ग़ालिब  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

galib vishay soochi
galib
Mirza-Ghalib.jpg
poora nam mirza asadulla beg khan 'galib'
janm 27 disambar 1797
janm bhoomi agara, uttar pradesh
mrityu 15 faravari, 1869
mrityu sthan dilli
abhibhavak abdulla beg galib
pati/patni umarav begam
karm bhoomi dilli
karm-kshetr shayar
mukhy rachanaen 'divan-e-galib', 'urdoo-e-hindi', 'urdoo-e-mualla', 'nam-e-galib', 'latayaphe gaibi', 'duvapashe kaveyani' adi.
vishay urdoo shayari
bhasha urdoo aur farasi bhasha
snbndhit lekh galib ka daur
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

galib athava mirza asadulla beg khan (angrezi: Ghalib athava Mirza Asadullah Baig Khan, urdoo: غالب athava مرزا اسدللا بےغ خان) (janm- 27 disambar, 1797 ee. agara; nidhan- 15 faravari, 1869 ee. dilli) jinhen sari duniya 'mirza galib' ke nam se janati hai. inako urdoo-farasi ka sarvakalik mahan shayar mana jata hai aur farasi kavita ke pravah ko hindustani jaban men lokapriy karavane ka shrey bhi inako diya jata hai. galib ke likhe patr, jo us samay prakashit nahin hue the, ko bhi urdoo lekhan ka mahatvapoorn dastavez mana jata hai. galib ko bharat aur pakistan men ek mahatvapoorn kavi ke roop men jana jata hai. unhen dabir-ul-mulk aur nazm-ud-daula ka khitab mila. galib ajivan qarz men doobe rahe, lekin inhonne apani shano-shauqat men kabhi kami nahin ane di. inake sat bachchon men se ek bhi jivit nahin raha. jis penshan ke sahare inhen v inake ghar ko ek sahara prapt tha, vah bhi band kar di gee thi. galib navabi khanadan se talluk rakhate the aur mugal darabar men unche ohade par the. galib (asad) nam se likhane vale mirza mugal kal ke akhiri shasak bahadur shah zafar ke darabari kavi bhi rahe the. galib shiya musalaman the, par mazahab ki bhavanaon men bahut udar evn mitraparan svatntr cheta the. jo adami ek bar inase milata tha, use sada inase milane ki ichchha bani rahati thi. unhonne apane bare men svayn likha tha ki duniya men yoon to bahut se achchhe kavi-shayar hain, lekin unaki shaili sabase nirali hai-

    “hain aur bhi duniya men sukhanvar bahut achchhe
    kahate hain ki galib ka hai andaz-e bayan aur”

parichay

galib urdoo-farasi ke prakhyat kavi tatha mahanh shayar the. inake dada 'mirza qauqan beg khan' samarakand se bharat ae the. bad men ve lahaur men 'muinul mulk' ke yahan naukar ke roop men kary karane lage. mirza qauqan beg khan ke bade bete 'abdulla beg khan se mirza galib hue. abdulla beg khan, navab asafuddaula ki fauj men shamil hue aur phir haidarabad se hote hue alavar ke raja 'bakhtavar sinh' ke yahan lag ge. lekin jab mirza galib mahaj 5 varsh ke the, tab ek ladaee men unake pita shahid ho ge.

bachapan evn shiksha

Blockquote-open.gif arthik tngi ne kabhi bhi inaka pichha nahin chhoda tha. qarz men hamesha ghire rahe, lekin apani shano-shauqat men kabhi kami nahin ane dete the. inake sat bachchon men se ek bhi jivit nahin raha. jis penshan ke sahare inhen v inake ghar ko ek sahara prapt tha, vah bhi band kar di gee thi. Blockquote-close.gif

inaka palan poshan pita ki mrityu ke bad inake chacha ne hi inaka palan kiya tha, par shighr hi inaki bhi mrityu ho gee thi aur ye apani nanihal men a ge. pita svayn ghar-jamaee ki tarah sada sasural men rahe. vahin unaki santanon ka bhi palan-poshan hua. nanihal khushahal tha. isalie galib ka bachapan adhikatar vahin par bita aur bade aram se bita. un logon ke pas kafi jayadad thi. galib khud apane ek patr men ‘mafidul khayayaq’ pres ke malik munshi shivanarayan ko, jinake dada ke sath galib ke nana ki gahari dosti thi, likhate hain-
“hamari badi haveli vah hai, jo ab lakkhichand seth ne mol li hai. isi ke daravaze ki sngin barahadari par meri nashast thi[1].

nikah

galib haveli

jab asadulla khan galib' sirf 13 varsh ke the, inaka vivah loharoo ke navab 'ahamadabakhsh khan' (jinaki bahan se inake chacha ka byah hua tha) ke chhote bhaee 'mirza ilahibakhsh khan ‘maroof’ ki beti 'umarav begam' ke sath 9 agast, 1810 ee. ko sampann hua tha. umarav begam 11 varsh ki thin. is tarah loharoo rajavnsh se inaka sambandh aur dridh ho gaya. pahale bhi vah bich-bich men dilli jate rahate the, par shadi ke 2-3 varsh bad to dilli ke hi ho ge. vah svayn ‘urdoo-e-moalla’ (inaka ek khat) men is ghatana ka zikr karate hue likhate hain ki- "7 rajjab 1225 hijari ko mere vaste hukm dava men habs[2] sadir[3] hua. ek bedi (yani bivi) mere panv men dal di aur dilli shahar ko zindan[4] muqarrar kiya aur mujhe is zindan men dal diya." galib ko shiksha dene ke bad mulla abdussamad unhin (galib) ke sath agara se dilli ge.

prambhik kavy

mirza galib

dilli men sasur tatha unake pratishthit sathiyon evn mitron ke kavy prem ka in par achchha asar hua. ilahibakhsh khan pavitr evn rahasyavadi prem se poorn kavy-rachana karate the. vah pavitr vicharon ke adami the. unake yahan soofiyon tatha shayaron ka jamaghat rahata tha. nishchay hi galib par in goshthiyon ka achchha asar pada hoga. yahan unhen tasavvuf (dharmavad, adhyatmavad) ka parichay mila hoga, aur dhire-dhire yah janmabhoomi agara men bite bachapan tatha bad men kishoravastha men dilli men bite dinon ke bure prabhavon se mukt hue honge. dilli ane par bhi shuroo-shuroo men to mirza ka vahi tarz raha, par bad men vah sambhal ge. kaha jata hai ki manushy ki kritiyan usake antar ka pratik hoti hain. manushy jaisa andar se hota hai, usi ke anukool vah apani abhivyakti kar pata hai. chahe kaisa hi bhramak parada ho, andar ki jhalak kuchh n kuchh parade se chhanakar a hi jati hai. inake prarambhik kavy ke kuchh namoone is prakar hain-

niyaze-ishq, [5] khirmanasoz asababe-havis behatar.
jo ho javen nisare-barq[6] mushte-kharo-khas behatar.

arthik kathinaiyan

vivah ke bad ‘galib’ ki arthik kathinaiyan badhati hi geen. agara, nanihal men inake din aram v reesiyat se bitate the. dilli men bhi kuchh dinon tak rng raha. sadhe sat sau salana penshan navab ahamadabakhsh khan ke yahan se milati thi. vah yon bhi kuchh n kuchh dete rahate the. man ke yahan se bhi kabhi-kabhi kuchh a jata tha. alavar se bhi kuchh mil jata tha. is tarah maze men guzarati thi. par shighr hi pasa palat gaya. 1822 ee. men british sarakar evn alavar darabar ki svikriti se navab ahamadabakhsh khan ne apani jayadad ka bntavara yon kiya, ki unake bad firozapur jhurka ki gaddi par unake bade ladake shamsuddin ahamad khan baithe tatha loharoo ki jagiren unake donon chhote beton aminuddin ahamad khan aur ziyauddin ahamad khan ko mile. shamsuddin ahamad khan ki man bahookhanam thin, aur any donon ki begamajan. svabhavat: donon auraton men pratidvandvita thi aur bhaiyon ke bhi do giroh ban ge. apas men inaki patati nahin thi.

galib ka daur

galib

galib ka daur (urdoo bhasha aur devanagari lipi men)
mirza asad ullah khan ‘galib’ 27 sitambar, 1797 ko paida hue. sitambar, 1796 men ek fransisi, parron, jo apani qismat azamane hindustan aya tha, daulat rav sindhiya ki shahi fauj ka sipahasalar bana diya gaya. is haisiyat se vah hindustan ka gavarnar bhi tha. usane dilli ka muhasara karake[7] use fatah[8] kar liya aur apane ek kamandar, le marashan ko shahar ka gavarnar aur shah alak ka muhafij[9] muqarrar[10] kiya. usake bad usane agara par qabza kar liya.

muqadama

galib (chitrakar- em.eph. husain)

asaliyat yah thi ki nasarullabeg ki mrityu ke bad unaki jagir (sonkh aur sonsa) angrezon ne li thi. bad men 25 hazar salana par ahamadabakhsh ko de di gee. 4 mee, 1806 ko laaurd lek ne ahamadabakhsh khan se milane vali 25 hazar varshik malaguzari is shart par maf kar di ki vah das hazar salana nasarullabeg khan ke ashriton ko de. par isake chand dinon bad hi 7 joon, 1806 ko navab ahamadabakhsh khan ne laaurd lek se mil-milakar isamen gupachup parivartan kara liya tha ki, sirf 5 hazar salana hi nasarullabeg khan ke ashriton ko die jayen aur isamen khvaja haji bhi shamil rahega. is gupt parivartan evn snshodhan ka gyan ‘galib’ ko nahin tha. isalie firozapur jhurka ke shasak par dava dayar kar diya ki unhonne ek to adesh ke viruddh penshan adhi kar di, phir us adhi men bhi khvaja ji ko shamil kar liya.

agamir se mulaqat ki shart

galib

jab mirza ‘galib’ lakhanoo pahunche to un dinon gaziuddin haidar avadh ke badashah the. vah aisho-isharat men doobe hue insan the. yadyapi unhen bhi shero-shayari se kuchh-n-kuchh dilachaspi thi. shasan ka kam mukhyat: nayab saltanat motamuddaula sayyad muhammad khan dekhate the, jo lakhanoo ke itihas men ‘aga mir’ ke nam se mashahoor hain. ab tak aga mir ki dyodhi muhalla lakhanoo men jyon ka tyon qayam hai. us samay aga mir men hi shasan ki sab shakti kendrit thi. vah safed syaha, jo chahate the karate the. yah adami shuroo men ek 'khanasaman' (rasoiya) ke roop men naukar hua tha, kintu shighr hi navab aur rezident ko aisa khush kar liya ki ve isake lie sab kuchh karane ko taiyar rahate the. unhin ki madad se vah is pad par pahunch paya tha. bina usaki sahayata ke badashah tak pahunch n ho sakati thi.

vyaktitv

galib

galib ka vyaktitv bada hi akarshak tha. eerani chehara, gora-lamba qad, sudaul ekahara badan, oonchi nak, kapol ki haddi ubhari huee, chauda matha, ghani uthi palakon ke bich jhankate dirgh nayan, snsar ki kahani sunane ko utsuk lambe kan, apani sunane ko utsuk, manon bol hi padenge. aise oth apani chuppi men bhi bol padane vale, budhape men bhi phootati deh ki kanti jo ishara karati hai ki javani ke saundary men n jane kya nasha raha hoga. sundar gaur varn, samast zindadili ke sath jivit, isi duniya ke adami, insan aur insan ke gun-doshon se lagaye-yah the mirza va miraza galib. ye reesazade the aur janm bhar apane ko vaisa hi samajhate rahe. isilie vastr vinyas ka bada dhyan rakhate the. jab ghar par hote, pray: pajama aur angarakha pahinate the. sir par kamadani ki huee malamal ki gol topi lagate the. jadon men garm kapade ka kalidar pajama aur mirzee. bahar jate to aksar choodidar ya tng mohadi ka pajama, kurta, sadari ya chapakan aur oopar qimati labada hota tha.

giraftari

san 1845 ke lagabhag agara se badalakar ek naya kotaval faijulahasan aya. isako kavy se koee anurag nahin tha. isilie galib par meharabani karane ki koee bat usake lie nahin ho sakati thi. phir vah ek sakht adami bhi tha. ate hi usane sakhti se janch karani shuroo ki. kee doston ne mirza ko chetavani bhi di ki jua band kar do, par vah lobh evn anhakar se andhe ho rahe the. unhonne isaki koee paravah nahin ki. vah samajhate the ki mere viruddh koee karravahi nahin ho sakati. ek din kotaval ne chhapa mara, aur log to pichhavade se nikal bhage par mirza pakad lie ge. mirza ki giraftari se poorv jauhari pakade ge the. par vah rupaya kharch karake bach ge the. muqadamen tak naubat nahin aee thi. mirza ke pas men rupaya kahan tha. han, mitr the.

hindoo mitron ki sahayata

1857 ke gadar ke anek chitr mirza 'galib' ke patron men tatha inaki pustak ‘dastnboo’ men milate hain. is samay inaki manovritti asthir thi. yah nirnay nahin kar pate the ki kis paksh men rahen. sochate the ki pata nahin oont kis karavat baithe? isilie qile se bhi thoda sambandh banaye rakhate the. ‘dastnboo’ men un ghatanaon ka zikr hai jo gadar ke samay inake age guzari thin. udhar fasad shuroo hote hi mirza ki bivi ne unase bina poochhe apane sare zevar aur qimati kapade miyan kale sahab ke makan par bhej die taki vahan surakshit rahenge. par bat ulati huee. kale sahab ka makan bhi luta aur usake sath hi galib ka saman bhi lut gaya. choonki is samay raj musalamanon ka tha, isilie angrezon ne dilli vijay ke bad un par vishesh dhyan diya aur unako khoob sataya. bahut se log pran-bhay se bhag ge. inamen mirza ke bhi anek mitr the. isilie gadar ke dinon men unaki halat bahut kharab ho gee. ghar se bahar bahut kam nikalate the. khane-pine ki bhi mushkil thi.

musalaman hoon par adha

yadyapi patiyala ke sipahi as-pas ke makanon ki raksha men tainat the, aur ek divar bana di gee thi. lekin 5 aktoobar ko (18 sitambar ko dilli par angrezon ka dubara se adhikar ho gaya tha) kuchh gore, sipahiyon ke mana karane par bhi, divar phandakar mirza ke muhalle men a ge aur mirza ke ghar men ghuse. unhonne mal-asabab ko hath nahin lagaya, par mirza, arif ke do bachchon aur chand logon ko pakadakar le ge aur kutubuddin saudagar ki haveli men karnal braun ke samane pesh kiya. unaki hasyapriyata aur ek mitr ki sifarish ne raksha ki. bat yah huee jab gore mirza ko giraftar karake le ge, to angrez sarjent ne inaki anokhi saj-dhaj dekhakar poochha-‘kya tum musalaman ho?’ mirza ne hnsakar javab diya ki, ‘musalaman to hoon par adha.’ vah inake javab se chakit hua. poochha-‘adha musalaman ho, kaise?’ mirza bole, ‘sahab, sharib pita hoon; hem (sooar) nahin khata.’

jab karnal ke samane pesh kie ge, to inhonne maharani viktoriya se apane patr-vyavahar ki bat bataee aur apani vafadari ka vishvas dilaya. karnal ne poochha, ‘tum dilli ki ladaee ke samay pahadi par kyon nahin aye, jahan angrezi fauzen aur unake madadagar jama ho rahe the?’ mirza ne kaha, ‘tilnge daravaze se bahar adami ko nikalane nahin dete the. main kyon kar ata? agar koee fareb karake, koee bat karake nikal jata, jab pahadi ke qarib goli ki renj men pahunchata to pahare vala goli mar deta. yah bhi mana ki tilnge bahar jane dete, gora paharedar bhi goli n marata par meri soorat dekhie aur mera hal maloom kijie. boodha hoon, panv se apahij, kanon se bahara, n ladaee ke layaq, n mashvirat ke qabil. han, dua karata hoon so vahan bhi dua karata raha.’ karnal sahab hnse aur mirza ko unake naukaron aur gharavalon ke sath ghar jane ki ijazat de di.

galib aur penshan

mirza galib rekhachitr (skaich)

mirza to bach ge par inake bhaee mirza yoosuf itane bhagyashali n the. pahale hi zikr kiya ja chuka hai ki vah 30 sal ki ayu men hi vikshipt (pagal) ho ge the aur galib ke makan se door, pharrashakhane[11] ke qarib, ek doosare makan men alag rahate the. jitani penshan galib ko sarakari khazane se milati thi, utani hi mirza yoosuf ke lie bhi niyat thi. unaki bivi, bachche bhi sath-sath rahate the, par dilli par angrezon ka phir se adhikar hua to goron ne chun-chunakar badala lena shuroo kiya. is beizzati aur atyachar se bachane ke lie yoosuf ki bivi bachchon sahit inhen akele chhodakar jayapur chali gee thin. ghar par inake pas ek boodhi naukarani aur ek boodha daravan rah ge. mirza ko bhi soochana mili, kintu bebasi ke karan vah kuchh n kar sake. 30 sitambar ko jab galib ko apana daravaza band kie hue pandrah-solah din ho rahe the, unhen soochana mili ki sainik mirza yoosuf ke ghar aye aur sab kuchh le ge, lekin unhen aur boodhe naukaron ko zinda chhod ge.[12]

antim samay

mirza galib ka maqabara, dilli

mirza 'galib ka zindagi bhar karzadaron se pind nahin chhoot saka. inake sat bachche bhi hue the, lekin jitane bhi hue sab mar ge. 'arif' (god liya hua beta) ko bete ki tarah ki pala, vah bhi mar gaya. parivarik jivan kabhi sukhi evn premamay nahin raha. manasik sntulan ki kami se zamane ki shikayat hamesha rahi. isaka du:kh hi bana raha ki samaj ne kabhi hamari yogyata aur pratibha ki sachchi qadradani n ki. phir sharab jo kishoravastha men munh lagi thi, vah kabhi nahin chhooti. gadar ke zamane men arth-kasht, usake bad penshan ki bandi. jab inase kuchh phursat mili to ‘qata burahan’ ke hngame ne inake dil men aisi uttejana paida ki ki bechain rakha. in lagatar musibaton se inaka svasthy girata hi gaya. khana-pina bahut kam ho gaya. bahare ho ge. drishti-shakti bhi bahut kam ho gee. qabz ki shikayat pahale se hi thi.

mrityu

mirza galib ki mrityu 15 faravari, 1869 ee. ko dopahar dhale huee thi. is din ek aisi pratibha ka ant ho gaya, jisane is desh men farasi kavy ko uchchata pradan ki aur urdoo gady-pady ko parampara ki shrinkhalaon se mukt kar ek naye sanche men dhala.

'divan-e-galib' ka avaran prishth

Blockquote-open.gif galib shiya musalaman the, par mazahab ki bhavanaon men bahut udar aur svatntr cheta the. inaki mrityu ke bad hi agara se prakashit hone vale patr ‘zakhira balagovind’ ke march, 1869 ke ank men inaki mrityu par jo sampadakiy lekh chhapa tha aur jo shayad inake sambandh men likha sabase purana aur pahala lekh hai, usase to ek nee bat maloom hoti hai ki yah bahut pahale chupachap ‘frimaisan’ ho ge the aur logon ke bahut poochhane par bhi usaki gopaniyata ki ant tak raksha karate rahe. Blockquote-close.gif

mrityu ke bad inake mitron men is bat ko lekar matabhed hua ki shiya ya sunni, kis vidhi se inaka mritak snskar ho. galib shiya the, isamen kisi ko sandeh ki gunjaish n thi, par navab ziyauddin aur mahamood khan ne sunni vidhi se hi sab kriya-karm karaya aur jis loharoo khanadan ne 1847 ee. men samachar patron men chhapavaya tha ki galib se hamara door ka sambandh hai, usi khanadan ke navab ziyauddin ne sampoorn mritak snskar karavaya aur unake shav ko gaurav ke sath apane vnsh ke qabristan (jo chausath khambha ke pas hai) men apane chacha ke pas jagah di.

rachanaen

galib ne apani rachanaon men saral shabdon ka prayog kiya hai. urdoo gady-lekhan ki ninv rakhane ke karan inhen vartaman urdoo gady ka janmadata bhi kaha jata hai. inaki any rachanaen 'latayaphe gaibi', 'durapashe kaveyani', 'namae galib', 'mehnim' adi gady men hain. farasi ke kuliyat men farasi kavitaon ka sngrah hain. dastnb men inhonne 1857 ee. ke balave ka ankhon dekha vivaran farasi gady men likha hain. galib ne nimn rachanaen bhi ki hain-

  1. 'urdoo-e-hindi'
  2. 'urdoo-e-mualla'
  3. 'nam-e-galib'
  4. 'latayaphe gaibi'
  5. 'duvapashe kaveyani' adi.
mirza galib par jari googal-doodal

inaki rachanaon men desh ki tatkalin samajik, rajanitik tatha arthik sthiti ka varnan hua hai. unaki khoobasoorat shayari ka sngrah 'divan-e-galib' ke roop men 10 bhagon men prakashit hua hai. jisaka anek svadeshi tatha videshi bhashaon men anuvad ho chuka hai.

googal doodal (Google Doodle)

sher-o-shayari ki duniya ke badashah, urdoo evn farasi bhasha ke mahan shayar mirza galib ka 27 disambar, 2017 ko 220van janmadivas hai. is mauke par googal ne ek khas doodal banakar unako samarpit kiya. googool ke is doodal men mirza hath men pen aur kagaz ke sath dikh rahe hain aur unake baikagraund men bani imarat mugalakalin vastukala ke darshan kara rahi hai. googal ne apane blaaug men likha ki- "unake chhnd men udasi si dikhati hai jo unake uthal-puthal aur trasadi se bhari jindagi se nikal kar aee hai, chahe vo kam umr men anath hona ho, ya phir apane sat navajat bachchon ko khona ya chahe bharat men mugalon ke hath se nikalati satta se rajaniti men aee uthal-puthal ho. unhonne vittiy kathinaee jheli aur unhen kabhi niyamit sailari nahin mili. in kathinaiyon ke bavajood mirza galib ne apani paristhitiyon ko vivek, buddhimatta, jivan ke prati prem se mod diya. unaki urdoo kavita aur shayari ko unake jivan kal men sarahana nahin mili, lekin aj unaki virasat ko kaphi saraha jata hai, visheshakar urdoo gazalon men unaki shreshthata ko.'


age jaen »


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. yah badi haveli.......ab bhi pipalamandi agara men maujood hai. isi ka nam ‘kala’ (kalan?) mahal hai. yah nihayat alishan imarat hai. yah kisi zamane men raja gajasinh ki haveli kahalati thi. raja gajasinh jodhapur ke raja soorajasinh ke bete the aur ahade jahangir men isi makan men rahate the. mera khyal hai ki mirza galib ki paidaish isi makan men huee hogi. ajakal (1838 ee.) yah imarat ek hindoo seth ki milkiyat hai aur isamen ladakiyon ka madarasa hai.-‘zikre galib’ (malikaram), navin snsmaran, prishth 21
  2. sthayi qaid
  3. jari
  4. karagar
  5. prem ka parichay
  6. vidyut par nyauchhavar
  7. gherakar
  8. jit
  9. rakshak
  10. niyukt
  11. vah makan jisamen farsh vagairah rakhe jate hain
  12. galib ke ek nikat sambandhi mirza mueenuddin ne likha hai ki yoosuf goli ki avaz sunakar, yah dekhane ke lie ki kya ho raha hai, ghar se bahar aye aur mare ge.–gadar ki subah-sham, prishth 88

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah