एकांकी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ekanki sahity ki ek vidha hai. ek ank vale natakon ko ekanki kahate hain. angrezi ke 'van aikt ple' shabd ke lie hindi men 'ekanki natak' aur 'ekanki' donon hi shabdon ka saman roop se vyavahar hota hai.

itihas

hindi sahity ke itihasakar ekanki ka prarnbh bharatendu yug se manate hain. jayashnkar prasad ke 'ek ghoont' (1929ee.) se doosara charan, bhuvaneshvar prasad ke 'karavan' (1935 ee.) se tisara tatha daau. ramakumar varma ke 'reshami taee' (1941 ee.) snkalan se chauthe charan ki shurooat kahi gee hai. kintu ukt kalavibhajan men un ekankikaron ko sammilit nahin kiya gaya hai, jinhonne 1955 ee. ke asapas likhana prarnbh kiya hai aur aj bhi likh rahe hain.

hindi ekanki ka vikas

hindi ki laghu naty parnpara ko ek naya mod dene vale daau. ramakumar varma adhunik hindi sahity men ‘ekanki samrath’ ke roop men samadrit hain. unhonne hindi natak ko ek naya snrachanatmak adarsh saunpa. naty kala ke vikas ki snbhavanaon ke ne pat kholate hue naty sahity ko jan jivan ke nikat pahuncha diya. natakakar aur kavi ke sath-sath unhonne samikshak, adhyapak tatha hindi sahityetihas-lekhak ke roop men bhi hindi sahity-srijan men apani mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaee. natakakar ke roop men unhonne manovigyan ke anekanek staron par manav-jivan ki vividh snvedanaon ko svar diya to chhaya vadi kaviyon ki katar men khade hokar rahasy aur adhyatm ki prishthabhoomi men apane kavyatmak snskaron ko vikasit kar rahasyamayi jagath ke svapnon men sahriday ko pravesh karaya. daau. varma ke sahityik vyaktitv ko natakakar aur kavi ke roop men adhik pramukhata mili sanh 1930 men rachit ’badal ki mrityu’ unaka pahala ekanki hai, jo phentesi ke roop men atynt lokapriy hua. bharatiy atma aur pashchaty takanik ke samanvay se unhonne hindi ekanki kala ko nikhar diya. unhonne aitihasik aur samajik do tarah ke ekanki natakon ki srishti ki. aitihasik natakon men unhonne bharatiy itihas se svarnim prishthon se natakon ki vishay-vastu ko grahan kar charitron ki aisi sudridh roop rekha prastut ki jo pathakon men uchch charitrik snskar bhar sake aur samayik jivan ki samasyaon ko samadhan ki disha de sake. unake natak bharatiy snskriti aur rashtriy udbodhan ke svar bakhoobi samete hue hain. garv ke sath ve kahate hain, ’aitihasik ekankiyon men bharatiy snskriti ka merudnd-naitik moolyon men astha aur vishvas ka drishtikon prastut kiya gaya hai.’ unake samajik ekanki prem aur seks ki samasyaon se snbndhit hain. ye ekanki manasik antardvnd ki adhar bhoomi par yatharthavadi kalevar men samaj aur jivan ki vastu-sthiti tak pahunchate hain. par in ekankiyon men lekhak ki adarshavadi soch itani gahari hai ki ve adarshavadi jhonk men yatharth ko manamana natakiy mod de baithate hain. isalie unake stri patr shiksha aur ne snskaron ke bavajood prem aur jivan ke sngharsh men jivan ka moh tyagakar prem ke lie utsarg kar baithate hain mano utsarg ya pranant hi sachche prem ki kasauti ho. adhunik patron par bhi lekhak ne apani adarshavadi soch ko thop diya hai.[1]

ekanki ek ank ka natak. angreji ke 'van aikt ple' shabd ke lie hindi men 'ekanki natak' aur 'ekanki' donon hi shabdon ka saman roop se vyavahar hota hai.

pashchim men ekanki 20 vin shatabdi men, visheshat: pratham mahayuddh ke bad, atynt prachalit aur lokapriy hua. hindi aur any bharatiy bhashaon men usaka vyapak prachalan is shatabdi ke chauthe dashak men hua.

isaka yah arth nahin ki ekanki sahity ki sarvatha abhijatyahin vidha hai. poorv aur pashchim donon ke naty sahity men usake nikatavarti roop milate hain. saskrint natyashastr men nayak ke charit, itivritt, ras adi ke adhar par roopakon aur uparoopakon ke jo bhed kie ge unamen se anek ko da. kith ne ekanki natak kaha hai. is prakar 'dasharoopak' aur 'sahityadarpan' men varnit vyayog, prahasan, bhag, vithi, natika, goshthi, sattak, natayarasak, prakashika, ullapy, kavy prenkhan, shrigadit, vilasika, prakaranika, hallish adi roopakon aur uparoopakon ko adhunik ekanki ke nikat snbndhi kahana anuchit n hoga. 'sahityadarpan men 'ekank' shabd ka prayog bhi hua hai :

bhan : syadh dhoortacharito nanavasthantaratmak :.

ekank ek evatr nipun : pandito vit:..

aur

khyatetivritto vyayog: svalpastrijanasnyut:.

hino garbhavimarshabhyan narairbahubhirashrit:..

ekankakashch bhaveth‌...

pashchim ke natyasahity men adhunik ekanki ka sabase prarnbhik aur avikasit kintu nikatavarti roop 'intaralyood' hai. 15vin aur 16vin shatabdiyon men prachalit sadachar aur naitik shikshapoorn angreji morailiti natakon ke kore upadesh se paida huee oob ko door karane ke lie prahasanapoorn ansh bhi jod die jate hain. aise hi khnd intaralyood kahe jate the. kramash: ye morailiti natakon se svatntr ho ge aur ant men unaki parinati vyngy-vinod-pradhan tin patron ke chhote natakon men huee.

'karten rezar' ya patonnayak kaha janevala ekanki, jisaki tulana snskrit natakon ke arthopakshepak ya prekshanak se ki ja sakati hai, pashchim men adhunik ekankiyon ka nikatatam poorvavarti tha. ratri men der se khana khane ke bad rngashalaon men anevale snbhrant samajikon ke karan samay se anevale sadharan samajikon ko badi asuvidha hoti thi. rngashalaon ke malikon ne is bich sadharan samajikon ko manornjan men vyast rakhane ke lie dvipatriy prahasanapoorn snvad prastut karana shuroo kiya. is prakar ke svatntr snvad ko hi 'karten rezar' kaha jata tha. isamen kathanak evn jivan ke yatharth aur natakiy dvndv ka abhav rahata tha. bad men 'karten rezar' ke sthan par yatharth jivan ko lekar sugathit kathanak aur natakiy dvndvavale chhote natak prastut kie jane lage. inake vikas ka agala kadam adhunik ekanki tha.

ekanki itana lokapriy ho utha ki bade natakon ki raksha karane ke lie vyavasayik rngashalaon ne use apane yahan se nikalana shuroo kiya. lekin usamen prayog aur vikas ki snbhavanaon ko dekhakar pashchim ke kee deshon men avyavasayik aur prayogatmak rngamnchiy andolanon ne use apana liya. lndan, peris, barlin, dablin, shikago, nyooyark adi ne is ne dhng ke natak aur usake rngamnch ko age badhaya. isake atirikt ekanki natak ko pashchim ke anek mahanh‌ ya sammanit lekhakon ka bal mila. aise lekhakon men roos ke chekhav, gorki aur ekarinov, phrans ke jiraudo, sartr aur enail, jarmani ke talar aur brekht, itali ke piraindeli tatha inglaind, ayaralaind aur amarika ke askar vaild, galsavardi, je.em.bairi, lard danasaini, sinj, shian o' kesi, yoojin o'nil, noel kavard, ti.es.iliyat, kristofar phraee, graiham grin, milar adi ke nam ullekhaniy hain. rngamnchiy andolanon aur in lekhakon ke sammilit evn adamy prayogatmak sahas aur utsah ke phalasvaroop adhunik ekanki sarvatha nee, svatntr aur suspasht vidha ke roop men pratishthit hua. unaki kritiyon ke adhar par ekanki natakon ki samany visheshataon ka adhyayan kiya ja sakata hai.

rachanavidhan-satah par hi bade natakon aur ekankiyon ka akaragat antar spasht ho jata hai. ekanki natak sadharanat: 20 se lekar 30 minat men pradarshit kie ja sakate hain, jabaki tin, char ya panch ankonvale natakon ke pradarshan men kee ghnte lagate hain. lekin bade natakon aur ekankiyon ka adharabhoot antar akaratmak n hokar rachanatmak hai. pashchim ke tin se lekar panch ankonvale natakon men do ya do se adhik kathanakon ko goonth diya jata tha. is prakar unamen ek pradhan kathanak aur ek ya kee upakathanak hote the. snskrit natakon men bhi aise upakathanak hote the. aise natakon men sthan ya drishy, kal aur ghatanakram men anavarat parivartan svabhavik tha. lekin ekanki men yah snbhav nahin. ekanki kisi ek natakiy ghatana ya manasik sthiti par adharit hota hai aur prabhav ki ekagrata usaka mukhy lakshy hai. isalie ekanki men sthan, samay aur ghatana ka snkalanatray anivary sa mana gaya hai. kahani aur git ki tarah ekanki ki kala ghanatv ya ekagrata aur mitavyayata ki kala hai, jisamen kam se kam upakaranon ke sahare jyada se jyada prabhav utpann kiya jata hai. ekanki ke kathanak ka pariprekshy atynt snkuchit hota hai, ek hi mukhy ghatana hoti hai, ek hi mukhy charitr hota hai, ek charamotkarsh hota hai. lnbe bhashanon aur vistrit vyakhyaon ki jagah usamen snvadalaghav hota hai. bade natak aur ekanki ka gunatmak bhed isi se spasht ho jata hai ki bade natak ke kalevar ko kat chhantakar ekanki ki rachana nahin ki ja sakati, jis tarah ekanki ke kalevar ko khinch tanakar bade natak ki rachana nahin ki ja sakati.

snskrit natyashastr ke anusar bade natak ke kathanak ke vikas ki panch sthitiyan mani gee hain : arnbh, prayatn, praptyasha, niyatapti aur phalagam. pashchim ke natyashastr men bhi inhin se bahut kuchh milati julati sthitiyon ka ullekh hai : arnbh ya bhoomika, charitron aur ghatanaon ke ghat pratighat ya dvndv se kathanak ka charamotkarsh ki or aroh, charamotkarsh, avaroh aur ant. pashchim ke natakashastr men dvndv par bahut jor diya gaya hai. vastut: natak dvndv ki kala hai; katha men charitron aur ghatanaon ke kramik vikas ki jagah bade natak men kuchh charitron ke jivan ke dvndvon ko udghatit kar kathanak ko charamotkarsh par pahunchaya jata hai. ekanki men is charamotkarsh ki dhuri keval ek dvndv hota hai. bade natak ke kathanak men dvndvon ka vikas kaphi dhima ho sakata hai, jisamen sari ghatanaen rngamnch par prastut hoti hain, ya us ghatana se kuchh hi poorv hota hai jo bade veg se dvndv ko charamotkarsh par pahuncha deti hai. aksar yahi charamotkarsh ekanki ka ant hota hai. jivan ki samasyaon ke yatharthavadi aur manovaigyanik chitran ke atirikt rachanavidhan ki yah visheshata adhunik ekanki ko snskrit aur pashchimi naty sahity men usake nikatavarti roopon se prithakh‌ karati hai.

aksar abhinay ke lie kahaniyon ke roopantar se yah bhram paida hota hai ki ekanki kahani ka abhiney roop hai. lekin rachanavidhan men ghanatv aur mitavyayata ki adharabhoot samanata ke bavajood kahani aur ekanki men shilpagat bhed hai. rngamnch ki vastu hone ke karan ekanki men abhinay aur kathopakathan ka mahatv sabase jyada hai. inhin ke madhyam se ekanki charitrachitran, kathanak aur usake dvndv, vatavaran aur ghatanaon ke anubndh ka nirman karata hai. kahani ki tarah ekanki varnan ka ashray nahin le sakata. lekin abhinay ki ek mudra kahani ke lnbe varnan se adhik prabhavashali ho sakati hai. isalie rngamnch ekanki ki sima aur shakti donon hai. isaki pahachan n hone ke karan anek saphal kahanikar asaphal ekankikar rah jate hain.

isi prakar kisi vishay par rochak snbhashan ya kathopakathan ko ekanki samajhana bhramamatr hai. jivan ke yatharth, ghatana ya kathanak, charitron ke dvndv, snkalanatray ityadi ke abhav men snbhashan keval snbhashan rah jata hai, use ekanki ki sngya nahin di ja sakati.

ekanki ki adbhut snbhavanaon ke karan adhunik kal men usaka vikas anek dishaon men hua hai. rediyo roopak, sngit tatha kavyaroopak aur monolog ya svagat naty in nee dishaon ki kuchh mahatvapoorn upalabdhiyan hain. rediyo ke madhyam se in sabake kshetr men nirntar prayog ho rahe hain. rngamnch, sadeh abhinetaon aur abhinetriyon, unake abhinay aur mudraon ke abhav men rediyo roopak ko shabd aur unaki dhvani tatha chitratmak shakti ka adhik se adhik upayog karana padata hai. moort upakaranon ka abhav rediyo roopak ke lie sarvatha badha hi nahin, kyonki shabd aur dhvani ko unake moort adharon se prithakh‌ kar natakakar shrotaon ke dhyan ko charitron ke antarik dvndvon par kendrit kar sakata hai. rediyo roopak mushkil se 50 varsh purana roop hai. prarnbhik avastha men isamen kisi kahani ko anek vyaktiyon ke svaron men prastut kiya jata tha aur rngamnch ka bhram utpann karane ke lie patron ki akritiyon, veshabhoosha, saj sajja, ruchiyon ityadi ke vistrit varnan se yatharth vatavaran ke nirman ka prayatn kiya jata tha. amarika, jarmani, inglaind adi pashchimi deshon men rediyo ekanki ke prayogon ne usake roop ko vikasit kiya aur nikhara. rediyo ke lie kee prasiddh amariki aur angrej kaviyon ne kavyaroopak likhe. unamen maiklish, stifen vinsent bene, karl, saindavarg, tairom gthruai, looee maikanis, saikavil vest, paitrik dikinsan, dilan tamas adi ke nam ullekhaniy hain. in prayogon se prerana grahan kar hindi aur any bharatiy bhashaon ke ekankikaron ne bhi rediyo roopak, gitinaty aur kavyaroopak prastut kie hain. par inamen abhi anek trutiyan hain.[2]

hindi ekanki ka itihas : hindi sahity ke itihasakar ekanki ka prarnbh bharatenduyug se manate hain. prasad ke 'ek ghoont' (1929 ee.) se doosara charan, bhuvaneshvaraprasad ke 'karavan' (1935 ee.) se tisara tatha da. ramakumar varma ke 'reshami taee' (1941 ee.) snkalan se chauthe charan ki shurooat kahi gee hai. kintu ukt kalavibhajan men un ekankikaron ko sammilit nahin kiya gaya hai, jinhonne 1955 ee. ke asapas likhana prarnbh kiya hai aur aj bhi likh rahe hain. at: hindi ekanki ka adyatan itihas snkshep men is prakar hai :

(1) bharatendukal men do prakar ke ekanki likhe ge. pratham, anoodit ya chhayankit ekanki tatha dvitiy, maulik ekanki. pahali koti men bharatendu ka bagala ke 'bharatamata' ka anuvad 'bharat janani'; radhacharan gosvami dvara bngala ke 'bharater yavan' ka anuvad 'bharatavarsh men yavan log', kanchanachary krit 'dhannjay vijay' ka chhayavisht roopak, ayodhyasihn upadhyay ka 'pradyumnavijay vyayog' adi hain. doosari koti men bharatendukrit 'vishasyavishamaushadhamh‌', 'premajogini' (apoorn), gitiroopak 'niladevi' tatha 'satipratap' (apoorn); radhacharan gosvami krit 'tanamanadhan gosaee ke arapan', 'sati chndravali', 'amarasinh rathaur', evn 'shridama'; kishorilal gosvami ka 'chaupat chapet'; radhakrishnadas ka 'du:khinibala'; anbikadatt vyas rachit 'kaliyug aur ghi' tatha 'man ki umng'; shrisharan ka 'balavivah'; balakrishn bhatt ke 'kaliraj ki sabha', 'rel ka vikat khel' tatha 'bal vivah'; pratapanarayan mishr ka 'kalikautuk'; devakinndan tripathi krit 'jay narasinh ki'; kashinath khatri ke 'sindhu desh ki rajakumariyan', gunnaur ki rani' evn 'lajabo ka svapn'; lala shrinivasadas ka 'prahlad charit'; badarinarayan premaghan ka 'prayag ramagaman'; krishnasharan sinh gopakrit 'madhuri' adi ekanki ate hain.

aitihasik akhyan tatha samajasudhar ke prasng hi uparyukt ekankiyon ke vishay hain. inhen adhunik ekanki ka pranrabhik roop kaha ja sakata hai. kala ka vikasit roop inamen nahin milata; shailiyan paraspar kuchh bhinn hain par parnpara ek hi hai. ukt ekanki abhiney ki apeksha pathay adhik hain. lekhakon ka jhukav jivan ki sthoolata ka varnan karane ki or hai; vrittiyon ki sookshm vivritti inamen nahin milati. prarochana, prastavana, sootradhar, nandi, mngalacharan, ekadhik drishyayojana, bharatavaky adi ke prayog kahin hain, kahin nahin bhi hain. akar sarvatr lnbe hain, ank bhi drishy aur drishy bhi garbhak jaise ho ge hain. snkalanatray ke nirvah ka abhav hai, shithil snvadon ka bahuly evn vikas tatha vinyasahin kathayojana ka adhiky hai. inamen se kuchh prahasan ke roop men likhe ge hain, par unamen nirmal hasy n hokar vyngy ki matra hi adhik hai. ekanki ke lie apekshit pramukh gun kary (aikshan) ka inamen abhav hai.

(2) ekanki ke doosare yug men jayashnkar prasad ka 'ek ghoont' likha gaya jisapar snskrit ka bhi prabhav hai aur bngala ke madhyam se ae pashchaty ekanki shilp ka bhi. prasad ji ne isi bich 'kalyani parinay' bhi likha, par vah abhi tak aprakashit hai. sath hi , ise unake 'chadrngupt' natak ka ek bhag bhi kaha ja sakata hai. phransisi natakakar moliyar ke kuchh prahasanon ka bhi is dauran hindi men anuvad hua. 'ek ghoont' men ekanki ke kamobesh lagabhag sabhi adhunik lakshan mil jate hain. vivah samasya ka vivechan evn samadhan bhavukatapoorn shaili men kiya gaya hai. parntu 'ek ghoont' ek hi rah gaya; any lekhakon ko yah ekanki lekhan ki or pravritt n kar saka.

(3) ekanki ka tisara charan bhuvaneshvaprasad ke 'karavan' sngrah se shuroo hota hai jisamen chhah ekanki hain. 1938 ee men 'hns' ka ekanki ank prakashit hua. isamen tatkalin pratinidhi ekanki prastut kie ge. isi bich satyendr ka 'kunal', prithvinath sharma ka 'duvidha', ramakumar varma ka 'prithviraj ki ankhen'; sooryasharan parik ka 'bailavan ya pratigyapoorti' adi prakashit hue. udayashnkar bhatt, seth govindadas prabhriti ekankikar bhi isi kal men ekanki lekhan ki or pravritt hue aur unake kee sashakt ekanki prakash men ae.

is yug men prakhyat aur utpady donon prakar ke kathanakon ko lekar ekanki likhe ge. inamen vivahadi samajik tatha samyavadadi rajanitik samasyaen pramukh roop se ubhari hain. prachin vicharadhara ki vakalat joradar shabdon men ki gee hai, parntu isake sath navin ko apanane ka agrah bhi spasht dikhaee padata hai. pashchimi vichar or shaili ke prabhav ko lekar ekanki ne apane roop rng men paryapt parivartan kiya aur isaki takanik men yatkinchith‌ sthirata aee. dekha jae, to yah kal ekanki vidha ka parimarjan kal tha. lekhakon ne is samay ka sadupayog kar apane hath sadhe. sanh‌ 1935 ee. se rediyo prasaranon ke antargat ekankiyon ko bhi sthan diya jane laga tha, at: rediyo ekanki athava dhvaninatak bhi kaphi snkhya men likhe jane lage.

(4) chaturth charan tak pahunchate-pahunchate ekanki ka svaroop, shilp adi poori tarah sthir ho jate hain, unaka pramanik roop samane ata hai. isase pahale to vah apana sahi roop talashane men laga tha. da. ramakumar varma ke 'reshami taee' ekankisngrah se is yug ka sootrapat hua, yah pahale hi bataya ja chuka hai. isake atirikt varma ji ke 'aiktres', 'rajani ki rat', 'ek tole aphim ki kimat', 'pariksha', 'nahin ka rahasy', 'kahan se kahan', 'charumitra', 'das minat' adi ekanki prasiddh hain. pahadi ka 'yug yug dvara shaktipooja'; bhuvaneshvar ke 'shaitan', 'straik', 'asar', 'tanbe ke kide'; bhagavaticharan varma ke 'sndeh ka ant', 'do kalakar', 'sabase bada adami'; upendranath ashk krit 'jonk', 'samajhauta', 'ghadi', 'chhatha beta', 'lakshmi ka svagat', 'vibha', 'tauliye', 'adimarg'; udayashnkar bhatt ke 'do atithi', 'var nirvachan', 'munshi anokhelal', 'asali nakali', 'neta', 'seth bhalachnd', 'manumanav', 'adim yug'; seth govindadas rachit 'viteman', 'adhikar lipsa', 'vah mara kyon', 'hngar straik', 'kngal nahin', 'eed aur holi'; pandey bechan sharma ugr ke 'ram kare so hoy', 'miyan bhaee', 'aphajal vadh'; vrindavanalal varma krit 'pile hath', 'sagun' 'jahandar shah', 'kashmir ka kanta', 'manav'; es.pi. khatri ke 'chauraha', 'man', 'machhue ki man', 'thakur ka ghar', 'bndar ki khopadi'; vishnu prabhakar ke 'man ka hriday', 'snskar aur bhavana', 'raktachndan', 'man bap'; jagadishachndr mathur ke 'bhor ka tara', 'ridh ki haddi', makadi ka jala', 'kalingavijay', 'khndahar'; lakshminarayan mishr ka 'ek din'; sadgurusharan avasthi ke 'mudrika', 'kalivadh'; ganeshaprasad dvivedi ke 'sohag ki bindi', 'doosara upay hi kya hai', 'sharma ji', 'sarvasv samarpan' adi pramukh ekanki isi kal ki den hain.

is yug ke ekanki svatntr evn sachesht bhav se likhe ge hain. at: vishay ki apeksha shilp unamen vishesh hai. bauddhik utsukata, manasik vishleshan, antardvndv ki abhivyakti, hasy tatha chutile vyngy, snvadon ki kasavat, marmik sthalon ka chayan, yatharth prastutikaran ke prati agrah, manovaigyanik karyavyavahar, pady ka lagabhag abhav, samany nayak ki svikriti, rngasnket adi uttarottar badhate ge hain. yug ki vibhinn evn vividh abhiruchiyon ke anusar is samay ke ekankiyon ke vishay bhi anek rahe hain, jinamen prem, vivah, ghrina, kroorata, hatya, pauranik akhyan, lokagathatmak evn lokavishrut viron tatha rajaon ke krity, samajik kuritiyan, vargasngharsh, deshabhakti, hindu-musalaman-bhratritv, satyagrah, yaunakarshan adi pramukh hain. dhvani natak bhi is bich adhik snkhya men likhe ge hain.

(5) hindi ekanki panchavan athava antim charan ekanki ki vividh vidhaon ko lekar prarnbh hota hai jinamen mnch evn dhvani ekanki ke alava 'open eyar ekanki', 'chitr ekaki' (telivijan par dikhae janevale) 'gali ekanki' adishshsammilit kie ja sakate hain. da. lakshminarayan krit 'basnt ritu ka natak', 'mammi thakurain', 'rajarani'; devaraj dinesh ke 'samasya sulajh gee', 'tulasidas', 'rishvat ke anek dhng'; jayanath nalin rachit 'bhakton ki dinata'; satyendr sharath‌ krit 'navajoti ki nee hiroin'; vinod rastogi ka 'bahoo ki vida'; chirnjit ke 'chakravyooh' 'dhol ki pol', (dhvani natak), panch prahasan' (snkalan); revatisharan sharma krit 'talak'; vimala loothara ka 'apana ghar'; gyanadev agnihotri ka 'rotivali gali'; krishnakishor shrivastav ke 'satyakiran', 'machhali ke ansoo', 'astin ke sanp'; indushekhar ka 'mahalle ki abaroo'; svaminath krit aee.e.es.'; rajendrakumar sharma ke 'parda uthane se pahale', 'ret ki divar', 'ataichi kes', arun rachit 'relagadi ke dibbe', 'bhor ki kiranen'; shrikrishn krit 'man ji', 'tarakash ke tir'; mukta shukl ke 'parde aur parachhaiyan'; 'bhitari chhaya', kumar rajendr krit 'adamakhor' (open eyar ekanki); knchanakumar likhit 'sooar bade ka jamadar' (gali ekanki) adi is kheve ki pramukh rachanaen hain.

is kal men kuchh bemani (aibsard) ekanki bhi likhe ge hain jinamen satyadev dube krit 'thodi der pahale aur thodi der bad'; dharmachndr jain ka 'cheharon ke chehare'; mohan rakesh ka bij natak 'shayad' adi ullekhy hain. da. lakshminarayan lal, mohan rakesh, vishnu prabhakar, gngadhar shukl, vinod rastogi, upendranath ashk, kamaleshvar tatha manahar chauhan ne idhar bahut se chitrekanki bhi prastut kie hain.

panchaven charan ke ekankiyon men ya to pashchaty rachanaprakriya ko kathorata ke sath grahan kiya gaya hai athava usamen pratibha aur buddhi se ne vastuvidhan, nee abhivynjana dvara maulik roop ka nirman kar liya gaya hai. giton ka inamen ekant abhav hai, prakash ka jamakar upayog kiya gaya hai, jisamen pardo ki jaroorat bahut kuchh samapt ho gee hai. snvad atynt kase hue tatha chutile hain. jivan ke ne dhng, usaki ashaon, nirashaon, chhoti chhoti samasyaon tatha prati din ki samany ghatanaon ko lekar ye ekanki rache ge hain. chitr ekankiyon ne 'aut-dor-hinata' ko toda hai. isamen ab pahadi nadi ki chnchalata, sadakon par bhagati karen, samudr men chalate yan, akash men shatruvimanon se joojhate 'nait' adi dikhae jate hain. gali ekanki ne mnch ko toda hai to bemani ekankiyon ne darshakon ko hi mnchapar lakar khada kar diya hai.[3]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. sharma, kumud. hindi ekanki ke janmadata daau. ramakumar varma (hindi) abhivyakti. abhigaman tithi: 9 sitambar, 2013.
  2. sn.grn.-sidani baks : d tekanik aauvh‌ d eksaperimental van aikt plez ; jan born : d van aikt ple inh‌ inglaind; ailen hyoojez : d van aikt ple inh‌ d yunaited stets; vhal gaigald : d van aikt ple aind d rediyo.
  3. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 208 |

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