarambhik kal se hi paye jate hain. kuchh logon ka to yah mat hai ki urdoo men kavy rachana ka arambh marasiye se hi hua. 'sauda' aur 'mir' ke yug se kee sau varsh poorv ke marasiye bharat aur ingalistan ke bhinn-bhinn pustakalayon men surakshit hain. lakhanoo pahunch kar marasiye ne naya roop dharan kiya aur mir jamir tatha unake samakalin fasih evn khaliq ne is shok git ko mahakavy ke ek aise marg par lagaya, jo mahakavy[1]-ke yoonani roop se milata-julata hai. ise kee bhagon men vibhajit karake in kaviyon ne inamen alag-alag prakritik-chitran, yuddh ka drishy, ghode, talavar aur talavar chalane ki prashnsa tatha viron ka apani virata ka varnan adi baten sammilit karake usaki sundarata aur badha di.[2]

pramukh kavi

bad ke samay men jin kaviyon ne marasiye likhe, unake pandity evn prakriti-pradatt kavyagat visheshataon ne marasiye ko aur uchch shikhar par pahuncha diya. in kaviyon men mir anis ka nam sabase adhik prasiddh hai. inake atirikt mirza dabir, mir ishq, mir tashshuk aur monis uchch shreni ke marasiya likhane vale samajhe jate hain. inake bad ki pidhi ke marasiya likhane valon men mir anis ke suputr mir naphis aur nati rashid, vahid tatha dabir ke bete auj ke nam vishesh ullekhaniy hain. pyare sahab, rashid marasiyon men ek navin vishay 'bahar' ka manohar varnan karake apani advitiy pratibha ka parichay dete hain. ye isake lie vishesh roop se prasiddh hain. adhunik kal men josh, ale raza, arajoo aur nasim amarohavi, marasiya likhane valon men bahut prasiddh hain.

musaddas akriti

lakhanoo skool ke pahale urdoo men marasiyon ka koee roop nishchit nahin tha. log 'murabba' (char misare), 'musallam' (tin misare) aur 'gazal' ityadi se hi marasiye kahate the. lakhanoo men musaddas ki akriti marasiye ke lie nishchit ho gayi aur isake pashchath marasiya musaddas men hi likha jane laga.

urdoo marasiye

prem aur ashiki ke vishay men alag hokar urdoo marasiye ne yah dikhaya ki manav-sambandh men bahut-se aise bhi sambandh hain, jinaka lagav yaun akarshan ke adhar par nahin hai, jaise- bhaee-bahan ka prem, svami-sevak ka prem adi. is sab sambandhon ko marasiye ne ubhara, nahin to manav-jivan ke kitane hi pahaluon se urdoo-kavy vnchit rah jata.[2]

sabhyata aur snskriti ki jhankiyan

marasiye men yadyapi pray: imam husen ke gharane ki un ghatanaon ka varnan hota hai, jo karvala ke maidan men ghatit hueen, parntu yadi dhyanapoorvak dekha jay to un marasiyon men 19vin shatabdi ke oonche gharanon ki sabhyata aur snskriti ki jhankiyan milati hain. chhota bhaee bade bhaee ka jaisa adar karata hai, bhanaje mama ke prati jis prakar ki shraddha rakhate hain, vriddh jis prakar apane chhoton se pesh ate hain, ek parivar men sab log ek-doosare ke prati sahanubhooti aur shubhachintana karate hain, striyan jis prakar batachit karati hain, in sab ka varnan marasiye men is prakar kiya gaya hai ki 19vin shatabdi ke navabi gharanon ke chitr drishti ke samane a jate hain. yatra ki taiyari, vivah aur usake rasm-rivaj ityadi varnanon ke dvara marasiya samajik jivan ke aise namoone pesh karata hai, jo urdoo kavita men aur kahin nahin milate.

varnit vishay

prakriti-varnan urdoo men marasiye men hi milata hai. bahar aur khijan (patajhad), prat: aur sandhya, garmi aur dhoop ke saikadon drishy pesh karake urdoo men drishy-chitran ki vriddhi marasiye dvara hi huee hai aur virata, sahas tatha yuddh ke karyon ka aise dhng se varnan kiya gaya hai ki urdoo men mahakavy (rajamiya) ka shri ganesh hua. yah nahin ki yuddh ke maidan ka chitr aur bajon ka jor-shor dikhakar hi yah kram samapt ho jata hai, balki marasiyon men ladaee ke drishy vistarapoorvak varnit kiye gaye hain, jinamen ladane- valon ka maidan men ana, nara lagana, shatruon ka samana karana, ladane valon ka ek-doosaron par var karana, bhinn-bhinn hathiyaron ke prayog adi ka varnan marasiye men milata hai.[2]

urdoo kavy men yogadan

marasiye ne urdoo kavy ko ek snkuchit duniya se nikalakar vistrit snsar dikhaya. charitr-chitran, kathanopakathan ya snlap, svabhavik shiksha, naye shabdon aur muhavaron ke prayog se use vistrit roop diya gaya hai. yuddh kshetr ka varnan likhakar usane gazal se paida hue vilasita ke vatavaran men utsah, umng aur paurush ke bhav pravisht kiye hai. snkshep men yah kaha ja sakata hai ki marasiye ne urdoo shayari ko jis uchchata par pahunchaya, usako jitane gunon se sampann kiya, kisi aur kavy ke roop ne nahin kiya.


inhen bhi dekhen: masanavi, gazal, qasida, nazm evn qafiya


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. epic
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 hindi sahity kosh, bhag 1 |prakashak: gyanamandal limited, varanasi |snkalan: bharatakosh pustakalay |snpadan: daau. dhirendr varma |prishth snkhya: 477 |

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