}

नज़ीर अकबराबादी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

nazir akabarabadi
nazir akabarabadi
poora nam nazir akabarabadi
any nam vali muhammad (vastavik nam)
janm 1735
janm bhoomi dilli
mrityu 1830
abhibhavak muhammad faruk
pati/patni tahavarunissa begam
sntan gulazar ali (putr) aur imami begam (putri)
karm bhoomi agara
karm-kshetr shayar
mukhy rachanaen bnjaranama, door se aye the saqi, faqiron ki sada, hai duniya jisaka nam, shahare ashob adi
bhasha arabi, farasi, urdoo, pnjabi, brajabhasha, maravadi, poorabi aur hindi
nagarikata bharatiy
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi
nazir akabarabadi ki rachanaen

nazir akabarabadi (angrezi: Nazeer Akbarabadi, janm: 1740 - mrityu: 1830) urdoo men nazm likhane vale pahale kavi mane jate hain. samaj ki har chhoti-badi khoobi ko nazir sahab ne kavita men tabdil kar diya. tathakathit sahityalochakon ne nazir sahab ko am janata ki shayari karane ke karan upekshit kiya. kakadi, jalebi aur til ke laddoo jaisi vastuon par likhi gee kavitaon ko alochak kavita manane se inkar karate rahe. bad men nazir sahab ki 'utkrisht shayari' ko pahachana gaya aur aj ve urdoo sahity ke shikhar par virajaman chand namon ke sath baizzat gine jate hain. lagabhag sau varsh ki ayu pane par bhi is shayar ko jite ji utani khyati nahin prapt huee jitani ki unhen aj mil rahi hai. nazir ki shayari se pata chalata hai ki unhonne jivan-roopi pustak ka adhyayan bahut achchhi tarah kiya hai. bhasha ke kshetr men bhi ve udar hain, unhonne apani shayari men jan-snskriti ka, jisamen hindoo snskriti bhi shamil hai, digdarshan karaya hai aur hindi ke shabdon se parahez nahin kiya hai. unaki shaili sidhi asar dalane vali hai aur alnkaron se mukt hai. shayad isilie ve bahut lokapriy bhi hue.[1]

jivan parichay

dilli ke 'muhammad faruk' ke ghar barah bachche paida hue kintu ek bhi jivit nahin raha. 1735 ee. men terahaven bachche ke janm ke samay pita ne piron aur fakiron se taviz lakar apane navajat shishu ke jivan ki dua mangi. buri nazar se bachane ke lie is balak ke nak aur kan chhidavae ge aur ise 'vali muhammad' nam diya gaya. age chalakar vali muhammad ne ‘nazir’ takhallus se shayari ki aur 'akabarabad' [2] men rahane ke karan nazir akabarabadi ke nam se prasiddhi prapt ki.

janm

nazi़r ki janmatithi ka kisi ko pata nahin hai. daau. saksena ka khayal hai ki ve nadirashah ke dilli men hamale ke samay 1739 ya 1740 ee. men paida hue the. pro. shahabaz ke kathananusar unaka janm 1735 ee. men hua tha. khair, yah antar koee khas nahin hai. unaka janmasthan dilli tha. keval ek tazakire ke anusar ve agara men paida hue the lekin any tazakiron men janmasthan dilli hi ko mana gaya hai.[3]

bachapan

1739 ee. men dilli par nadirashah ka akraman hua par ‘nazir’ ke bachapan ko isase kya lena-dena tha!

dil men kisi ke haragiz nai sharm nai haya hai
aga bhi khul raha hai pichha bhi khul raha hai
pahane phire to kya hai nnge phire to kya hai
yan yoon bhi vahava hai aur voon bhi vah va hai ...
kuchh kha le is tarah se kuchh us tarah se kha le
kya aish lootate hain masoom bhole-bhale॥

dilli par musibaton ke pahad ek ke bad ek toot pade़. 1748, 1751 aur 1756 men ahamad shah abdali ke akraman lagatar hote rahe. dillivasiyon par maut ka saya mndara raha tha. charon or dar aur khau़f ka mahaul tha. nazir ke nana 'navab sulatan khan' agara ke qiledar the. dilli ke bure halat dekhakar ‘nazir’ dilli se apani nanihal agara[4]chale ge. us samay unaki ayu 22-23 varsh ki thi. unhonne 'noori daravaze' par ek makan liya aur phir vahin ke hokar rah ge.

vyaktitv

‘nazir’ ka huliya pharahatulla beg yoon likhate hain -
‘nazir’ ka rng gundum-goon (gehuna), kad miyana, peshani oonchi aur chaudi, ankhen chamakadar aur beni (nak) buland thi. dadhi khashakhashi aur moonchhen badi rakhate the. khidakidar pagadi, gadhe ka angarakha, sidha parda, nichi choli, usake niche kurata, ek baraka pajama, ghitali jooti, hath men shanadar chhadi, ungaliyon men firoze aur aqik ki angoothiyan.’’[3]

agara se pyar

ek bar jab vajid ali shah ne unhen lakhanoo ane ka nimntran diya to nazir apane ghode़ par savar vahan jane ko nikal pade़. jaise-jaise tajamahal ankhon se door hua vaise-vaise unaka dil baithane laga. akhirakar ghode़ ko palataya aur phir kabhi agara chhodane ka khayal bhi man men nahin laya.

vivah

agara men hi 'tahavarunissa begam' se ‘nazir’ ne shadi ki, jinase unaki do sntane huee. tahavarunissa begam 'ahadi abdurrahaman-khan chagataee' ki navasi aur 'muhammad rahaman khan' ki beti thin. muhammad rahaman khan malikon ki gali men rahate the jo 'tajagnj muhalle' men thi. ‘nazir’ ki do sntanen thin, ek ladaka 'gulazar ali' aur ek ladaki 'imami begam'. imami begam ke ek ladaki huee jisaka nam 'vilayati begam' tha. vilayati begam pro. shahabaz ke vaqt men zinda thin aur unhonne ‘zi़ndagani-e-benazir ke lie bahut si avashyak samagri di.[3] yah urdoo sahity ka saubhagy hi hai ki imami begam ki ladaki vilayati begam sanh‌ 1900 ee. men zinda thi, jab 'aurngabad kaaulej' ke profesar 'maulavi saiyyad muhammad abdul gafoor ‘shahabaz’ ‘nazir’ ki lekhani par khoj kar rahe the. vilayati begam hi ki madad se pro. shahabaz ne ‘nazir’ ke kalamon ko snjoya aur ise duniya ke samane bataur ‘zindagani-e-benazir’ pesh kiya varana ‘nazir’ ke sath hi unake kalam bhi shayad dafan ho jate.[5]

nazir akabarabadi ki pramukh rachanaen

duniya men apana ji koee bahala ke mar gaya
dil tngiyon se aur koee ukta ke mar gaya
aqil tha vah to ap ko samajha ke mar gaya
be-akl chhati pit ke ghabara ke mar gaya
dukh pa ke mar gaya koee sukh pa ke mar gaya
jita raha n koee har ik a ke mar gaya॥

bhasha gyan

'mirza farahatullah beg' ka kathan hai ki ‘nazir’ ath bhashaen janate the - arabi, farasi, urdoo, pnjabi, brajabhasha, maravadi, poorabi aur hindi. nazir ne apani shayari sidhi-sadi urdoo men am janata ke lie ki. us zamane men ilmo-adab shahi darabaron men palati-panapati thi, par nazir hi ek aise shayar hain jinhonne apane ap ko darabaron se door rakha. navab sadat ali khan ne unhen lakhanoo bulavaya aur bharatapur ke navab ne unhen nyauta bheja, par n unhen akabarabad chhodana tha n unhonne agara chhoda़.[5]

nazir ka kavy

‘nazir’ bahut purane zamane men paida hue the. unhonne lambi umr paee. unake marane ke lagabhag sau varsh bad unaki rachanaon ko aitihasik mahattv mila. sambhavatah kisi aur sahityakar ko kirti itani der se nahin mili. isilie yah bhi sunishchit hai ki ‘nazir’ ki kirti ka sthayitv bhi any kaviyon ki apeksha adhik hoga. abhi to sambhavatah ‘nazir’ ke kavy ki manyata ka shaishavakal hi hai. ‘nazir’ ko unnisavin shatabdi ke alochakon ne, jinamen navab mustafa-khan ‘shefta’ pramukh hain, nikrisht koti ka kavi mana hai. navab ‘shefta’ dvara likhit urdoo kaviyon ke tazakire gulashane-be-khar ki rachana ke bahut pahale hi nazir paralokavasi ho ge the. kintu yadi ‘shefta’ jaisa vidvanh unake jivanakal hi men unhen nikrisht koti ka kavi karar deta to bhi unhen chinta n hoti. nazir ne kabhi khud ko ooncha kavi nahin kaha, hamesha apane ko sadharanata ke dharatal par hi rakha. unhonne apane vyaktitv ka jo bhi chitran kiya hai, usamen apana huliya bigadakar rakh diya hai. sahityik kirti ke pichhe daudane ki to bat hi kya, unhonne lakhanoo aur bharatapur ke darabaron ke nimntranon ko asvikar karake jis tarah milati huee kirti ko bhi thokar mar di, use dekhakar aj ke zamane men jabaki sahity kshetr men har taraph kuntha ka bolabala dikhaee deta hai, hamari ankhen ashchary se phati rah jati hain. ham samajh hi nahin pate ki ‘nazir’ kis mitti ke bane the.[3]

nazir ki shayari

‘nazir’ ki shayari ko roshani men lane ka doosara strot the unake shagird - lala bilasaray ke ladake- harabakhsharay, moolachndaray, manasukharay, vnsidhar aur shnkaradas. nazir in ladakon ko 17 rupaye masik ke vetan par padhaya karane the. is chhoti si ay ne unhen mufalisi ka ahasas bhi dilaya tha. unhonne likha-

jab adami ke hal pe ati hai mufalisi
kis-kis tarah se usako satati hai mufalisi
pyasa tamam roj bithati hai mufalisi
bhookha tamam rat sulati hai mufalisi
yah du:kh vo jane jis pe ki ati hai mufalisi॥

jab bhi ‘nazir’ koee she'r ya kalam kahate, ye ladake kaaupi men likh lete. inhin kaaupiyon se ‘nazir’ ke kalamon ki janakari mili. chhoti si amadani men bhi apani zindagi ijzat se guzaren, yahi unaki tamanna rahati.

yah chahata hoon ab main sau dil ki arazoo se
rakhiyo ‘nazir’ ko tum do jag men abaroo se॥

dharmanirapeksh shayar

nazir ek dharmanirapeksh shayar the.

unhen kuran aur pothi men ek hi malik nazar aya

jata hai haram men koee kuran bagal mar
kahata hai koee dair men pothi ke samachar
pahuncha hai koee par bhatakata hai koee khvar
baitha hai koee aish men phirata hai koee jar
har an men, har bat men, har dhng men pahachan
ashik hai to dilabar ko har ik rng men pahachan॥

unhonne nanak ke samane bhi matha teka

kahate hain jinhen nanak shah poore hain agah guru
vah kamil rahabar jag men hain yoon raushan jaise mah guru..
makasood murad ummid sabhi bar late hain dilakhvah guru
nit lutfo-karam se karate hain ham logon ka nirvah guru
is bakhshis ke is azamat ke hain baba nanak shah guru
sab sis jhuka aradas karo aur haradam bolo vah guru

krishn ke gun bhi gae

tarif karoon ab main kya us murali bajaiyya ki
nit seva kunj phiraiya ki aur ban ban goo-charaiya ki
gopal, bihari, banavari, dukhaharana, mel karaiya ki
giradhari, sundar, shyam baran aur haladhar joo ke bhaiya ki
yah lila hai us nnd-lalan, manamohan, jasumati-chhaiya ki
rakh dhyan suno dndaut karo, jay bolo kishan kanhaiya ki॥

shaili

‘nazir’ ne jivan ka adhyayan badi sookshmata se kiya tha. sadharan si ghatana ko bhi ve asadharan tarike se bayan karate the. ve aise vishay par bhi shayari kar dete the jis par kisi any shayar ka dhyan bhi n jata ho.

jadon men phir khuda ne khilavae til ke laddoo
har ik khvanche men dikhalae til ke laddoo
kooche gali men har ja bikavae til ke laddoo
hamako bhi dil se hainge khush ae til ke laddoo!

nazir prakriti ke bahut qarib the. unhen pakshi-palan ka bhi shauq tha. unhonne itane pakshiyon ke nam ginavae hain ki aj ki pidhi inhen janati bhi nahin hogi.

chndool, agan, abalake, chhappan, bane, daiyar
maina v baiye, kilakile, bagule bhi saman-bar
tote bhi kee taur ke tuiyyan koee lahavar
rahate the bahut janavar us ped ke oopar..

shayari ki drishti se bhale hi ‘nazir’ ne radif, kafiya, uchcharan aur dhvani saundary ka khayal n rakha ho par unaki rachanaon ki saralata men sarasata hai. unhonne maut ko bhi ek kavita ke roop men dekha tha.

marane men adami hi kafan karate hain taiyar
nahala-dhula uthate hain kandhon pe kar savar
kalama bhi padhate jate hain rote hain zar-zar
sab adami hi karate hain murade ke karabar
aur vah jo mar gaya hai so hai vo bhi adami.

nazir ne apani shayari men alnkaron ka sahara nahin liya par roopakon ka atyadhik prayog kiya jisaki jhalak ‘hnsanama’, ‘bnjaranama’, ‘richh ka bachcha’ jaisi rachanaon men milati hai.

jab chalate chalate raste men yah gaun teri rah jaegi
ik baghiya teri mitti par phir ghas n charane pavegi
yah khep jo toone ladi hai sab hisson men bnt jaegi
dhi, poot, jamaee, beta kya, bnjarin pas n avegi
sab thath pada rah jaega jab lad chalega bnjara ॥

ek veshya motibaee par ‘nazir’ ki nazar padi़ aur ve itane fida hue ki usaki khubasoorati ka bayan is khoobasoorati se kiya-

doorez karishma, naz sitam
dhamazon ki jhukavat vaisi hai
mizagan ki sinan nazaron ki ani
abaroo ki khichavat vaisi hai
palakon ki jhapak, putali ki phirat
suramon ki ghulavat vaisi hai.....

nazir ne apani javani men khoob rngaraliyan manaee. javani ke ahasasat unhonne is tarah bayan kie-

kya tujhase ‘nazir’ ab main javani ki kahoon bat
is sin men guzarati hai ajab phesh se aukat
mahaboob parizad chale ate hain din-rat
sairen hain, baharen hain, tavajen hai, mudarat...
is dhab ke maze rakhati hai aur dhng javani
ashik ko dikhati hai ajab rng javani ॥

ab zara divali par unaki kavita ki banagi dekhie--

jahan men yaro ajab tarah ka hai ye th‍yauhar.
kisi ne naqad liya aur koee kare udhar ..  
khilaune, khaliyon, batashon ka garm hai bazar 
har ek dukan men charagon ki ho rahi hai bahar .. 
mithaeeyon ki dukanen laga ke halavaee.
pukarate hain kah--lala divali hai aee  ..
batase le koee, baraphi kisi ne tulavaee. 
khilaune valon ki un se jh‍yada hai ban aee  ..

pahala divan

  • fransisi shodhakarta garsin d tessi ka kathan hai ki ‘nazir’ ka pahala divan 1820 men devanagari lipi men likha gaya tha. mirza farahatulla beg ne joon 1942 men haidarabad ke aga haidar hasan ke madhyam se do divan chhapae the. abhi bhi ‘nazir’ ki farasi men likhi kritiyan nazme-gazin, kadre-matin, bazme-aish, rana-e-zeba adi dilli vishvavidyalay ke grnthalay men surakshit hai.[5]
  • ‘nazir’ ke kavy ko sabase pahale 1900 ee. men aurngabad kaaulej ke pradhyapak maulavi sayyad muhammad abdul gaphoor ‘shahabaz’ ne nikala. is shatabdi men ‘nazir’ par jo kuchh likha gaya hai usaka udhar pro. shahabaz ki prasiddh pustak ‘zindagani-e-benazir’ hai. is pustak men jo khoj-samagri hai usase adhik age badhana kisi aur ke lie sambhav n hua, yadyapi yah bhi sahi hai ki pro. shahabaz ne isamen alochak se adhik prashnsak ka ravaiya apanaya hai.[3]
  • nazir ne budhape men bhi apani zindadili nahin chhodi thi. ve janate the ki budhapa kitana takaliphadeh hota hai par sachchaee ko bhi unhonne hnsate-hnsate bayan kiya.

ab ake budha़pe ne kie aise adhoore
par jhad ge, dum jhad gee, phirate hai lndoore...
sab chiz ka hota hai bura hay budha़pa
ashik ko to allah n dikhalae budha़pa

  • ‘nazir’ ne apana lamba jivan-safar svatantrata aur svachchhndata se guzara par ant men tin varsh ve pakshaghat se pidit rahe aur apane ghar ke angan ke do pedon ke bich apane pran taj die. yahan aj bhi har baras basnt ke tyauhar par tajagnj mohalle men log jama hote hain aur is janata ke shayar ko dhol-tashon, nach-ganon ke bich shraddhanjali arpit karate hain. aisa sama bndh jata hai mano ‘nazir’ ki rooh kah rahi ho:

yan lutfo-karam tumane kie ham pe hain jo jo
tum sabn ki e khoobi hai kahan ham se bayan ho
takasir koee ham se huee hote to bakhsho
lo yaro ham ab javenge kal apane vatan ko
ab tumako mubarak rahe yah ped tumharo.[5]

nazir aur holi

nazir ne urdoo shayari men am jivan ke rng bikhere aur aise vishayon par likha, jinh‍hen aj bhi sahith‍y ka vishay nahin mana jata. unh‍honne ata-dal, roti, rupaya, paisa, pnkh, phal-phool aur sabhi th‍yoharon par likha.[6] nazir ne holi ke vishay men likha-…

jab phagun rng jhamakate hon
jab phagun rng jhamakate hon tab dekh baharen holi ki.
aur daf ke shor khadakate hon tab dekh baharen holi ki.
pariyon ke rng damakate hon tab dekh baharen holi ki.
khoom shish-e-jam chhalakate hon tab dekh baharen holi ki. ...poora padhen

khyati

miyan ‘nazir’ ne lagabhag sau varsh ki ayu paee. unaka nidhan san 1830 men hua. bharat jaise desh ka nivasi hokar bhi itani lambi umr pana apane jivan ke adhikar ka avashyakata se adhik upayog karana kaha jaega. kintu itani lambi umr ke bavajood ‘nazir’ ko antim kshanon tak kavi ke roop men khyati n mili. unake marane ke lagabhag sattar varsh bad tak bhi alochakagan unhen ek pramukh kavi ke roop men manane se inakar karate rahe. bisavin shatabdi men likhe urdoo sahity ke kuchh pramukh itihason- 'abdul hee' krit ‘gule ra़na’ aur 'abdussalam nadavi' krit ‘sherulahind’ men ‘nazir’ ka kahin ullekh bhi nahin kiya gaya. bisavin shatabdi ke madhy kal men akar miyan ‘nazir’ ubhare aur ubhare to aise ubhare ki alochakon ke pas unaki nisprihata, dharmik sahishnuta, desh-prem, bhratri-bhav paini drishti ki prashnsa karane ke atirikt aur koee chara hi nahin rah gaya. unaka sab thath pada rah jaega jab lad chalega bnjara jaisi kavitaen, jo unnisavin shatabdi ke alochakon ki drishti men upahasaspad samajhi jati thin, ab kavita-premiyon ke gale ka har ho gee hain.[3]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. nazir akabarabadi (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 26 disambar, 2012.
  2. agara ka pahale nam akabarabad tha
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 najir akabarabadi aur unaki shayari (hindi) bharatiy sahity sngrah. abhigaman tithi: 27 disambar, 2012.
  4. us samay agara ka nam akabarabad tha
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 janata ka shayar - ‘nazir’ (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 26 disambar, 2012.
  6. nazir akabarabadi ki nazar holi par (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 26 sisambar, 2012.

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