सुमित्रानंदन पंत

भारत डिस्कवरी प्रस्तुति
Jump to navigation Jump to search
sumitranandan pant
poora nam sumitranandan pant
any nam gusaeean datt
janm 20 mee 1900
janm bhoomi kausani, uttarakhand, bharat
mrityu 28 disanbar, 1977
mrityu sthan ilahabad, uttar pradesh, bharat
karm bhoomi ilahabad
karm-kshetr adhyapak, lekhak, kavi
mukhy rachanaean vina, pallav, chidanbara, yugavani, lokayatan, yugapath, svarnakiran, kala aur boodha chaand adi
vishay git, kavitaean
bhasha hindi
vidyalay jayanarayan haeeskool, myor seantral k aaulej
puraskar-upadhi jnanapith puraskar, padm bhooshan, sahity akadami puraskar , 'lokayatan' par soviyat laiand neharu puraskar
nagarikata bharatiy
aandolan rahasyavad v pragativad
inhean bhi dekhean kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi
sumitranandan pant ki rachanaean

sumitranandan pant (aangrezi: Sumitranandan Pant, janm: 20 mee 1900; mrityu: 28 disanbar, 1977) hindi sahity mean chhayavadi yug ke char stanbhoan mean se ek haian. sumitranandan pant naye yug ke pravartak ke roop mean adhunik hindi sahity mean udit hue. sumitranandan pant aise sahityakaroan mean gine jate haian, jinaka prakriti chitran samakalin kaviyoan mean sabase behatarin tha. akarshak vyaktitv ke dhani sumitranandan pant ke bare mean sahityakar rajendr yadav kahate haian ki 'pant aangrezi ke roomani kaviyoan jaisi veshabhoosha mean rahakar prakriti kendrit sahity likhate the.' janm ke mahaj chhah ghante ke bhitar unhoanne apani maan ko kho diya. pant logoan se bahut jald prabhavit ho jate the. pant ne mahatma gaandhi aur karl markh‍s se prabhavit hokar un par rachanaean likh dalian. hiandi sahity ke viliyam vardsavarth kahe jane vale is kavi ne mahanayak amitabh bachchan ko ‘amitabh’ nam diya tha. padmabhooshan, jnanapith puraskar aur sahity akadami puraskaroan se navaje ja chuke pant ki rachanaoan mean samaj ke yatharth ke sath-sath prakriti aur manushy ki satta ke bich takarav bhi hota tha. harivansh ray ‘bachchan’ aur shri araviando ke sath unaki ziandagi ke achchhe din gujare. adhi sadi se bhi adhik lanbe unake rachanakal mean adhunik hiandi kavita ka ek poora yug samaya hua hai.[1]

jivan parichay

sumitranandan pant ka janm 20 mee 1900 mean kausani, uttarakhand, bharat mean hua tha. janm ke chhah ghante bad hi maan ko kroor mrityu ne chhin liya. shishu ko usaki dadi ne pala posa. shishu ka nam rakha gaya gusaeean datt. jnanapith puraskar se sammanit hindi ke sukumar kavi pant ki praranbhik shiksha kausani gaanv ke skool mean huee, phir vah varanasi a ge aur 'jayanarayan haeeskool' mean shiksha paee, isake bad unhoanne ilahabad mean 'myor seantral k aaulej' mean pravesh liya, par iantaramidiet ki pariksha mean baithane se pahale hi 1921 mean asahayog aandolan mean shamil ho ge. [[chitr:Pant.jpg|left|thumb|250px|kausani mean mahakavi ka durlabh chitr]]

prarambhik jivan

kavi ke bachapan ka nam 'gusaeean datt' tha. sleti chhatoan vale paha di ghar, aangan ke samane adoo, khubani ke pe d, pakshiyoan ka kalarav, sarpil pagadandiyaan, baanj, buraansh v chi d ke pe doan ki bayar v niche door door tak makhamali kalin si pasari katyoor ghati v usake upar himalay ke uttang shikharoan aur dadi se suni kahaniyoan v sham ke samay sunayi dene vali arati ki svar lahariyoan ne gusaeean datt ko bachapan se hi kavi hriday bana diya tha. kyoanki janm ke chh: ghante bad hi inaki maan ka nidhan ho gaya tha, isilie prakriti ki yahi ramaniyata inaki maan ban gayi. prakriti ke isi mamatamayi chhaanv mean balak gusaeean datt dhire- dhire yahaan ke saundary ko shabdoan ke madhyam se kagaz mean ukerane laga. pita 'gangadatt' us samay kausani chay bagiche ke mainejar the. unake bhaee sanskrit v aangrezi ke achchhe janakar the, jo hindi v kumaanooni mean kavitaean bhi likha karate the. yadakada jab unake bhaee apani patni ko madhur kanth se kavitaean sunaya karate to balak gusaeean datt kiva d ki ot mean chupachap sunata rahata aur usi tarah ke shabdoan ki tukabandi kar kavita likhane ka prayas karata. balak gusaeean datt ki praimari tak ki shiksha kausani ke 'varnakyoolar skool' mean huee. inake kavita path se mugdh hokar skool iansapaiktar ne inhean upahar mean ek pustak di thi. gyarah sal ki umr mean inhean padha़ee ke liye almoda़ ke 'gavarnameant haeeskool' mean bhej diya gaya. kausani ke saundary v ekantata ke abhav ki poorti ab nagariy sukh vaibhav se hone lagi. almoda़ ki khas sanskriti v vahaan ke samaj ne gusaeean datt ko andar tak prabhavit kar diya. sabase pahale unaka dhyan apane nam par gaya. aur unhoanne lakshman ke charitr ko adarsh manakar apana nam gusaeean datt se badal kar 'sumitranandan' kar liya. kuchh samay bad nepoliyan ke yuvavastha ke chitr se prabhavit hokar apane lambe v ghuangharale bal rakh liye.[2]

sahityik parichay

almo da mean tab kee sahityik v saanskritik gatividhiyaan hoti rahati thian jisamean pant aksar bhag lete rahate. svami satyadev ji ke prayasoan se nagar mean ‘shuddh sahity samiti‘ nam se ek pustakalay chalata tha. is pustakalay se pant ji ko uchch koti ke vidvanoan ka sahity padhane ko milata tha. kausani mean sahity ke prati pant ji mean jo anurag paida hua vah yahaan ke sahityik vatavaran mean ab aankurit hone laga. kavita ka prayog ve sage sambandhiyoan ko patr likhane mean karane lage. shuruati daur mean unhoanne 'bageshvar ke mele', 'vakiloan ke dhanalolup svabhav' v 'tambakoo ka dhuana' jaisi kuchh chhutaput kavitaean likhi. athavian kaksha ke dauran hi unaka parichay prakhyat natakakar govind ballabh pant, shyamacharan datt pant, ilachandr joshi v hemachandr joshi se ho gaya tha. almo da se tab hastalikhit patrika ‘sudhakar‘ v ‘almo da akhabar‘ namak patr nikalata tha jisamean ve kavitaean likhate rahate. almo da mean pant ji ke ghar ke thik upar sthit girajaghar ki ghantiyoan ki avaz unhean atyadhik sammohit karati thian. aqsar pratyek ravivar ko ve is par ek kavita likhate. ‘giraje ka ghanta‘ shirshak se unaki yah kavita sambhavatah pahali rachana hai- thumb|left|sumitranandan pant kavita padhate hue

nabh ki us nili chuppi par ghanta hai ek tanga sundar
jo gh di gh di man ke bhitar kuchh kahata rahata baj baj kar

dubale patale v sundar kaya ke karan pant ji ko skool ke natakoan mean adhikatar stri patroan ka abhinay karane ko milata. 1916 mean jab ve ja doan ki chhuttiyoan mean kausani gaye to unhoanne ‘har‘ shirshak se 200 prishthoan ka 'ek khilauna' upanyas likh dala. jisamean unake kishor man ki kalpana ke nayak nayikaoan v any patroan ki maujoodagi thi. kavi pant ka kishor kavi jivan kausani v almo da mean hi bita tha. in donoan jagahoan ka varnan bhi unaki kavitaoan mean milata hai.[2]

svatantrata sangram mean yogadan

[[chitr:Harivanshrai-bachchan-sumitra-nandan-pant-ramdhari-singh-dinkar.jpg|thumb|300px|harivansharay bachchan, sumitranandan pant aur ramadhari sianh 'dinakar']] 1921 ke asahayog aandolan mean unhoanne k aaulej chho d diya tha, par desh ke svatantrata sangram ki ganbhirata ke prati unaka dhyan 1930 ke namak satyagrah ke samay se adhik keandrit hone laga, inhian dinoan sanyogavash unhean kalakaankar mean gram jivan ke adhik nikat sanpark mean ane ka avasar mila. us gram jivan ki prishthabhoomi mean jo sanvedan unake hriday mean aankit hone lage, unhean vani dene ka prayatn unhoanne yugavani (1938) aur gramya (1940) mean kiya. yahaan se unaka kavy, yug ka jivan-sangharsh tatha nee chetana ka darpan ban jata hai. svarnakiran tatha usake bad ki rachanaoan mean unhoanne kisi adhyatmik ya darshanik saty ko vani n dekar vyapak manaviy saanskritik tattv ko abhivyakti di, jisamean ann pran, man atma, adi manav-jivan ke sabhi svaroan ki chetana ko sanyojit karane ka prayatn kiya gaya.

kavy evan sahity ki sadhana

pantaji sangharshoan ke ek lanbe daur se guzare, jisake dauran svayan ko kavy evan sahity ki sadhana mean lagane ke lie unhoanne apani ajivika sunishchit karane ka prayas kiya. bahut pahale hi unhoanne yah samajh liya tha ki unake jivan ka lakshy aur kary yadi koee hai, to vah kavy sadhana hi hai. pant ki bhav-chetana mahakavi rabiandranath thakur, mahatma gaandhi aur shri arabiando ghosh ki rachanaoan se prabhavit huee. sath hi kuchh mitroan ne marksavad ke adhyayan ki or bhi unhean pravrit kiya aur usake vibhinn samajik-arthik pakshoan ko unhoanne gaharaee se dekha v samajha. 1950 mean rediyo vibhag se ju dane se unake jivan mean ek or mo d aya. sat varsh unhoanne 'hindi chif prodyoosar' ke pad par kary kiya aur usake bad sahity salahakar ke roop mean karyarat rahe.

yug pravartak kavi

[[chitr:Pant amitabh.jpg|left|thumb|250px|harivansharay bachchan aur sadi ke mahanayak amitabh bachchan ke sath mahakavi sumitranandan pant]] sumitranandan pant adhunik hindi sahity ke ek yug pravartak kavi haian. unhoanne bhasha ko nikhar aur sanskar dene, usaki samarthy ko udghatit karane ke atirikt navin vichar v bhavoan ki samriddhi di. pant sada hi atyant sashakt aur oorjavan kavi rahe haian. sumitranandan pant ko mukhyat: prakriti ka kavi mana jane laga. lekin pant vastav mean manav-sauandary aur adhyatmik chetana ke bhi kushal kavi the.

rachanakal

pant ka pallav, jyotsana tatha guanjan ka rachanakal kal (1926-33) unaki sauandary evan kala-sadhana ka kal raha hai. vah mukhyat: bharatiy saanskritik punarjagaran ki adarshavadita se anupranik the. kiantu yugaant (1937) tak ate-ate bahirjivan ke khianchav se unake bhavatmak drishtikon mean parivartan ae. pantaji ki rachanaoan ka kshetr bahuvidh aur bahuayami hai. apaki rachanaoan sa sankshipt parichay is prakar hai-

mahakavy

thumb|sumitranandan pant hastalipi 'yad' 'lokayatan' kavi sumitranandan pant ka mahakavy hai. kavi ki vicharadhara aur lok-jivan ke prati usaki pratibaddhata is rachana mean abhivyakt huee hai. is par kavi ko 'soviyat roos' tatha uttar pradesh shasan se puraskar prapt hua hai. pant ji ko apane mata-pita ke prati asim-samman tha. isalie unhoanne apane do mahakavyoan mean se ek mahakavy 'lokayatan' apane poojy pita ko aur doosara mahakavy 'satyakam' apani snehamayi mata ko, jo inhean janm dete hi svarg sidhar geean, samarpit kiya hai.[3] apani maan sarasvati devi[4] ko smaran karate hue inhoanne apana doosara mahakavy 'satyakam' jin shabdoan ke sath unhean samarpit kiya hai, ve drashtavy haian-

mujhe chho d anagadh jag mean tum huee agochar,
bhav-deh dhar lautian maan ki mamata se bhar !
vina le kar mean, shobhit prerana-hans par, 
sadh chetana-tantri rasau vai sah jhankrit kar
khol hriday mean bhavi ke saundary digantar !

kavy-sangrah

'vina', 'pallav' tatha 'guanjan' chhayavadi shaili mean saundary aur prem ki prastuti hai. 'yugant', yugavani' tatha 'gramya' mean pantaji ke pragativadi aur yatharthaparak bhavoan ka prakashan hua hai. 'svarn-kiran', 'svarn-dhooli', 'yugapath', 'uttara', 'atima', tatha 'rajat-rashmi' sangrahoan mean aravind-darshan ka prabhav parilakshit hota hai. inake atirikt 'kala aur boodha chaand' tatha 'chidambara' bhi apaki sammanit rachanaean haian. pantaji ki antardrishti tatha sanvedanashilata ne jahaan unake bhav-paksh ko gaharaee aur vividhata pradan ki haian, vahian unaki kalpana-prabalata aur abhivyakti-kaushal ne unake kala-paksh ko sanvara hai.

rachanaean

thumb|sumitranandan pant chidanbara 1958 ka prakashan hai. isamean yugavani (1937-38) se atima (1948) tak kavi ki 10 kritiyoan se chuni huee 196 kavitaean sankalit haian. ek lanbi atmakathatmak kavita atmika bhi isamean sammilit hai, jo vani (1957) se li gee hai. chidanbara pant ki kavy chetana ke dvitiy utthan ki parichayak hai. pramukh rachanaean is prakar hai:-

kavitaean
kavitaean
kahaniyaan
  • paanch kahaniyaan (1938)
upanyas
  • har (1960),
atmakathatmak sansmaran
  • sath varsh : ek rekhaankan (1963).

sahityik visheshataean

chhayavad ko mukhyatah ‘prerana ka kavy’ manane vale is komal-pran kavi ne 'har' namak upanyas ke lekhan se apani rachana-yatra aranbh ki thi, jo ‘muktabh’ ke pranayan tak jari rahi. mukhyatah kavi-roop mean prasiddh hone ke alava ye 'pratham koti ke alochak, vicharak aur gadyakar' the. inhoanne muktak, lanbi kavita, gady-natika, pady-natika, rediyo-roopak, ekaanki, upanyas, kahani ityadi jaisi vibhinn vidhaoan mean apani rachanaean prastut ki haian aur lokayatan tatha satyakam jaise vrihad mahakavy bhi likhe haian. vidhaoan ki vividhata ki drishti se inake dvara sanpadit 'roopabh patrika' (sanh 1938 eesvi) ki sanpadakiy tippaniyaan aur madhujval ki bhavanuvadashrit kavitaean bhi kam mahattvapoorn nahian haian. ashay yah ki vibhinn vidhaoan mean upalabdh inake vipul sahity ko ek natidirgh rachana-sanchayan mean prastut karana kathin kary hai. rachanaoan ki vipulata ke sath hi yah bhi lakshy karane yogy hai ki prakriti aur nari–sauandary se rachanaranbh karanevale pant ji manav, samany jan aur samagr manavata ki kalyan-kamana se sadaiv ju de rahe. inaki manyata thi ki ‘ane vala manav nishchiy hi n poorv ka hoga, n pashchim ka.’ ye sarvabhaum manushyata ke vishvasi the. adhyatm, aantashchetana, prem, samadikh sancharan ityadi jaisa sankalpanaoan se bhavakul pant ke lekhan-chintan ka kendr-bindu hamesha ‘lok’ paksh hi raha, jo lokayatan ke namakaran se bhi sanketit hota hai. pant-kavy ka tritiy charan, jo ‘navin sagun’ ke nam se charchit hai aur jise ham shubhaishana-sadichchha ka svasti-kavy kah sakate haian, isi ‘lok’ ke mangal par kendrit hai.[3] thumb|sumitranandan pant hastalipi 'nakshatr'

prakriti-premi kavi

'uchchhas' se lekar 'guanjan' tak ki kavita ka sampoorn bhavapat kavi ki saundary-chetana ka kal hai. saundary-srishti ke unake prayatn ke mukhy upadan haian- prakriti, prem aur atm-udbodhan. almo da ki prakritik sushama ne unhean bachapan se hi apani or akrisht kiya. aisa pratit hota hai jaise maan ki mamata se rahit unake jivan mean mano prakriti hi unaki maan ho. uttar pradesh ke almo da ke parvatiy aanchal ki god mean pale badhe pant ji svayan yah svikar karate haian ki us manoram vatavaran ka inake vyaktitv par ganbhir prabhav p da. kavi ya kalakar kahaan se prerana grahan karata hai is bare mean apane vichar vyakt karate hue pant ji kahate haian, sanbhavat: prerana ke srot bhitar n hokar adhikatar bahar hi rahate haian. apani kavy yatra mean pant ji sadaiv saundary ko khojate najar ate hean. shabd, shilp, bhav aur bhasha ke dvara kavi pant prakriti aur prem ke upadanoan se ek atyant sookshy aur hridayakari saundary ki srishti karate haian, kiantu unake shabd keval prakriti-varnan ke aang n hokar ek doosare arth ki gahari vyanjana se sanyojit haian. unaki rachanaoan mean chhayavad evan rahasyavad ka samavesh bhi hai. sath hi sheli, kits, tenisan adi aangrezi kaviyoan ka prabhav bhi hai. mere mook kavi ko bahar lane ka sarvadhik shrey meri janmabhoomi ke us naisargik saundary ko hai jisaki god mean palakar maian b da hua jisane chhutapan se hi mujhe apane roopahale ekaant mean ekagr tanmayata ke rashmidolan mean jhulaya, rijhaya tatha komal kanth van-pakhiyoan ne sath bolana kuhukan sikhaya. pantaji ko janm ke uparaant hi matri-viyog sahana p da.[5]

bhav paksh

pantaji ke bhav-paksh ka ek pramukh tattv unaka manohari prakriti chitran hai. kausani ki saundaryamayi prakritik chhata ke bich pantaji ne apani bal-kalpanaoan ko roopayit kiya tha. prakriti ke prati unaka sahaj akarshan unaki rachanaoan ke bahut b de bhag ko prabhavit kie hue hai. prakriti ke vividh ayamoan aur bhangimaoan ko ham pant ke kavy mean roopaankit dekhate haian. vah manavi-krita saheli hai, bhavoddipika hai, abhivyakti ka alamban hai aur alankrita prakriti-vadhoo bhi hai. isake atirikt prakriti kavi pant ke lie upadeshika aur darshanik chintan ka adhar bhi bani hai. kavi pant ko samanyataya komal-kant bhavanaoan aur saundary ka kavi samajha jata hai kintu jivan ke yatharthoan se samana hone par kavi mean jivan ke prati yatharthaparak aur darshanik drishtikon ka vikas hota gaya hai. sarvapratham pant marksavadi vicharadhara se prabhavit hue, jisaka prabhav unaki 'yugant', 'yugavani' adi rachanaoan mean parilakshit hota hai. gaandhivad se bhi ap prabhavit dikhate haian. 'lokayatan' mean yah prabhav vidyaman hai. maharshi aravind ki vicharadhara ka bhi ap par gahara prabhav p da. 'git-vihag' rachana isaka udaharan hai. saundary aur ullas ke kavi pant ko jivan ka nirashamay viroop-paksh bhi bhogana p da aur isaki pratikriya 'parivartan' namak rachana mean drishtigat hoti hai- [[chitr:Sumitranandan-pant.jpg|thumb|left|rajakiy sangrahalay kausani mean sthapit mahakavi ki moorti]]

akhil yauvan ke rang ubhar haddiyoan ke hilate kankal,
kholata idhar janm lochan mooandati udhar mrityu kshan-kshan.

pantaji ke kavy mean manavatavadi drishti ko bhi sammanit sthan prapt hai. vah manaviy pratishtha aur manav-jati ke bhavi vikas mean dridh vishvas rakhate haian. 'drumoan ki chhaya' aur 'prakriti ki maya' ko chho dakar jo pant 'bala ke bal-jal' mean 'lochan ulajhane' ko prastut nahian the, vahi manav ko vidhata ki sundaratam kriti svikar karate haian-

sundar hai vihag suman sundar, manav tum sabase sundaratam.
vah chahate haian ki desh, jati aur vargoan mean vibhajit manushy ki keval ek hi pahachan ho - manav.

bhasha-shaili

kavi pant ka bhasha par asadharan adhikar hai. bhav aur vishay ke anukool marmik shabdavali unaki lekhani se sahaj pravahit hoti hai. yadyapi pant ki bhasha ka ek vishisht star hai phir bhi vah vishayanusar parivartit hoti hai. pantaji ke kavy mean ekadhik shailiyoan ka prayog hua hai. prakriti-chitran mean bhavatmak, alankarik tatha drishy vidhayani shaili ka prayog hua hai. vichar-pradhan tatha darshanik vishayoan ki shaili vicharatmak evan vishleshanatmak bhi ho gee hai. isake atirikt pratik-shaili ka prayog bhi hua hai. sajiv bimb-vidhan tatha dhvanyatmakata bhi apaki rachana-shaili ki visheshataean haian.

alankaran

pantaji ne paramparagat evan navin, donoan hi prakar ke alankaroan ka bhavyata se prayog kiya hai. bimboan ki maulikata tatha upamanoan ki marmikata hridayaharini hai. roopak, upama, saangaroopak, manavikaran, visheshan-viparyay tatha dhvanyarth-vyanjana ka akarshak prayog apane kiya hai.

chhand

pantaji ne paramparagat chhandoan ke sath-sath navin chhandoan ki bhi rachana ki hai. apane geyata aur dhvani-prabhav par hi bal diya hai, matraoan aur varnoan ke kram tatha sankhya par nahian. prakriti ke chitere tatha chhayavadi kavi ke roop mean pantaji ka sthan nishchay hi vishisht hai. hindi ki lalityapoorn aur sanskarit kh di boli bhi pantaji ki den hai. pantaji vishv-sahity mean bhi apana sthan bana ge haian.

puraskar

right|thumb|250px|mahakavi ki smritiyoan ko sanjota rajakiy sangrahalay sumitranandan pant ko padm bhooshan (1961) aur jnanapith puraskar (1968) se sammanit kiya gaya. kala aur boodha chaand ke lie sahity akadami puraskar, lokayatan par 'soviyat laiand neharu puraskar' evan 'chidanbara' par inhean 'bharatiy jnanapith puraskar' prapt hua.

sangrahalay

uttarakhand rajy ke kausani mean mahakavi pant ki janm sthali ko sarakari taur par adhigrahit kar unake nam par ek rajakiy sangrahalay banaya gaya hai, jisaki dekharekh ek sthaniy vyakti karata hai. is sthal ke pravesh dvar se lage bhavan ki chhat par mahakavi ki moorti sthapit hai. varsh 1990 mean sthapit is moorti ka anavaran vayovriddh sahityakar tatha itihasavetta pandit nityanand mishr dvara unake janm divas 20 mee ko kiya gaya tha. mahakavi sumitranandan pant ka paitrak gram yahaan se kuchh hi doori par hai; parantu vah aj bhi anajana tatha tiraskrit hai. sangrahalay mean mahakavi dvara upayog mean layi gayi dainik vastuean yatha sh aaul, dipak, pustakoan ki alamari tatha mahakavi ko samarpit kuchh samman-patr, pustakean tatha hastalipi surakshit haian.

mrityu

kausani chay bagan ke vyavasthapak ke parivar mean janme mahakavi sumitranandan pant ki mrityu 28 disambar, 1977 ko ilahabad, uttar pradesh mean huee.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sandarbh

  1. sumitranandan pant : prakriti ke sukomal kavi (hiandi) vebaduniya hiandi. abhigaman tithi: 13 sitambar, 2013.
  2. 2.0 2.1 tivari, chandrashekhar. kausani ke kavi pant (hiandi) hilavani. abhigaman tithi: 13 sitambar, 2013.
  3. 3.0 3.1 sumitranandan pant rachana sanchayan (hindi) bharatiy sahity sangrah. abhigaman tithi: 13 sitambar, 2013.
  4. pihar ka pukaroo nam 'saruli'
  5. viyogi hoga pahala kavi... (hindi) deshabandhu. abhigaman tithi: 13 sitambar, 2013.

bahari k diyaan

sanbandhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    aan    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    jn    rri    rri    aau    shr   aah