मीर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mir
mir
poora nam khuda-e-sukhan mohammad taqi
any nam mir taqi mir
janm 1723 ee.
janm bhoomi agara, uttar pradesh
mrityu 1810 ee.
mrityu sthan lakhanoo
abhibhavak rashid
karm-kshetr shayar
mukhy rachanaen kulliyat-e-mir, zikr-e-mir
vishay urdoo shayari
bhasha urdoo aur farasi bhasha
adyatan‎
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

mir athava 'taqi mir' (janm- 1723 ee.; mrityu- 1810 ee.) farasi tatha urdoo mahanh kavi the. mir ka vastavik nam 'khuda-e-sukhan mohammad taqi' tha. sath hi mir ka ek upanam 'takhallus' bhi milata hai. inhonne apana jivan charitr svayn hi 'zikre-mir' namak ek farasi pustak men likha tha.

jivan parichay

mir ka janm 1723 ee. men agara, uttar pradesh men hua tha. inake pitamah ka nam 'rashid' tha, jo 'akabarabad' agara men faujadar hua karate the. lekin 50 varsh ki ayu men hi ve bimar pad gaye. poornat: nirog hone ke poorv hi unhen gvaliyar jana pada, jahan kuchh dinon bad hi unaki mrityu ho gee. mir ke pitamah ke do bete the. bade vikshipt the aur bhari javani men hi mar gaye. mir ke pita ne do shadiyan ki thin. pahali stri se muhammad hasan aur doosari se muhammad taqi aur muhammad razi paida hue the, lekin bad men pita ne bhi faqiri grahan kar li aur snsar men rahate hue bhi snsar ka tyag kar diya.

bachapan

mir jab das-gyarah varsh ke hi the ki tabhi bap ka saya inake sir se uth gaya. sautele bade bhaee muhammad hasan samajik the aur mir taqi se jalate the. unhonne bap ki sampatti par to adhikar kar liya aur qarz ka bhugatan mir ke oopar chhod diya. lekin mir taqi men svabhiman bachapan hi se tha. unhonne kisi se sahayata ki yachana nahin ki, kintu ek daiviy sahayata yah mili ki inake pita ke ek abhinn mitr murid (shishy) sayyad mukammalakhan ne apane guru aur mir ke pita ke maitri-sambndhon ka khayal karake unake pas 500 rupaye ki ek hundi bhej di. inhonne usamen se 300 qarzakhvahon ko dekar jan chhudaee aur chhote bhaee ko ghar chhodakar naukari ki talash men dilli chale gaye. vahan kuchh din bhatakate rahe. snyog se amir-ul-umara navab samasamuddaula ke bhatije khvaja muhammad basit ko mir par daya aee. unhonne mir ko navab ke samane pahuncha diya. navab inake bap ali muttaqi ko janate the. unaki mrity़u ka samachar sunakar bahut afasos kiya aur mir ke guzare ke lie ek rupaya roz muqarrar kar diya.

vyaktitv

mir sahab ke akhiri zamane ka huliya maulana muhammad husain azad in shabdon men bayan karate hai- 'mir sahab dubale-patale, gndumi[1] rng ke the. mir apana har kam matanat[2] aur ahistagi ke sath kiya karate the. mir ki avaz men narami aur mulaimiyat thi. mir sahab ki najuk-mizaji aur krodhi svabhav ke qisse bahut mashahoor hue hain. lekin mir ki bad-dimagi sirf apane se chhoton ya barabar valon tak hi simit nahin thi. mizaj bigadane par ve apane ashrayadataon tak ko khari-khoti sunane se nahin chookate the. mir sahab ne jugal kishor ko itana sunaya, phir bhi jugal kishor ne mir sahab ko apani gazalen dikhaee to mir ne sab phadakar phenk din. mir sahab ke is salook ke bad bhi jugal kishor unake sath rahe. navab asaf uddaula ka dabadaba bada mashahoor tha; lekin mir sahab unase bilkul barabari ki haisiyat se bat karate the.

ek bar mir navab ke pas baithe hue the. donon ke bich men ek kitab rakhi huee thi. navab sahab ne kaha "mir sahab jara yah kitab utha dijie." mir sahab ne kitab uthakar dene men bhi apani baiizzati samajhi aur chobadar se kaha "dekho tumhare aqa kya kahate hain. navab bechare itane apratibh[3] hue ki khud badhakar kitab utha li. navab asaf uddaula ke marane par navab sadat ali khan ka raj hua. navab asaf uddaula ke marane ke bad mir sahab ne darabar men jana chhod diya. darabar se bhi bulava n aya. ek din navab ki savari nikal rahi thi. mir tahasin ki masajid men baithe hue the. savari ane par sab uth khade hue, lekin mir baithe rahe. navab ne apane musahibon se poochha ki yah kaun hai. maloom hua yah 'mir' hain. navab ne vapas akar chobadar ke hathon khilat aur ek hazar rupaya bheja. mir sahab ne use vapas kar diya. navab ko aur ashchary hua. unhonne sayyad 'insha' ko bheja.

poochhane par mir sahab ne kaha ki pahale to navab sahab mujhe bhoole rahe aur ab yad bhi kiya to is tarah ki das rupaye ke naukar ke hath khilat bheja. vah apane mulk ke badashah hain to main apane mulk ka. mujhe bhookhon mar jana mnjoor hai, lekin yah baiizzati nahin mnjoor. kisi n kisi tarah insha mir ko samajha-bujhakar kisi tarah darabar men le gaye. navab sahab ne unaki behad khatir ki aur akhir tak karate rahe. logon ki ek badi bhari kamazori yah hoti hai ki vah gun-avagun ko apani jagah thik jagah rakhakar nahin dekh pate. jo pyara hota hai usaki buraiyan bhi pyari aur jisase hamara matabhed hai, usaki achchhaiyan bhi buri. mir ke vyavahar ko, jise abhadrata ke alava aur kuchh nahin kaha ja sakata, alochakagan use 'atm-samman' kahate hain. jis muhalle men do-char vyakti bhi itana atm-samman rakhane vale hon, vahan kam se kam mere lie to do char din rahana bhi musibat ho jay.' mir' men nissndeh atm-samman bahut tha, lekin jab atm-samman apani had se badhakar doosaron ka apaman karane men paripoorn ho jata hai to use 'avinay aur abhadrata kahate hain.' mir ki manovritti nissndeh isi koti ki thi. kuchh alochakon ne mir ke is katu vyavahar ka karan unake jivan men padane vali kathinaiyon aur sngharshon ko bataya hai. apani bat ke saboot men ve 'mir' sahab hi ka bnd pesh karate hain-

"halat to yah ki mujhako gamon se nahin farag
dil sojishe-daruni se jalata hai jyoon chirag
sina tamam chak hai sara jigar hai dag
hai majalison men nam mera 'mire-bedimag'
azabasab ki kam-dimagi ne paya hai ishtahar.

katu svabhav

'mir' sahab ke apane kahe ke anusar unake bare men ray kaise banayi ja sakati hain? tatasth rup se dekhane par dikhaee deta hai ki mir par bachapan aur javani ke dinon men zarur musibaten padi, lekin praudhavastha aur budhape men unhen bahut sukh aur samman mila. jin logon ke sath aisa hota hai, ve sadharan doosaron ke prati aur adhik sahanubhooti rakhane vale mridu-bhashi aur gnbhir ho jate hain. 'mir' ki katuta unake ant samay tak n gee. manovaigyanik drishti se isaka ek hi karan ho sakata hai. vah yah ki 'mir' prem ke mamale men hamesha asaphal rahe aur jivan ke is bade bhari prabhav ne unake avachetan mastishk men ghar karake unamen asadharan aur katuta bhar di. unhen ek bar unmad bhi hua tha. usase ve achchhe ho gaye. likin yah asnbhav nahin hai ki davaon ki pratikriya ne unake mizaj men asadharan rup se garmi bhar di ho. varana yah samajh men nahin ata ki soofi faqir ka beta, jise shuru hi se vishv ke kan-kan se prem karane ki shiksha di gayi ho, itani katuta ka bojh zindagi bhar kis tarah dhota raha. maloom hota hai ki 'mir' ko shuru ke katu anubhavon aur usake bad asaphal prem ka manasik jhataka lagane se sadharan janon ki sadashayata hi men nahin unaki samajh par bhi avishvas ho gaya tha. ve kisi aur manushy ko apana prem n de sake aur isaki poorti mir ne billi, kutta, bakari, murga adi palakar aur un par apana sara prem undel kar ki. in janavaron par unhonne kee nazmen likhi hain.

alochak kahate hain ki 'mir' sahab ne yah khurafat likhakar apani pratishtha kam ki hai. ve bechare nahin janate ki inhin janavaron ki muhabbat ne 'mir' sahab ko zinda rakha, varana un jaisa snvedanashil adami prem ke nitant prabhav men zinda hi nahin rah sakata tha. samaj se 'mir' sahab ko koee khas dilachaspi nahin dikhaee deti. ve is samaj se oobe hue the. mir chahate the ki log jitani chahen utani moorkhata karate rahen, bas unase koee chhed chhad n kare. fizool ka milana-julana unhen pasnd nahin tha. zabardasti mel badhane valon ko mir aksar dutkar diya karate the. mir hamesha apani dhun men mast rahate the. ek din isi halat men mir sahab tahal rahe the aur yah misara gunaguna rahe the- 'ab ke bhi din bahar ke yoonhi guzar gaye.' ek sahab mir se usi samay milane gaye. salam kiya, baithe rahe aur uthakar chale bhi aye. mir sahab ne dhyan bhi n diya ki kaun aya tha, kyon aya kab chala gaya.

uchch manadnd

phir mir sahab ka manadnd bhi itana ooncha tha ki khuda ki panah lakhanoo men kisi ne poochha ki apaki nazar men kaun-kaun shayar hain. mir kahane lage "do, ek sauda aur doosara main." kuchh der thahar kar bole "aur adhe khvaja mir dard." poochhane vale ne kaha "aur mir soz?" bhaven tedhi karake bole "mir soz bhi shayar hain?" usane kaha, "akhir navab asaf uddaula ke ustad hain." bole, khair, to paune-tin sahi. mir chahate the ki satpatr hi unase kavy-charcha karen aur us zamane ke faishan ke anusar har vyakti kavy-charcha karata tha. isase unhen chidh hoti thi. angrez hakim, yahan tak ki gavarnar-janaral tak lakhanoo ane par inhen bulate the, lekin ye unase milane kabhi n jate the. mir kahate the "mujhase jo koee milata hai to ya mukt faqir ke khanadan ke khayal se ya mere kalam ke sabab se milata hai. mir sahab ko khanadan se garaj nahin, mera kalam samajhate nahin. alabatta kuchh inam denge. aisi mulaqat men zillat ke siva kya hasil?" lekin satpatr se ve khule dil se milate bhi the. shad azimabadi 'navae-vatan' men likhate hain-

"jab shaikh rasikh unase milane gaye to 'mir' ne kahala bheja 'miyan, kyon satane aye ho ?' shaikh sahab ne thikari par yah sher likhakar bheja-

khak hoon par tootiya hoon chashme-meharo-mah ka.
ankh vala rutba samajhe mujh gubare-rah ka॥

"mir sahab fauran ghar se nikal aye, gale lagaya aur kaha, 'mizaj mubarak kahan se aye ho? kyon mujh garib ko sarafaraj kiya?"

praudhavastha ane par shero-shayari ke alava kisi bat se koee snbndh n rakhate the. ek navab sahab unhen apane yahan rahane ko le gaye aur aisa makan diya, jisaki khidakiyan ek bag ki taraf khulati thin. snyog se 'mir' sahab jis din aye, khidakiyan bnd thin. mir sahab ne unhen khola bhi nahin aur kee barason tak unhen pata bhi n chala ki idhar bag bhi hai. ek bar ek mitr ne bataya to unhen maloom hua. mitr ne is bat par ashchary prakat kiya ki barason se unhen bag ka pata bhi nahin hai to apani gazalon ke masavidon ki taraf ishara karake mir sahab bole "main to is bag ki fikr men aisa laga hoon ki bag ki khabar bhi nahin."

atmabhiman

mir sahab ka atmabhiman arnbh men abhiman aur uddndata ki sarahaden chhoo leta tha. dilli men ek mushayare men unhonne ek masanavi 'azadhar-nama' padhi, jisamen unhonne apane ko ajagar aur doosare kaviyon men kisi ko chooha kisi ko bichchhoo, kisi ko kanakhajoora adi ke rupak men pesh karake apane ko unase kahin bada sabit karane ki koshish ki. isake karan unake pichhe aur kavi pad gaye aur mir ki badi mitti palid huee. isi svabhiman ke atirikt men ve sauda aur us zamane ke ek doosare shayar baka se bhid jate the. yah donon ninda-kavy ke visheshgy the. phalasvaroop unaki khoob dhajjiyan in logon ne udayin aur aise-aise shere likhe gaye-

pagadi apani snbhaliega 'mir'.
aur basti nahin, ye dilli hai॥

lekin bad men unake mizaj men gnbhirata bhi dikhaee deti hai. apani pustak 'nukatushshoara' men unhonne purane aur samakalin kaviyon ki achchhi-khasi prashnsa ki hai, apani gazalon ke sheron men 'sauda' ki prashnsa bhi ki hai. han apatr ka apane sath milana-julana unhonne ant samay tak bardasht nahin kiya aur yah asahishnuta is had tak badhi huee thi ki use unaki vishesh paristhitiyon ki ddashti se kshamy to kaha ja sakata hai, kintu shlaghy nahin.

mir ka kavy

daauktar ejaz husain ne 'mir' ki kala ki vyakhya nimnalikhit thode se shabdon men kar di hai. mir ki sabase badi khoobi yah hai ki ve sidhe-sade shabdon men apane bhav vyakt karate hain, jisase unaki kavita badi prabhavotpadak ho jati hai. ve karuna ke kavi hain. karuna ka prabhav bhari-bharakam shabdon aur pechile dhng se bat karane men utana nahin padata, jitana saf aur sidhe shabdon men.

svargiy daauktar amaranath likhate hain- "unaki shaili un mahakaviyon ki hai, jo bagair prayas ke shanadar shaili apana lete hain. ve apani saralata men atyuchch hain. unaki rachanaen padhate samay prachin dhng ki abhivyakti ko ham bhool jate hain. aprachalit muhavaron par dhyan nahin dete aur unake vichar ya shabd chitr par, jo shabd chamatkar se avaruddh ya dhundhala nahin hota hai, hamara dhyan kendrit ho jata hai.

uparyukt donon mahanh alochakon ke kathan ke bad 'mir' ke kavy ki vishishtata ke bare men kuchh kahana nahin rah jata hai. darasal 'mir' ka kavy vyakhya karane ki chiz nahin, anubhav karane ki chiz hai. unaka mukhy vishay du:kh aur karuna hai. in donon ki vyakhya karane ki zarurat nahin hai. kaun aisa hai, jise jivan men kuchh n kuchh ye anubhootiyan n huee hon. lekin jis saphalata se 'mir' ne in bhavon ka chitran kiya hai, vah auron ke bas ka rog nahin hai. unake har sher se, har misare se, har shabd aur shabdon ki karuna ki tanen uthati hain. mukhy pustak men to ye sher milenge hi, yahan bhi namoone ke taur par do-char sher diye jate hain, jinase 'mir' ki tabiyat ka andaja ho jaega-

ham 'mir' tera marana kya chahate the lekin
rahata hai hue bin kab jo kuchh ki hua chahe.
 
ahade- jabani ro-ro kata, piri men lin ankhen moodn
yani rat bahut jage the, subah huee aram kiya.

yoon uthe ah us gali se ham
jaise koee jahan se uthata hai.

karo tavakkul ki ashiqi men n yoon karoge to kya karoge
jo yah alas hai dardamndo kahan talak tum dava karoge.

sirahane 'mir' ke koee n bolo
abhi tuk rote rote so gaya hai.
    
kahata tha kisoo se kuchh takata tha kisoo ka munh
kal 'mir' khada tha yan sach hai ki divana tha.

ankhen patharaee, chhati patthar hai
vah hi jane jo intazar kare.

shuddh karuna ke atirikt 'mir' ke yahan kuchh aur bhi vishay hain, yatha 'tasavvuf' (soofi darshan) premi ka atm vishvas aur kuchh phoohad vishay bhi. lekin ye sab unake mukhy vishay du:kh aur karuna se itane dab gaye hain ki vyakhya karana vyavaharik ddashti se bekar hai.

mir ki bhasha

'mir' ke zamane ki urdoo aj ki urdoo se kuchh bhinn thi. vyakaran ki ddashti se kriyaon ke bahuvachan aj se kuchh bhinn dikhaee dete hain, jaise- atin jatin ke bajay atiyan jatiyan. aksar jagah 'ne' ka prayog uda diya jata hai, jaise- "ik rog main bisaha ji ko kahan lagaya." kuchh shabdon ke ling bhed men bhi aj se antar hai, jaise 'jan' ko pulling karake prayog karana, "jan apana jo hamane mara tha." 'ne' ke pahale 'unhon' ki bajay 'un' ka prayog ve dhadalle se karate hain. "tez pnja kiya n unane kabhoo." 'pas' ke pahale 'ke' ka prayog zaruri nahin tha, jaise "tha kutte ka bachcha ik daravesh pas." isi tarah ke kuchh aur prayog hain, jo 'mir' ke zamane ki bhasha men paye jate hain, lekin ajakal nishiddh hain. vyakaran ke prayogon men bhitrata ke sath hi us zamane men kuchh shabd bahut adhik prachalit the, jo aj prayog men nahin laye jate, jaise 'zara' ki bajay 'tuk' 'pas' ki bajay 'kane', 'a' ki jagah 'an' 'kisi' ki bajay 'kisoo' 'kabhi' ki bajay 'kabhoo' isi tarah ke bisiyon doosare shabd hain, jinaka chalan 'mir' ke zamane men bahutayat se hota tha.

hindi shabdon ka prayog

atharahavin shatabdi ki urdoo men hindi shabdon ka prayog bahutat se milata hai. urdoo ke pramukh kavi vali zamane men to priyatam ke lie 'sajan' 'mohan' adi ka bhi prayog hota tha, jo 'mir' ke zamane men chhod diya gaya. phir bhi 'mir' ke zamane men saikadon hindi shabd aise prayukt hote the, jinhen bad men urdoo men chhod diya gaya. khas taur se 'mir' ne apani karuna ki abhivyakti ke lie hindi ke komal shabdon ko datakar prayukt kiya hai. 'kudhab', 'dosh', 'nagar', 'bachan', 'basan', 'ban', 'jog', 'sumaran', 'nipat', 'snsar', 'gun', 'svar', 'bhasam', adi saikadon shabd hain, jinhen 'mir' ne apane samakalin kaviyon ki apeksha bhi adhik prayog kiya hai aur bada saphal prayog kiya hai.

'mir' bhavon ke kshetr men to apani misal ap hain hi, sath hi bhasha ke banane men bhi unhonne kafi yog diya. purane prayogon ko unhonne bahut kuchh kata-chhanta aur naye prayog bhi kiye. inamen ek prayog farasi muhavaron ko urdoo men anudit karane lene ki koshish bhi hai. udaharan ke lie farasi men 'boo karadan' soonghane ko kahate hain. 'mir' ne ise 'bas karana ki soorat men le liya. unaka sher hai-

gul ko mahaboob ham qayas kiya
farq nikala bahut jo bas kiya

isi tarah farasi ka ek muhavara hai 'too goee'. isaka istemal bat men zor paida karane ke lie kiya jata hai. isaka prayog isi tarah hota hai, jaise ham log karate hain 'samajhe ap'. mir ne 'too goee' ko 'too kahe' ya 'kahe too' karane lene ki koshish ki hai. udaharanarth yah sher dekhie-

ab koft se hijaran ki jahan dil pe rakha hath
jo dardo-alam tha so kahe too ki yahin tha.

isamen koee shak nahin ki 'mir' ke in prayogon men se bahut se prayog bad men asaphal siddh hue, phir bhi bhasha ke vikas ki ddashti se in prayogon ka bahut bada mahattv hai. isake sath hi 'mir' ne urdoo ke sthaniyakaran ka bharasak prayas kiya. unaki masanaviyon adi men to sthaniy kathaen sthaniy rng men dikhaee hi deti hain, gazalon men bhi jinamen sthaniyakaran ki zyada gunjaish nahin hoti hai, unhonne bharatiy kathaon adi ka sahara apane dhng se lene ki koshish ki. udaharanarth nimnalikhit sher dekhie-

atishe-ishq ne ravan ko jalakar mara
garche lnka sa tha us dev ka ghar pani men
         
subhe-chaman ka jalba hindi buton men dekha
sndal bhari jabin hai hoton ki laliy़an

'mir' chahate the ki bharatiy adhar bhoomi men eerani dhng ko apanakar ek svasth sthaniy sahity ki rachana ki jay.

  • tabeeyat men farasi ke jo mainne hindi sher kahe
  • sare turuk bache zalim ab padhate hain eeran ke bich

urdoo ke vikas ne bad men atharahavin shatabdi men jo farasikaran ki rah pakadi usane 'mir' ke in sadh‌prayatnon ko lagabhag bekar sa kar diya, lekin aj ki sthiti men yah dekhana mushkil nahin hai ki mir ki rah hi sahi rah thi.

mir ki rachanaen

mir ne lambi zindagi paee aur sari zindagi kavy sadhana ke atirikt aur kuchh bhi n kiya. phalasvaroop unaki rachanaon ki snkhya aur matra bahut adhik hai. niche inaka kuchh parichay diya jata hai-

  1. mir ke kulliyat men 6 bade - bade divan gazalon ke hain. inamen kul milakar 1839 gazalen[4] aur 83 phutakar sher hain. inake alava ath qaside, 31 masanaviyan, kee hajaven[5], 103 rubaiyan, tin shikaranamen adi bahut si kavitaen hain. kuchh vasokht[6] bhi hain. is kulliyat ka akar bahut bada hai.
  2. isake atirikt ek divan farasi ka hai jo durbhagyavash abhi aprakashit hai.
  3. kee marsie bhi likhe hain jo apane dhng ke anoothe hain.
  4. ek pustak farasi men 'faize-mir' ke nam se likhi hai. isamen ant men kuchh hasy-prasng aur kahaniyan hain. inamen kuchh kafi ashlil hain. inase tatkalin samaj ki ruchi ka anuman kiya ja sakata hai.
  5. farasi hi men urdoo shayaron ki ek parichay pustak 'nukatushshoapa' hai jisamen apane poorvavarti aur samakalin kaviyon ka ullekh kiya hai.
  6. atm-charit 'zikr-e-mir' farasi men likha hai. is men apane sahity par prakash nahin dala hai balki apane niji jivan ki ghatanaon ke sath hi tatkalin rajanitik uthal-puthal aur ladaiyon ka ullekh hai. yah pustak itihas ke drishtikon se bhi mahattvapoorn hai.

farasi divan ko chhodakar uparyukt sabhi pustaken prakashit ho gee hain. kintu is samay bharat ke bazaron men prapy nahin hain. yahan tak ki urdoo kulliyat bhi pustakalayon ke alava kahin dekhane ko nahin milata. ab maloom hua hai ki lakhanoo ka 'ram kumar bhargav pres' kulliyat ko phir se chhapane ka prabndh kar raha hai. urdoo ke mahanatam kavi ki rachanaon ki yah dasha du:kh ka vishay hai.

zikr-e-mir

'mir' ne apana jivan charitr svayn hi 'zikr-e-mir' namak ek farasi pustak men likh diya hai. yah pustak bahut dinon tak aprapy thi, lekin kuchh varsh pahale 'anjumane-taraqqi-e-urdoo' ke mntri abdul haq ne isaki khoj karake ise prakashit karava diya hai, jisase kal nirupan tatha tathyon ki vishvasaniyata men badi madad mili hai.

nidhan

mir ki mrityu ki tithi 'nasikh' dvara kahi gee tarikh "vavela murd shahe-shayaran" se 1810 eesavi hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. gehuan
  2. dhairy
  3. jo lajjit hokar niruttar ho gaya ho
  4. lagabhag chaudah hajar sher
  5. nindatmak kavitaen
  6. upalambh-kavy

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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