अमरीकी साहित्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

amariki sahity amarika se yahan tatpary snyukt rajy amarika se hai jahan ki bhasha angreji hai. amarika ki tarah usaka sahity bhi naya hai.

adikal: 17vin sadi men amarika men sharan lenevale pilgrim phadar apane sath inglaind ki sanskritik parnpara bhi lete ae. isalie lagabhag do sadiyon tak amariki sahity angreji sahity ki lik par chalata raha. 19vin sadi men jakar use apana vyaktitv mila.

navagntukon ke samane jivananirvah ki kathinata, kala aur sahity ke prati pyooritan snpraday ki anudarata aur pratibha ki nyoonata ke karan amariki sahity ka adikal upalabdhiviral hai. is kal men varjiniya aur masachyoosets sahityarachana ke pradhan kendr the, jinamen varjiniya par samnti aur masachyoosets par madhyavargiy inglad ka gahara asar tha. kintu donon hi kendron men pyooritanon ka prabhutv tha. sahityarachana ka kam padariyon ke hath men tha, kyanki auron ki apeksha unhen adhik avakash tha. isalie is yug ke sahity ka adhikansh dharmapradhan hai. mukhy roop men yah yug patron, dayari, itihas aur dharmik tatha nitiparak kavitaon ka hai.

ne upanivesh aur unake vikas ki amit snbhavanaon ka varnan, shasan men dharm aur rajy ke parasparik snbndhon ke vishay men vicharasngharsh, atmakatha, jivanacharit, sahasik yatraen tatha abhiyan aur dharmik upadesh gadyalekhakon ke mukhy vishay bane. ruksh aur saral kintu sashakt varnanatmak gadyarachana men varjiniya ke kaipten jaaun smith aur unaki romanchakari kritiyan, e troo rileshan (1608) aur ek maip aauv varjiniya, (1612) vishesh ullekhaniy hain. isi tarah ka varnanatmak gady jaaun hainmnd, deniyal dentan, vilayam pen, taaumas aish, vilayam vud, meri rolaindasan aur jaaun mesan ne bhi likha.

dharmik vadavivad ko lekar likhi gee naitheniyal vard ki rachana, d sinpil kaaublar aauv aggavam (1647) apane vyngy aur vidroop men us yug ki mahatvapoorn upalabdhi hai. vard ki tarah hi taaumas martan ne di nyoo inglish kainan (1647) men pyooritanon ka vyngyatmak chitr prastut kiya tha. doosari or starn jan vthraaauinp ne apane jarnal (1630-49) aur inkris medar aur usake putr kaautan medar ne apani rachanaon men pyootin adarshon aur dharmapradhan rajasatta ka samarthan kiya. kaautan ki maiganeliya kristi amerikana tatkalin pyooritan snpraday ki sabase pratinidhi aur samriddh rachana hai. us yug ke any gadyakaron men vilayam bedaphard, saimuel seval, taaums sheparrd, jan kaautan, rojar viliyams aur jaaun vaiz ke nam ullekhaniy hain. inamen se anek 18vin sadi men bhi likhate rahe.

17vin sadi ki kavita anubhooti se adhik upadesh ki hai aur usaka roop anagadh hai. di be samabuk (1640) isaka udaharan hai. kaviyon men tin vishesh roop se ullekhaniy hain-maikel vigilsavarth, aini bredastrit aur edavard telar. divy annd aur vedana, eeshabhakti, prakritivarnan aur jivan ke sadharan sukh-du:kh unaki kavitaon ke mukhy vishay hain. nishkapat anubhooti ke bavajood inaki kavita men kalatmak saundary ki kami hai. bredastrit ki kavita men spensar, sidani aur silavestar tatha telar ki kavita men dan, kresha, harbart ityadi angreji kaviyon ki pratidhvaniyan spasht hain.

natak aur alochana ka janm age chalakar hua.

18vin sadi - 17vin sadi ke yatharthavadi aur kalpanapradhan gady tatha dharmik kavita ki parnpara 18vin sadi men n keval purane balki ne lekhakon men bhi jivit rahi. udaharanarth, viliyam vird aur jonaidan edavardh‌s ne kramash: kaipten smith aur medar ka anusaran kiya. edavardh‌s ki rachanaon men usaki tivr pyooritan bhavana, gahan chintan, adbhut tarkashakti aur rahasyavadi pravrittiyan dikh padati hain. lekin pyooritan kattarapnth ke sthan par dharmik udarata ka bhi uday ho raha tha, jise jonaidan mehm aur seval ki rachanaon ne vyakt kiya. seval ne apani dayari men 'dharm ki vyavasayik parikalpana' ka agrah kiya. bird ki di histri aauv di divaiding lain (1729) aur seranait ke jarnal (1704) men satrahavin sadi ke purane prabhavon ke bavajood inglaind ke 18vin sadi ke sahity ki laukikata, manasik sntulan, vyngy aur vinodapriyata, jivan aur vyaktiyon ka yatharth chitran aur uchit laghav tatha svachchhata ke adarsh ki chhap hai. vastav men is sadi ke amariki sahityamndir ki pratimaen angreji ke prasiddh gadyakar aur kavi aidisar, svipht aur goldasmith hain. sadi ke madhy tak ate-ate dharmik, adhyatmik aur samajik chintan men pyooritan sahajanubhooti, rahasyavad aur alaukikata ko tark aur vigyan ne pichhe dhakel diya. inglaind aur usake upanivesh ke bich badhate hue sngharshon aur amariki rajyakranti ne nee chetana ko aur bhi veg tatha bal diya. usake sabase samarth agrani benjamin phrainkalin (1706-90) aur taaumas pen (1737-1809) the. amarika ki adhunik snskriti ke nirman men isaka mahanh‌ yog hai.

vyavasayi, vaigyanik, anveshak, rajanitigy aur patrakar phhऱaikalin ke sahity ka akarshan usake asadharan kintu vyavaharik, snskrit, snyamit aur udas vyaktitv men hai. usaki atobayografi atynt lokapriy rachana hai. usake patron aur 'doogud' shirshak tatha 'bizibadi' nam se likhe ge nibndhon men sadachar aur jivan ki sadharan samasyaon ki saral, atmiy aur vinodapriy abhivyakti hai, lekin usaki rachana 'rools faaur ridyoosing e gret enpayar tu e smal van' (1793) se usaki prakhar vyngy aur katakshashakti ka bhi pata. chalata hai. tamas pen ka sahity usake krantikari jivan ka avibhajy ang hai. phhऱaikalin ki salah se vah 1774 ee. men inglaind chhodakar amarika aya aur do varsh bad hi usane amarika ki poorn svatntrata ke samarthan men kamanasens ki rachana ki. di ej aauv rijan (1794-96) men usane eesaee dharme par gahari chot kar diijm ka samarthan kiya. bark ke viruddh phransisi kranti ke paksh men likhi gee usaki rachana di raits aauv main ne us yug men har desh ke krantikariyon ka pathapradarshan kiya. usake gady men krantikari vicharon ki riju ojasvita hai.

saimuel aidams, jaaun dikinsan, jozeph gailove ityadi ne bhi us yug ki rajanitik halachal ko apani rachanaon se prabhavit kiya. lekin unase adhik mahatvapoorn gadyalekhak hektar sent jan di srevekoor hai jisane letars phraaum ain amerikan pharmar (1762) aur skechez aauv etinth senchuri amerika men amariki kisan aur prakriti ka adarsh romani chitr prastut kiya. das-pratha-virodhi jaaun voolamain (1720-72) ki visheshata usaki saralata aur madhury hai.

svatntrata ke bad shasan men kendrikaran ke paksh aur vipaksh men honevale vadavivad ke snbndh men alekzaindar haimiltan, jaaun je aur taaumas jepharsan ke nam ullekhaniy hain. jefarsan dvara likhit vishvavikhyat di diklareshan aauv indipendens ka gady apani saral bhavyata men advitiy hai.

18vin sadi ki kavita ka ek ansh un giton ka hai jo yuddhakal men likhe ge aur jinamen yanki doodil, naithan hel aur epilog bahut prasiddh hain. is sadi ke kuchh kaviyon, jaise odel, haaupkinsan, rabart trit pen, ivans aur kliftan ne atynt kritrim shaili ki rachanaen kin. inase bhijh prakar ke kavi kanektikat ya hartaphard vits ke nam se pukare janevale devid haphhऱenj, timothi dvait, joelh‌ barlo, jaaun trnbal, daktar saimuel hapkins, richard ailsap aur thiyodor dvait the jinhonne pop ko adarsh manakar vyngyapradhan dvipadiyan aur mahakavy likhe. inake lie ritisammat shuddhata kavita ka sabase bada gun thi. in kaviyon men timothi dvaith trnbul aur barlo men apekshakrit adhik maulikata thi. lekin is sadi ka sabase bada kavi filip feno (1752-1832) hai jo ek or atynt tikt vidroop di british prizanaship (1781) ka to doosari or di vaild hanisakh‌lh‌ jaise taral gitikavy ka srashta hai. usaki kavitaon ne 19vin sadi ki romani kavita ki jamin taiyar ki.

is sadi ke antim bhag men upanyas aur natak ka bhi uday hua. taaumas gaaudafe dvara likhit di prins aauv parthiya (1759) amarika ka pahala natak hai, jise 1767 men vyavasayik rngamnch par khela gaya. isi prakar rayal tailar rachit di kntrast (1787) amarika ka pahala prahasan hai, halanki usamen sheridan aur goldasmith ki pratidhvaniyan sthan-sthan par hain. vilayam danlap is yug ka ek aur ullekhaniy natakakar hai.

amarika ka pahala upanyasakar charls braaukaden braun (1772-1810) hai jisake prasiddh upanyas vailaind (1796), aramnd (1798), athar marvin (1799), edagar hntali (1799) asnbhavit kathanakon aur bojhil shaili ke bavajood apani bhavapravanata aur romani charitron ke karan rochak hain. is samay ke ek any pramukh upanyasakar braikenh‌rij ne madarn shivailari (1792-1815) men sevante aur smalet ke adarsh par ati sahasikatapoorn upanyas ki rachana ki. richardasan ke anukaran par bhavukatapoorn upanyas aur kathaen bhi viliyam hil braun, shrimati rausan aur shrimati phastar dvara likhi gee.

19vin sadi - is sadi ke prarnbhik varshon men nyooyark men 'nikarabaaukar' nam se pukare janevale lekhakon ka uday hua jo sahity men arving ko vyngyakriti dyedarikh nikarabaaukars e histri aauv nyooyark (1890) ko manornjak vartalap ki shaili ko apana adarsh manate the. aise lekhakon men upanyasakar jems kark palding, natakakar danalap, kavi saimuel vudavarth aur jaaurj pi. paris the. phitz-grin hailek aur jozeph rauman drek niche star par bayaran aur kits se milate-julate kavi the. nyooyark men do achchhe samajhe janevale kintu vastav men sadharan gitakar hue-jaaun havard pen aur jems get parsival. patrikaon men satahi alochanaon ka bhi uday hua. dakshin men tin kaphi achchhe upanyasakar hue-jaaun pedilatan kenedi, viliyam gilmor sims aur jaaun isten kuk.

in lekhakon ke bich 19vin sadi ke poorvardh men char aise lekhakon ka uday hua jinhonne amariki sahity ko merudnd diya aur jo isalie amarika ke pratham shuddh sahityik samajhe jate hain: vashingatan aving (1783-1859), viliyam kalen braynt (1794-1878), jems fenimor koopar (1789-1851) aur edagar elen po (1809-49).

arving ki shaili aidisan, stil, goldasmith aur svift ki tarah mnji huee, chapal, adbhut kintu mohak kalpanayukt aur atmavynjak hai. usaki kridapriy kalpana ka putr rip van vinkil snsar ke avismaraniy charitron men hai. usake prasiddh rekhachitron, nibndhon, kathaon aur any kritiyon men vestaminstar abe, straitaphard-an-aivan, di skech buk, rip van vinkil, di myootebiliti aauv litarechar, di spektar braidagroom, di sliping halo ityadi hain. usake vicharon men snayu aur gahanata ki kami aur bhavukata ki atishayata hai, kintu abhivyakti ke svachchh lality men vah advitiy hai.

braynt amarika ka prakritikavi hai. vah vardh‌svarth ke star ka nahin kintu usi tarah ka kavi hai aur usamen vardh‌svarth ki chintanashilata, snyam aur naitikata hai. usane pahali bar kavita men amarika ke drishyon, ped-paudhon aur chidiyon ka varnan kiya. usaki kavita men romani tatvon ke sath spashtata bhi hai. atukant chhnd usaka priy madhyam tha aur usamen use kaphi dakshata prapt thi. thainetaauapsis kavita usaka udaharan hai. vah amarika ka pahala kavi hai jisamen keval kaushal hi nahin balki uchch koti ki pratibha ke bhi darshan hote hain.

koopar janavad, prakritisaundary aur nishchhal jivan ka romani upanyasakar hai. usaki kalpana jngalon, ghas ke maidanon aur samudron ke oopar mndarati hai tatha sahas aur parakram par mugdh ho uthati hai. sabhyata se achhoote red indiyanon ka chitran vah antynt sahanubhooti aur sookshm antardrishti ke sath karata hai; naiti bnpo aur ledar staauking usake mahanh‌ charitr hain. deshaprem ke bavajood vah amariki samaj ke janavirodhi, adnbarapoorn, kroor aur svarthapriy roop ka tivr alochak hai. usaki prasiddh rachanaon men ledarastaauking tels mala ki ye kathaen hain: di payeniyars (1823), di last aauv di mohikns (1826), di preyari (1827), di pathaphaindar (1840); di diyar sleyar (1841). use sar valtar skat ke samakaksh rakha ja sakata hai.

po atyadbhut jivan ka kavi aur kathakar hai. usaki rachanaon men manovaigyanik agrahon ka samavesh hai. svayn amarika ne usake kaviroop ki upeksha ki, kintu 'di raiven' (1845) adi kavitaon ne phrans ke pratikavadiyon aur adhunik yooropiy kavita ko bahut prabhavit kiya. usaki kavitaon men sarvatha maulik rachanakaushal hai aur ve apane sngit ki shuddhata, sookshmata, saral madhury aur vividhata ke lie prasiddh hain. alochak ke roop men bhi usaka mahatv hai. po jasoosi kahaniyon ke snsthapakon men hai, kintu usaki khyati tels aauv di grotesk aind arabesk (1840) ko romanchakari vedan aur rahasyatmak vatavaranapoorn kathaon par adhik nirbhar hai.

navajagaran kal - president jaiksan ke shasan se lekar punarnirman tak ka samay (1829-1870) audyogik vikas aur janavadi astha ke samanantar amariki sahity men navajagaran ka yug hai. dharm aur rajaniti ki tarah is yug ka sahity bhi udar aur romani manavatavadi drishtikon se snprikt hai.

hasyasahity par bhi is janavadi pravritti ki spasht chhap hai. nyoo inglaind ke hasyakaron men seba smith (1772-1868) ne jaik dauning aur jems rasel laauvel (1819-91) ne hosiya bigali aur bardaphraeedam savin, aur benjamin pi. shilaibar (1814-90) ne misez patingatan aur unake bhatije aik jaise sadharan yanki charitron ke madhyam se rajanitik aur samajik samasyaon ki yatharth aur vinodapoorn samiksha ki. devi kraauket (1786-1836), agastas valvin angastrit (1790-1870), jaaunsan je. hoopar (1815-63), taaumas baings thaaurp (1815-78), jozeph ji. baldavin (1815-64) aur jarj hairis (1814-64) jaise dakshin-pashchim ke hasyakar unase bhi adhik vinodapriy the.

navajagaran kal ke prarnbh ke kaviyon men amarika ke lokapriy kavi henari vardh‌svarth langaphelo (1807-82) ke atirikt alivar bendel homs (1809-94) aur jems rasel aauvel vishesh roop se ullekhaniy hain. vishvavidyalayon men achary pad par kam karane ke karan inhen yooropiy sanskritik aur sahityik parnparaon ka gahara gyan tha, lekin amariki jivan hi unaki kavita ka mool srot hai. naisargik saral pravah ke sath katha kahane ya varnan karane men langaphelo atynt saphal kavi hai. upadesh ki pravritti ke bavajood usaki kavitaen marmasparshi hain. usaki prasiddh kavitaon men di slebs drim aur hayavatha hain. homs aur laaubel ki kavitaon ki visheshataen kramash: nagar vinodapriyata aur bhavon ki udattata hain.

kaviyon men amariki janavad ki sabase mahanh‌ aur maulik upaj valt hvitaman (1819-92) hai. sadharan vyakti ki asadharanata ke vishvas se bhare hue svapnadrashta kavi men adikaviyon ka ujhatavaksh, sahasik, unmadapoorn aur vajratumul svar hai. vah muktachhnd ka janmadata bhi hai. pahali bar 1855 men prakashit aur samay ke sath parivardhit usake kavyasngrah jibs aauv gras ne phrans ke pratikavadi kaviyon aur yoorop ki adhunik kavita par gahara asar dala.

dakshin ke kaviyon men ullekhaniy nam henari timaraaud, pal haimiltan hen aur viliyam je. gresan ke hain. inamen se adhikatar dasasvamiyon ke janavirodhi drishtikon ke samarthak the. prakritik saundary ke chitran, kavyasngit aur chhndaprayogon ki drishti se inase adhik pratibhasnpajh kavi sidani lainiyar tha.

isi yug ne lokottaravadi kahe janevale chintanashil gadyakaron ko ujhat kiya jinamen ralph valdo imarsan (1803-82) aur henari devid thoro (1817-62) sabase prasiddh hain. ye masachyoosets ke kankaaurd namak ganv men rahate the aur inaki rachanaon par nyoo iglaind ke yooniteriyan snpraday ki dharmik udarata aur rahasyavadi antardrishti ka spasht prabhav hai. imarsan ke anusar dharm ka tatv naitik acharan hai. isalie usaka rahasyavad lokajivan ke prati udasin nahin hai. saral, chitramay shabd, sooktipriyata, gahan kintu kavisulabh anubhootimay chintan aur shant, snigdh vyaktitv usake sahity ki visheshataen hain. esej (1841, 1844), riprejentetiv men (1850) aur inglish trez (1856) usaki prasiddh rachanaen hain.

thoro ne pashchim aur poorv ke grnthon ka adhyayan kiya tha. usamen imarsan ki tulana men adhik vyavaharikata aur vinodapriyata hai. usamen prasiddh rachana valden (1854) jivan men naisargikata ki or lautane ke darshan ka pratipadan hai. apani doosari prasiddh pustak sivil dish‌obidiens (1849) men usane shasan men arajakatavad ke siddhant ki sthapana ki. usaki rachanaon men amariki vyaktivad ki charamavastha vyakt huee.

emaaus bransan elkaaut, jaaurj ripale, orastes braunsan, magainret fular aur jons beri us yug ke any mahatvapoorn lokottaravadiyon men hain. lokottaravadiyon men se anek 1848 ki kranti se prabhavit hue the aur unhonne tarah-tarah ki arajakatavadi, samajavadi ya samyavadi yojanaon ka prayog kiya aur striyon ke lie matadhikar, majadooron ki sthiti men sudhar aur veshabhoosha tatha khanapan men snyam ka andolan chalaya.

sudhar ke is yug men anek lekhakon ne dason ki mukti ke lie bhi andolan kiya. is sngharsh ka netritv viliyam el. gerisan (1805-79) ne kiya. usane di libaretar namak saptahik nikala jisake prasiddh lekhakon men gadyakar vendel philips (1811-84) aur kavi jaaun grinajif hvitier (1807-92) the. hvitier ki kavitaen sar kintu padadaliton ke lie apar karuna aur sneh se poorn hain. poegs riten dyooring di progres aauvh‌ di ebalishan kveshchanh‌ vaauyavez aauvh‌ phridam, sangzh‌ aauv di lebar adi usake kavyasngrahon ke nam se hi usaki kavyavastu ka pata chal jata hai. usaki kavita ki bhasha aur chhnd par bhi gramin prabhav hai. 19vin sadi ki sabase prasiddh nigro kavayitri phransis ailen vatkins harpar (1825-1911) hai, jisaki kavitaon men bailadon ki saralata hai.

das-pratha-virodhi andolan ne amarika ke vishvavikhyat upanyas ankil taaums kebin (1852) ki lekhika hairiet bichar stove (1811-96) ko utpann kiya. usake upanyas men vinod, tivr anubhooti aur darun yatharth ka durlabh mishran hai.

itihas ke kshetr men bhi is kal men kuchh prasiddh lekhak hue jinamen pramukh jaaurj bainkraft, jaaun lthroaaaup maautale aur phransis parkamaine hain.

amarika ke do mahanh‌ upanyasakar, natheniyal hathaaurn (1804-84) aur harman melavil (1819-91) isi yug ki den hain. hathaaurn ki kathaon ka dhancha itihas aur romans ke snmishran se taiyar hota hai, lekin unaki atma yatharthavad hai. samaj aur vyakti ke sngharsh aur usase avirbhoot anek naitik samasyaon ka sookshm manovaigyanik drishti, katharoopakon aur pratikon ke sahare prastut karane men hathaaurn advitiy hai. usaki sabase prasiddh rachana di skaralet letar (1850) isaka praman hai.

melavil akarshak kintu papamay snsar men manav ke anavarat kintu dridh sngharsh ka upanyasakar hai. navik jivan ke vyapak anubhav ke adhar par usane is darshanik drishtikon ko apane mahanh‌ upanyas mobi dik ar di hvait hvel men ahab namak navik aur saphed hvel ke romanchakari sngharsh men vyakt kiya. roopak aur pratik, uddam charit, bhav aur bhasha, virath aur rahasyamay drishy, antardrishti ke tadith‌ alok men jivan ka udghatan-ye melavil ke upanyason aur kathaon ki visheshataen hain.

is kal men deniyal bebsatar, rendaaulf aauv roanok, henari kle aur jaaun si. kailhaun ne gady men vaktritv shaili ka vikas kiya. vebstar ne dasapratha ka virodh kiya. antim tin dakshin men prachalit dasapratha ke samarthak the. president abraham linkan ka sthan inamen sabase ooncha hain. feyaravel tu springafild (1861), di farst inagaral aidres (1861), di getis barg spich (1863) aur di seknd inagaral aidres (1865) bhashan men upayukt shabdon, chitron aur layon ke prayog ki adbhut kshamata ke parichayak hain. linkan ke gady par baibil aur sheksapiyar ki spasht chhap hai.

grihayuddh se 1914 tak-grihayuddh aur usake bad ka samay vigyan ki unnati ke sath amarika men ne udyogon aur nagaron ke uday ka hai. 19vin sadi ke ant tak jagalon ke kat jane ke karan desh ki sima atalantik se prashant mahasagar tak phail gee. is nee sthiti men apane vyaktitv ke prati sajag aur atmavishvas se bhare hue adhunik amarika ka uday hua.

atmavishvas ka yah svar is yug ke amariki hasy sahity men maujood hai. charls ferasbraun, devid raaus laauk, charls henari smith, henari hvilar sha aur edagar dablyoo. ne kramash: artemas vard, petroliyam bi (vesooviyas) naijbi, bil arp, jaaush vilagz aur bil naee ke kalpit nam dharan kar apani samakalin ghatanaon aur samasyaon par jan boojhakar gnvaroo, vyakaran ke doshon se bhari huee, rasabhngapoorn aur latini ya vidvatapoorn sndarbhon se ladi bhasha men vinodapoorn vicharavimarsh kiya. unhonne sahity men 'rnjanakari moorkhon' ke vesh men amariki hasy ko vikasit kiya.

kathasahity men sthaniy vatavaran ya anchalikata ka vyapak dhng se istemal hua. aise kathakaron men, samay aur sthan donon hi drishtiyon se, phransis bret hart pratham hai. usane prashant mahasagar ke tatiy jivan ke chitr ankit kie. di lak aauv roring kainp aind adar skechez (1870) men usane kailiforniya ke khadan majadooron ke jivan ki vinod aur bhavukatapoorn jhanki prastut ki. isi tarah stove ne old taun foks (1869) aur saim lausns oldataun fayarasaid storij (1871) men nyoo inglaind kejivan ke manornjak chitr ankit kie. edavard egilstan ka upanyas di hoozier skoolamastar (1871) indiyana ke prarnbhik dinon ke jivan par adharit hai. viliyam sidani portar (or' henari: 1862-1910) aisi kathaon ke lie prasiddh hai. atit itihas men sthit kintu yatharth se prerit in kathaon men bhavukata, vinod, chitratmakata aur vilakshanata ki pradhanata hai. aisi kathaon ke rachanakaron men jaaurj vashingatan kebil, taaumas nelsan pej, joel chaidalar hairis, meri noailis marfi, sara orn jivet, henari kailar aur meri vilkins phhऱimain bhi mahatvapoorn hain.

in kathakaron se amarika ke mahanh‌ sahityakar saimuel laingharn klemens (mark tven: 1835-1910) ka nikat snbndh hai. mark tven ke anek upanyason par usake bhramanashil jivan ka asndigdh prabhav hai. di aidavenchars aauv taaum sayar (1876), laif an di misisipi (1823) aur di aidavenchars aauv haklaberi fin (1884) mark tven ke vyapak anubhav, charitron ke nirman ki usaki advitiy pratibha aur kavyamay kintu paurushey shaili ki kshamata ke praman hain. vyngy aur bhand ke nirman men bhi kam hi lekhak usake samatuly hain.

viliyam din haauvels ne jivan ke sadharan pakshon ke yatharth chitran par jor diya. usake samaksh kala se adhik mahatv manavata ka tha. svabhavik chitran par jor denevalon men ee. dablyoo. hove, jozef karkalaind aur jaaun viliyam di farest bhi ullekhaniy hain. haimalin garalaind ne kisanon ke jivan aur yaun snbndhon ke katu yatharth ko chitrit kiya.

amarika ki yatharthavadi parnpara ke mahanh‌ lekhakon men thiyodor drejar (1871-1945) ka nirvivad sthan hai. drejar ne sahas ke sath amarika ke poonjivadi samaj ki kroorata aur patanashilata ka nagn chitr prastut kiya, jisase kuchh log use ashlil bhi kahate hain. kintu sistar kairi, jeni garahardh‌t, di phainensiyar, di taitan aur ain amerikan traijedi jaise usake prasiddh upanyason se spasht hai ki jivan ke katu yatharth ke tivr bodh ke bavajood moolat: vah sundar jivan aur manaviy naitikata ki trisha se akul hai.

phraink naauris aur stiphen kren (1870-1900) prabhavavadi kathakar hain. unamen chamatkarik bhasha ki asadharan kshamata hai. hairald phredarik (1856-1898) men vyngyapoorn charitrachitran ki asadharan kshamata hai.

henari jems (1843-1916) charitron ke sookshm aur yatharth manovaigyanik adhyayan ke sath-sath kala ke prati jagarukata ke lie prasiddh hai. kahani ke sugathan ki drishti se vah snsar ke ine-gine lekhakon men hai. alochak ke roop men vah di art aauv fikshan (1884) jaisi mahatvapoorn pustak ka praneta hai. amariki aur yooropiy snskritiyon ki takarahat prastut karane men usake upanyas bejod hain.

romani vatavaran men jivan ke yatharth ko roopayit karanevale upanyasakaron men jaik lndan aur aptan sinkleyar pratham koti ke hain. jaik lndan ka di kal aauv di vaild (1903) aur sinkleyar ka di jngal (1906) isake udaharan hain. romani aur vilakshan upanyason tatha kahaniyon ke saphal lekhakon men fansis mairiyan kraaufard, ainbroz biyars aur laifakaidiyo harn hain.

henari aidams ne apani atmakatha 'di ejukeshan aauv henari aidams' (1906) men adhunik amariki jivan ka nirashapoorn chitr ankit kiya. amarika ki arthik, rajanitik aur samajik vyavastha ki shalyakriya ida em. taravel ne histri aauv di staindard ayal knpani aur linkan stifens ne di shem aauv di sitij men kiya. charls dadale varnar aur edavard belagi ne bhi poonji ki badhati huee shakti aur naukarashahi ke bhrashtachar par akraman kiya.

edavin markham aur vilayam hvaaun moodi ki kavitaon men bhi alochana ka vahi svar hai. is prakar pratham mahayuddh ke poorv hi amarika ki poonjivadi vyavastha ki alochana hone lagi thi. anek lekhakon ne samajavad ko mukti ke marg ke roop men apanaya. aise lekhakon ke agrani thiyodor drezar, jaik lndan aur aptan sinkleyar the.

valt hvitaman ko chhodakar 19vin sadi ke antim aur 20vin sadi ke prarnbh ke varsh kavita men sadharan upalabdhi se age n ja sake. apavad svaroop emili dikinsan (1830-1886) hai jo nishchay hi amarika ki sabase badi kavayitri hai. usaki kavitaon ka svar atmaparak hai aur unamen usake gramin jivan aur asaphal prem ke anubhav tatha rahasyatmak anubhootiyan abhivyakt huee hain. dikinsan ki kavita men yatharth, vinoed, vyngy aur kataksh, vedana aur ullas ki vividhata hai. chitrayojana, saral aur kshipr bhasha, khndit pnktiyon aur kalpana ki bauddhik vichitrata men vah adhunik kavita ke atynt nikat hai. pratham mahayuddh ke bad-yoorop ki tarah amarika men bhi yah kal natak, upanyas, kavita aur sahity ki any vidhaon men prayog ka hai.

natak ke kshetr men grihayuddh ke pahale raaubart mantagomari bard aur jaaurj henari bokar atukant du:khant natakon ke lie aur diyar boosikaault atirnjit ghatanaon se poorn natakon ke lie sadharan roop men ullekhaniy hain. grihayuddh ke bad bhi natakon ka vikas bahut sntoshajanak n raha. jems en. harn, bransan haauvard, agastas taaumas aur klaid fitsh men rngamnch ki samajh hai, lekin unake natakon men bhavon aur vicharon ka satahipan hai. pratham mahayuddh ke bad natak ke kshetr men anek prayog hone lage aur yoorop ka gahara asar pada. natak men gnbhir svar ka uday hua. is andolan ka utkarsh yoojin o' nil (1888-1953) ke natakon men prakat hua. o' nil ke natakon men yatharthavad, abhivynjanavad aur chetana ke staron ke udghatan ke anek prayog hain. kintu in prayogon ke bavajood o' nil kavisulabh kalpana aur bhavaveg ke sath jivan ke prati apane du:khant drishtikon ki abhivyakti par adhik bal deta hai.

mark kaauneli, jaaurj es. kaaufamain, elmar rais, maiksavel aindarsan, raaubart sherud, klifard odets, tharnatan vaildar tenaisi, viliyams aur arthar milar ne bhi natak men yatharthavad, prahasan, sngitaprahasan, kavy aur abhivynjana ke prayog kie. yoorop ke adhunik natyasahity aur amarika men 'laghu' aur lalit rngamnchon ke uday ne unhen shakti aur prerana di.

adhunik amariki kavita ka prarnbh edavin alingatan raaubinsan (1869-1935) aur rabart phhऱast (1874-1963) se hota hai. parnparagat tukant aur atukant chhndon ke bavajood unaka drishtikon aur vishayavastu adhunik hai; donon men avasadapoorn jivan ke chitr hain. raaubinsan men anastha ka mukhar svar hai. phhऱast ki kavita ki visheshataen antarng shaili men sadharan anubhav ki abhivyakti, snyamit, snkshipt aur svachchh vaktavy, natakiyata aur hasy tatha chintan ka sammishran hai. po aur dikinsan roopavadi shaili se prabhavit any ullekhaniy kavi vailes stivens (j. 1879), elinar vaili (1885-1928), jaaun goldaphlechar (1886-1950) aur meriyan moor (j. 1887) hain.

hairiyat munaro (1860-1936) dvara shikago men sthapit poetri: e maigazin aauv vars amariki kavita men prayogavad ka kendr ban gee. isake madhyam se dhyan akarshit karanevale kaviyon men vaichel lindase (1879-1931), karl saindabarg (j. 1878) aur edagar li mastars (1869-1950) pramukh hain. ye gramon, nagaron aur charagahon ke kavi hain. mastars kavita men gahara vishad hai, lekin saindabarg ki prarnbhik kavitaon men manushy men astha ka svar hi pradhan hai. hart kren (1899-1932) men hvitman ka romani drishtikon hai. yah romani drishtikon naomi replansko, jaaun gardan, jaaun hal hvilaauk, aivar vintars aur thiyodor rotheshk ki kavitaon men bhi hai. arkibald maiklish (j. 1892) ki kavitaon men sarvahara ke sngharshon ka chitr hai. stiphen vinsent bene (1898-1943) vyapak manav sahanubhooti ka kavi hai. usake vailad atynt saphal hain. hores gregari (j. 1898) aur keneth paichen (j. 1911) ki kavitaon par bhi hvitman ka prabhav spasht hai. doosari or raaubinsan jephars (j. 1887) hai jo apani kavitaon men manushy ke prati akroshapoorn ghrina aur prakriti ke darun drishyon se prem ke liy prasiddh hai.

emi laauvel (1874-1925) aur ech.di. (hilda doolitil: j. 1886) ne imejist kavyadhara ka netritv kiya. ezara paund (j.1885) aur ti.es. iliyat (1888-1965) ne adhunik amariki kavita men prayogavad par gahara asar dala. unase aur 'metafizikal' shaili ke roopavad se prabhavit kaviyon men jan krove rainsam (j. 1888), kaaunaraaud aiken (j. 1889), raaubart pen vairen (j. 1905), ailen tet (j. 1899), pitar vairek (j. 1916), karl shaipiro (j. 1913), richard vilbur (j. 1921), ar.pi. blaikamoor (j. 1904) tatha anek any kavi hain. abhivyakti men ghanatv, chamatkar aur dikshagamyata unaki visheshataen hain. inake anusar kavita ka arth nahin, astitv hona chahie.

prayogavadiyon men ee.ee. karmigz (j. 1894) pnktiyon ke prarnbh men bade aksharon ko hatane tatha viramon aur pnktiyon ke vibhajan men prayogon ke lie prasiddh hain.

20vin sadi ki kavayitriyon men sara tizadel (1894-1933) aur edna sent vinsent mile (1892-1950) apane saneton aur atmaparak giton ki spashtoktiyon ke lie prasiddh hain. mile men prakhar samajik chetana hai. jems velden jaaunsan (1871-1938), laingasten hhrooajez (j. 1902) aur kaunti klain (1903-46) nigro kavi hain jinhonne nigro jati ki samasyaon par dhyan kendrit kiya.

20vin sadi ke any prayogavadiyon men mark hvaaun doren, liyoni aidams, raaubart laauvel, haaubart horan, jems meril, dablyoo. es. marvin, delamor shvarth‌j, myooriel rukesar, vinafilh‌d taunale skaaut, elizabeth bishap, meril moor, aaugaden naish, pitar vairek, jan kiyardi adi aise kavi hain jinapar valt hvitman ki kavita ka anshik prabhav hai. apekshakrit ne prayogavadiyon men jaaun pil vishap, raindal jerel, richard ebarahart, jaaun bairimain, jaaun phredarik nims, jaaun mailkam brinin aur haauvard nemerov hain. samajik yatharth aur svasth janavadi chetana ko mahatv denevale adhunik kaviyon men valtar lovenafels, martha milet, meridel le syoor, taaumas maikgrath, eev meriyam, keneth reksaraauth ityadi ullekhaniy hain.

pratham mahayuddh ke bad ki mukhy pravrittiyon ko snkshep men is prakar vyakt kiya ja sakata hai-samajik yatharth ke prati jagarookata, usaki vishamataon se takarakar tootate hue svapnon ka bodh, poonjivadi samaj aur usaki arthik, rajanitik aur samajik manyataon se vidroh aur nee samajik vyavastha tatha jivan ke ne moolyon ki khoj.

is vidroh men kathakaron ne phrayad ke manovigyan aur marks ke darshan ka sahara liya. jaimas branch kaibel ne jargen (1919) men phrayadavadi pratikon ke madhyam se amariki samaj aur yaun snbndhi usake roodhigat drishtikon ki alochana ki. jona gel (1874-1938) aur rooth sachcho (j. 1892) ne ganvon ke jivan par se romani avaran hata diya. ganvon ke snkuchit jivan aur kunthit yaun snbndhon ka sabase bada chitrakar sheravud aindarsan hai.

yatharthavad ko prabal banane men drezar ke atirikt eph. skat phitjerald aur sinkleyar livis ka bahut bada hath tha. phitjerald ke dis said aauv pairadaiz (1920) aur di gret gaitjbi (1935) men amarika ke bhagn svapnon aur naitik hras ka chitr hai. levil ne men strit (1920) men ganvon, baibit (1922) men vyavasay, erosmith (1925) men poonjivadi vigyan, elmar gaintri (1927) men dharm, it kant haipen hiyar (1935) men phasijm ki pravrittiyon aur kingzablad raauyal (1947) men nigro jati ke prati anyay ke chitr prastut kar amariki samaj men vyapak hras ke lakshan dikhae. lekin inamen livis ka svar parajay ka nahin balki samajavad ki sthapana dvara samasyaon par antim vijay ka tha. jems ti. pherel ne tin khndon men likhe ge upanyas stads lanjiyan (1932-35) men samajik vishamataon ko chitrit kiya. richard rait ke upanyason men nigro jati ke jivan ka chitr hai. ech.el. menken ne prejudisez (1919-27) men samajik andhavishvason aur anyayon par akraman kiya. rabart pen varen ne al di kingz men men vyngy aur akrosh ke sath phasijm ko dhikkara. jaaun daaus pasaaus ki khyati yuddhavirodhi upanyas thrai soljars se huee aur doosare yuddh tak usane manahatan transafar aur faaurti-seknd pairelel, 1919 aur di big mani namak tin khndon ke upanyas men adhunik amariki samaj ki katu alochana ki.

arnest hemingve (1899-1961), viliyam faaukanar (1897-1962) aur jan stainabek (j. 1902) ki ganan adhunik kal ke tin bade upanyasakaron men hai. inhonne nirasha se prarnbh kiya, lekin bad men astha ki or laute. spen ke grihayuddh ne hemingve ko janata ki shakti ka bodh karaya aur usake do prasiddh upanyas tu haiv aind naaut (1937) aur phaaur hoom di bel taauls (1940) isi vishvas ki upaj hain. hemingve bul-phait men pradarshit manav ke apar parakram aur usamen manushy ya pashu ke anivary ant se utpann karuna ka kathakar bhi hai. hemingve ki shaili men baibil se milati-julati saralata, snayavikata aur madhury hai.

phaaukanar 'chetana ki antardhara' shaili ka upanyasakar hai. usake upanyason men dasapratha ke gadh dakshin ke samajik aur sanskritik kshay ke chitr hain. dakshin ke jivan ke sookshmatisookshm vivaranon ke gyan ke karan vah amarika ka sabase bada anchalik upanyasakar mana jata hai. usake upanyason men dikshagamyata ki pravritti bhi hai. stainabek ne aitihasik upanyason men samajavirodhi aur arajakavadi drishtikon se prarnbh kiya. bad men usane marksavadi darshan apanaya aur is prabhav ke yug men likhe ge usake do upanyas in dubiyas baitil (1939) aur di greps aauv rath atynth prasiddh hain.

charitron ke ragatmak paksh, pratikon aur vakyarachana men lay par bal denevale upanyasakaron men vila kedar, kaitharin aini portar aur taaumas vulph ka pramukh sthan hai. ne prayogon se prabhavit kintu mukhyat: upanyas ke parnparagat roop ko surakshit rakhanevale upanyasakaron men tin mahilaen ullekhaniy hain-edith hvartan, ailen glaisgo aur parl es. bak. marksavadi ya amarika ki svasth janatantrik parnpara ke prati sachet samakalin upanyasakaron men ira bulfart, melar henari rath, dablyoo.ee.bi. dubaauy, jan sainphard, barbara gails, haauvard fast, ring lardanar jooniyar, daltan trnbo, filip bonoski, laauyad el. braun, vi.je. jerom aur ben fild ne bhi mahatvapoorn kary kiya hai. gady shaili ki maulikata ki drishti se gartrood stin amarika ka advitiy lekhak hai.

20vin sadi ka poovardh alochana sahity men atynt samriddh hai. isaka prarnbh 'manavatavadi' eevig baibit aur usake sahayogiyon, pal elmar mor, narman farestar aur stuart sheraman dvara manav men astha ke nam par yatharthavad ke virodh ke roop men hua. doosari or ech.el. menken ne yatharthavad ka samarthan kiya. sahity men svasth samajik drishtikon par jor denevale alochakon men vanavik bruk aur bi. el. pairingatan ka bahut ooncha sthan hai.

alochana men marksavadi drishtikon ka sootrapat karanevalon men vi. eph. kailavartan, grainavil hiks aur maik gold the. isaka put edamnd vilsan, keneth bark, aur jems ti. farel ki alochanaon men bhi hai. aj bhi anek alochak is drishtikon se likhate hain aur unamen pramukh sidani fikelastin, saimuel silen, looee hairap, fipi bonoski, alabart maltj, vi.je. jerom, charls hnboldt aur harbart aipthekar hain.

martan di. zaibel, ezara paund, hulm, aee. e. richardh‌s aur ti. es. iliyat ki alochanaon ne amarika ki 'nee alochana' ko janm diya. 'nee alochana' mukhyat: roopavadi alochana hai jo vastu aur drishtikon ke sthan par rachana ki prakriyaon par jor deti hai. isake pradhan pracharakon men dakshin ke roodhivadi sahityakar aur alachak ar. pi. blaikamoor, ailen tet, jan krove rainsam, klinth bruks aur rabart pen vairen hain.

nagn yaun chitran aur pashavik pravrittiyon ke jor pakadane se doosare mahayuddh ke bad amariki sahity ka snkat bahut gahara hua hai. livis, das paisaaus, stainabek, saindabarg, hiks, haauvard fast adi anek lekhakon ne samajavadi devata ke kooch kar jane ki bat kahi hai. lekin samajavad ke sath-sath ameriki sahity aur snskriti ki mahanh‌ janavadi parnparaon ka visarjan adhunik amariki sahity ke vikas men badhak hai.[1][2]

amariki sahity (1945-1970)-dvitiy mahayuddh ke bad se 1970 tak ka amariki sahity kavyaroopon ko todata evn punarnirmit karata raha hai. parnparaon par aghat unake antarik shaktipat ka hi dyotak hai. yuddhottar sahity men hamen manav ke astitv ka navikrit bodh milata hai. manushy ki niji hasti par hone vale akramanon ke pratirodh ki abhivyakti milati hai. pratigyabaddhataon evn asthaon ka punarnirikshan kiya gaya hai. is kal ke amariki sahity men lekhak ke jivanadarshan ke samaroop hi ant:karani virodh ka sahas hai. vah atmahasti evn samaj ke bhidnt ke adharagat tathy ka anveshan sahityik kala ke roop evn virodh dvara satat karata raha hai. yah sahity pratyakhyani evn naya hai.

yah sahity yuddhottar vighatak gart evn vinashakari astavyastata ki prishthabhoomi se ankurit ho apana nirman karata hai. yuddh ke bad satat shitayuddh ne use jivan ki anubhootiyan din, jinamen pramukh ye hain-prabal kintu arthahin hinsa, atmaparag, samaj se aparag, manushy ka amanavikaran, anbari samaj evn maharajy ke paishachi para yatharth men vyakti ki durgati, sarvashaktisnpajh arthik evn rajanitik nihitasvarthon dvara vigyapan tatha prachar ke madhyam se logon ka mastishk prakshalan. aise paishachi jagath‌ men sarjit honevala sahity ajanabi ke madhyam se prem evn svatntrata ka anveshan karata hai. vah daman ke samajik vatavaran men likha gaya vyakti ki atmahasti ka sahity hai, jisamen vrittigat anivaryataen hi marganirdeshak hain. naitikata bhi vaiyaktik evn astitvaparak ho gee hai, aur isilie vyngyatmak tatha anishchit. rajy evn samaj men moolyon ka sarvanash ho jane par bhi yah sahity apane ko atmahasti evn jivan ke prati samarpit karata hai. isaka snkalp dharmotsah ke sannikat hai.

yahan yah snket kar dena avashyak hai ki oordhvavarnit manushy evn samaj ki sthiti tatha tatsnbndhi sahityik pravrittiyan matr amariki nahin, apitu antararashtriy hain. yuddhottar vishv ka amarikikaran ho chuka hai athava ho raha hai.

upanyas-yuddhottar kathasahity shaktishali evn vaividhyapoorn hai. yuddhasnbndhi upanyas bhi is tathy ki pushti karate hain. jan harsi, jarj, maindal, jan harn barnz (d gailaro, 1947), narman melar (d neked aind d ded, 1948), jan haks (d kainibal, 1949), jems jons (phram hiyar tu itarniti, 1951), tamas bargar (kraizi in barlin, 1958), tatha jazef helar (kaich--22, 1961) ke yuddhasnbndhi kathasahity men bhi roop evn sahityik uddeshy ki prachur vividhata hai. upanyas ki yah anekaroopata evn anekoddeshyata satah ke niche samaj ke khnd-khnd ho jane ke karan hai. barnard melamood ke upanyason men yahoodi samaj ka chitran hai, flainaro o' kanar men dakshini amarikiyon ka, jaik keruak men chapalooson ka, jan chivar evn luee aaukinklas men parinagaron ka. yah sthiti samaj ke vighatan ko pratibinbit karati hai. dakshini upanyasakar yahoodi lekhak, nigro kathakar evn bitanik lekhak snskriti ki sntrasi antarbhoomi se apani astitvaparak anubhootiyon ko mukharit karate hain. in lekhakon ki snsthiti ko prakritivad vyakt karane men asamarth tha. atev usane pratikatmakata, roomani athava bibhats sanasani, purakhyani evn adyaroopi tntujal, kalatmak athava gadabad kasidevale kshetron men pravesh kiya.

is kal ke upanyason men nayak ki moolat: nishkalushata par bal hai, jo patitoddhari gun ke roop men abhivyakt hua hai. nishkalush nayak kabhi to vidrohi shikar evn vidrohi balipashu ke roop men niroopit kiya jata hai to kabhi ajanabi, bachcha, kishor, aparadhi, snt athava vidooshak ke roop men. pratyek dasha men nayak ki atmahasti evn patit samaj ke bich samadhan nahin ho pata aur is arth men usaki diksha adhoori hi rah jati hai. vidroh, vidhvns athava atmahasti abhipushti par bal rahata hai. keruak, baroj, brasard, vidal env melar ke upanyason men yahi snrachana milati hai. belo, jons, bolj, melamood stairan evn makalarj ke upanyason men vidrohi nayak ka ant shahadat, atmahatya athava parajay men hota hai. yahi bat sailinjar, kapot, elisan evn danlevi ke upanyason par bhi lagoo hoti hai. sabhi nayak ko aparadhi snt athava hkhraost roop men prastut karate hain. haks, kapot, naibakov evn onkaaunar ke kuchh upanyason men viroopi pishach bhi yahi bhoomika ada karate hain. apane sapanon ki duniyan men bnd viroopi patr samaj ka sntrast shikar hone par shaitan ke roop men parinat ho jata hai evn samaj ki sari hi samany manyataon par aghat karata hai. in upanyason men pratyakhyan paishachi vidroh ka roop dharan kar leta hai. amariki upanyason par yooropiyan astitvavad ka bhi prabhav pada hai. stairan, bolj, belo, jan apadaik, danlevi evn jan barth ke upanyason par yooropiy astitvavad ka prabhav spasht hai.[3]

kavita-dvitiy mahayuddhottar kalin amariki kavita bit athava bitanik kaviyon evn vidyochit kaviyon ke parasparik sngharsh evn virodh ko lakshit karati hai. rabart loval ke shabdon men yah sngharsh anagadh evn parishkrit kavita ke bich parasparik virodh ka sngharsh hai. is vargikaran ke bavajood ham dekhate hain ki is 25 varsh ki avadhi men anek bitanik kavi vidyochit ban ge tatha anek vidyochit kaviyon ne bitanik shaili ko apanaya.

bitanik kaviyon men samaj ke prati vidroh ki bhavana hai. ve sabhi samajik snsthaon ko ghrina ki drishti se dekhate hain aur apane lie atyntik vyaktigat svatntrata chahate hain. ve ati muktachhnd men manamane dhng se likhate hain. kavy unaki jivanashaili ka matr upaphal hai. ve madira, nasha, yaun prayogon, evn madak dravyon ki sahayata se bhavoddipan ki tikshnata ko badhane ka prayas karate hain evn nigro tatha jaiz sngitgyon ke sntsng men bhagavaddarshan ki asha rakhate hain. apani kavitaon ko ve viliyam karlas viliyamz athava jaik keruak ko samarpit karate hain. jain, bauddh, evn poorvi snskriti ke tantrik athava 'asamajik' pakshon se akarshit ye ne bohimiyaee 'avare' hain jo samaj ka virodh evn adimavad, moolavritti, shakti tatha rakt ki upasana karate hain. kavy men bitanek shaili ke pramukh lekhak hain ailan ginjbarg, gregari korso tatha larens faligeti. keneth reksarath, kenath paichan, rabart dnkan, denis levaratov, charlz olsan, rabart krili jadasan krooj tatha jil arlovits ki kavitaon par bhi bitanik shaili ka prabhav pada hai. bit kavita ki asannata evn oj manavi astitv ke nnge charitr ko git deta hai.

ginjabarg ki 'hadal' (1956) narakavasi kavi dvara manushy ke narakiy astitv ka uchchhedan karati hai. unaki pnktiyan prem, athava krodharoopi kode ki phatakar se adhunik jagath‌ ke sare sntras evn vibhishika ka sparsh kar unase age brahmandi y pavitrata tak pahunchati hain. rajanitik, hatya, pagalapan, svapakavyasani, samalingasnbndh, athava tantrik ya zen tatasthata ki vishayavastu ka bhar unaki pnktiyan sada hi vahan karane men samarth nahin hoti. ginjbarg ki kavita ki sabase badi visheshata usaka rahasvadi tatv hai. usaka doosara prakashan 'kaidish' (1960) bhi inhin gunon se yukt hai evn manushy ki snvedana ko anubhoot yatharth ke simatnk kshetr tak le jata hai. 'bat' shabd ke pray: tin arth die jate hai-(1)samaj ka nimnastar jahan snsthaon evn paripatiyon ne dalit kavi ko daba rakha hai, (2)jaiz sngit ki lay evn tal jo kavyasngit ko utprerit karata hai, evn (3)bhagavaddarshan. gregari korso ke 'd vestal ledi an braital', 'gaisolin', tatha 'd haipi barthade aauv deth' men chhnd bit adarsh ke snnikat hain. vah jaiz ke visphotak prabhav evn hipstar nartakon ki bhasha tatha shabdon ka anukaran karata hai. larns phaligeti ke 'a kaauni' ailnd aauv d maind' men gali kavy likhane ka prayas kiya gaya hai. kavita ko adhyayan kaksh ke bahar galiyon men laya gaya hai. any bit kaviyon ke nam hain ge snaidar, phil velan evn maikel maklooar. bit kavita amarika ki antarbhaum kavita hai. bit hi ke saman do any antarbhom snpraday bhi hain-blaik mauntan kavi evn nyoo park kavi. pahale snpraday men charlz olasan, rabart krili, rabart dnkan evn janathan viliyamz ate hain. doosare snpraday ke antargat denis levartov, l ray jonz evn phraink o' hara ate hain.

vidyochit kaviyon men sabase mahatvapoorn hain aparadhasvikari kavi rabart loval, snodagram, bradar antoninus, silviya plaith evn theodor rethake. lail gleziyar ki kavitaen (archard park and istanbool, 1965, yoo too, 1969, d darvisij, 1970, evn vaisiz aauv daded, 1971) bhi isi shreni men aengi. rabart blaee, jemz rait, rabart keli, viliyam dafi evn jeremo radanabarg apane ko nitalabinbiy kati kahate hain. inake atirikt beriman, shvarts, jaral, shapiyaro, nemarov, ebarhart, kunits, viyarek, smith, vilbar evn diki bhi vidyochitt kavi hain. stri kaviyon men haz, svensan, milar, makginali, bishap, rakesar, sekstan evn gardanar ke nam vishesh ullekhaniy hain. nigro kaviyon men vakar, gvendalin, dadsan, talsan, bend, jonz, oden, rivarz adi nigron lokagiton se prerana prapt karate hain.

kahana nahin hoga, paund, tet, rensam, eliyat, aaudan evn kamingz ke saman dvitiy mahayuddhottar 25 varsho men navodit kaviyon ne sukhyati abhi tak nahin prapt ki.[4]

natak-dvitiy mahayuddhottar natay sahity men atyntik prayog hue hain. upanyas evn kavita ke saman hi natak ne atmahasti ke binbonpar bal diya hai. manaviy saty ko niroopit karane ke lie usane abhivynjanavad athava atiyatharthavad ki sahayata li evn manav prakriti ke taral paksh par bal diya. arthar milar men samajik snveg ke hote hue bhi vaiyaktik man:sthiti ka sntrast bodh hai. tenesi viliyamz men snskriti ki prachiron par svapn evn ichchhaon ka sashakt prahar hota hai. edavard albo evn jaik gelbar vivek ke simantak kshetr se manushy ke antarik gart evn andhakar par drishtipat karate hain. in char natakakaron ka sthan is samay sarvopari hai. vaise richardasan, hez, vilingam, vidal, phoot, gibsan, chayafski, naish, inj, larnts, aindarsan, kapot, makalarz, mazel phragj, laaugan, bret, shulbarg evn vok ne bhi is kal men natak likhe hain.

arthar milar ke natakon men ek nee garima evn saragarbh hai jo manushy ki kayam rahane ki ichchhashakti, manaviy snbndhon ke ghanatv evn anubhooti ke vaichithhray se otaprot hai. milar ke anusar manushy apane samajik evn rajanitik vatavaran dvara yathochit ansh men paribhashit nahin ho sakata, aur n hi vah avyakt shaktiyon ke prabhav se hi achhoota rah sakata hai. milar ke patron ki shakti vaphadari ke badhate hue vritt men unake sapanon men nihit hai. papayukt snveg tab tak sarthak nahin hota jab tak brihattar pratigyabaddhataen usaka khndan n karen. brihattar pratigyabaddhataen vyakti evn samaj donon ke hi oopar hain. ye pravrittiyan 'd main hoo haid al d lak' (1944); 'al maee snz' (1947); 'daith av d selzaman' (1947); 'dakrasibl' (1953); 'vyoo phram d brij' (1955); evn 'a memari aauv too mandij' (1955); evn 'a memari aauv too mandij' (1955); men spasht dekhi ja sakati hain.

tenesi viliyamz ke svapn, ichchhaen evn purakathaen milar ke yatharthiy, naitik evn samajik darshan ke viparit hain. viliyamz ke patr ekaki shikar, ajanabi, likapatit evn bhagode hain. unake natak bhayavah krity, hatya, kamavikriti, narabhakshan, shilapaharan evn sanasanidar bibhats ghatanaon se bhare hain. jab balipashu patr aisi bhayavah astitvaparak sthitiyon se hokar gujarata hai to usaki kalpana dharmikata ka sparsh karati hai. ye vishishtataen 'd glas minajshari (1945); 'a stritakar nemd dijaer' (1947); 'kamino reyal' (1953); 'arphayoos disending' (1955); 'sadnli last samar' (1948); 'nait aauv di iguana' (1961); adi natakon men drishtigat hain.

tenesi viliyamz ne jin mool vrittiyon par bal diya unhin ko adhar banakar edavard albi evn jaik gelbar ne amarika men nirarthak astitv ke natayasahity ka nirman kiya. unaka jivanadarshan yah spasht dekhata hai ki manushy ne vartaman samajik sngathan evn snsthaon ke karan apani niyati par apana niyntran kho diya hai. at: astitv nirarthak hai evn manushy apane ant ki asahay pratiksha kar raha hai. edavard albi ke 'di amarikan drim' (1959); 'd deth aauv besi smith' (1959); 'hooz aphred aauv varjiniya vulph' (1960); evn jaik gelbar ke 'd kanekshan' (1959); tatha 'di aipl' (1961) men nirarthak astitv ke natayasahity ki pramukh vishishtataen spasht lakshit hain.[5]

alochana-dvitiy mahayuddhottar 25 varshon ko pray: hi amariki sahity men alochana ka yug kaha jata hai. raindal jaral ki 'poitri aind di ej' (1953); karl shapiyaron ki 'in diphens aauv ignarns' (1960), narman melar ki 'adavartijmnt phar maiselph' (1959); jemz baldavin ki 'nobadi noz maee nem' (1961); hofaman ki 'phraeediyanijm and d litrari maind (1945), braun ki 'laif agenst deth' (1959); evn triling ki 'phraid and d kraisis aauv avar kalachar' (1955); ko paryapat saiddhantik khyati mili. yuddhottar snkat evn vishvavyapi sntras ke bhav ne alochakon evn vicharakon men atmabodh ke bhar ko utprerit kiya tatha ve matr rasavad se kahin pare alochanatmak siddhanton ka niyojan karane ke lie badhy hue. adharagat samasyaon se utprerit unake manasik prayas ne manushy ke apani atmahasti ke prati, samaj ke prati evn bhagavanh‌ ke prati snbndhon ka ek naya alochanatmak darshan prastut kiya.

is kal ki amariki alochana ka sabase mahanh‌ paksh hai puragathi alochana, jisaka is laghu avadhi men hi vishvavyapi prabhav pada hai. puragathi alochana ke pramukh pravartak hain jozaph kainpabel, phrainsis fargyusan, ven shumekar, filip vilarait evn rnthraap phraee. is alochanapravah par manovigyan, manovishleshan tatha manavashastr ka vyapak prabhav pada hai. puragathi alochana ke adharabhoot siddhanton ka snkshipt vivaran hi yahan snbhav hai.[6]

sahity purakathaon ke saman hi manushy ki akankshaon tatha du:svapnon ka shabd prakshepan hai, atev sahityik vishvasnbhavanaon athava shakyataon ka kalpanik vishv hai. sahity vidhaon, pratikon, kathaon evn prakaron ka antarbadh hai. vidhaen panch hai: devakhyan vidha, adbhut vidha, uchchanukriti vidha, nimnanukriti vidha, evn vyngy vidha. vidhaon ke samaroop hi panch pratik hai: rahasyavadi ek athava chidan, puragathi adyaroop, raupik binb apakendriy nirdeshatmak chihn evn abhikendriy aksharik moolabhav. kathaen char hain-kamadiy, adbhut katha, trasadiy katha hi sharadiy katha hai, evn vyngy hemnti hai. sahityaprakaron ka vargikaran lay evn prastotamadhyam ke adhar par kiya gaya hai. is alochana ki sabase badi visheshata yah hai ki isake sare hi niyam svayn sahityanumanit hain vaise hi jaise bhautiki ke niyam vishv evn prakriti ke avalokan se hi prapt kie ge hain. puragathi alochana ne samiksha ko pahali bar ek kramanugat vikasonmukh shastr ke roop men prastut kiya hai. anevali pidhiyan tathy evn tark ki trutiyon ko sudhar sakati hain.[7]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. sn.grn.-bleyar tatha any: di litarechar aauv yoonaited stets; ar. ee. spilar tatha any: litreri histri aauv di yoonaited stets; kainbrij histri aauv amerikan litarechar; dablyoo. eph. telar: e. histri aauv amerikan letars; es. ti. viliyams tatha en. eph. aidakins: korsej aauv riding in amerikan litrechar; bi. el. pairingatan: mene karents in amerikan that; eph. o. maichisan: amerikan renesan.
  2. daau. chndrabali sinh
  3. sn.grn.-gleziyar: dekadns and ribarth, (1971), gailove: di aibsard hiyaro in amerikan fikshan, (1966), harpar: desperet fet, (1967); ihabahasan: raidikal inosens, (1961); fidlar: d ritarn aauv d vainishing amerikan, (1968).
  4. sn.grn.-kaiban: risnt amerakin poetri, (1962); havard: alon vid amerika, (1969); hngarphard: sn., poets in progres, (1962); kensath, sn.: poemz aauv protest, (1968); astruph, sn.: d katenparari poit az artist and kritik, (1964); shivamoorti pandey, sn.: esiz aaun madarn amerikan poitri, (1971); rajnthal: d nyoo poets, (1967).
  5. sn.grn.-daunar: risnt amerikan drama (1961); aisalin: d thiyetar aauv di absard (1961); portar: mith and madarn amerikan drama, (1969); vilz: amerikan drama sins varld var too (1962).
  6. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 195-202 |
  7. sn.grn.-jozaf kainpabel, 'd hiyaro vid a thauznd phesiz' (1949); phrainsis fargyusan, 'di aidiya aauv a thietar' (1949); 'd hmooman inmij in draimetik litrechar' (1957); filip vilarait, 'd barnig fauntan' (1954); rnthraap phraee 'anaitami aauv kritisijm' (1957); shivamoorti pandey, 'rnthraap phraee ke moolaroopakiy alochanasiddhant', alochana, 44 (1968), poo. 68-76.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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