नायिका भेद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

snskrit sahity men bharatamuni ke naty shastr men adhikanshat: natakiy patron ke vargikaran prastut hue hain. "agnipuran" men pratham bar nayak-nayika ka vivechan shrringar ras ke alnban vibhavon ke roop men kiya gaya hai.

nayika ke bhed

bharat ke anusar nayika ke ath bhed hain-

  1. vasakajja
  2. virahotknthita
  3. svadhinapatika
  4. kalahantarita
  5. khndita
  6. vipralabdha
  7. proshitabhartrika
  8. abhisarika.

paravarti lekhakon ke anusar, jise "prakriti-bhed" kaha gaya hai, nayika tin prakar ki hoti hai. uttama, madhyama, adhama. "agnipuran" ke lekhak ne nayika ke keval ek vargikaran ka ullekh kiya hai : svakiya, paravikaya, punarbhoo, samanya. in char bhedon men se punarbhoo ko age chalakar manyata prapt nahin huee. rudrat ("kavyalnkar", navin shatabdi) tatha rudrabhatt (shrringaratilak, 900-1100 ee.) ne ek shodash bhed vargikaran prastut kiya, jise paravarti lekhakon dvara sarvadhik pradhanata di gee. yah vargikaran is prakar hai : nayika : svakiya, parakiya, samanya. svakiya : mugdha, madhya, pragalbha. madhya tatha pragalbha : dhira, madhya (dhiradhira), adhira. madhya tatha pragalbha; pun: jyeshtha, kanishtha. parakiya : oodha, anoodha (kanya).

kavyashastriy grnthon men nayika-bhed

nayika ki charcha kamashastr ke pashchath agnipuran men hai, bharatamuni ke mat ka anusaran karate hue bhojadev ne nayika bhed ka niroopan savistar kiya hai. bhoj ne bhi yah bhed svikara hai-

                                    gunato nayika api syaduttamamadhyamadhama.
                                    mugdha madhya pragalbha ch vayasa kaushalen va..
                                    dhiraadhira ch dhairyen spanyadiya parigrahath.
                                    oodhanoodhopayamanath kramajjyeshtha kaniyasi..
                                    manadrdherooddhatodatta shanta ch lalita ch sa.
                                    samanya ch punarbhooshch svairini cheti vrittitah..
                                    ajivatastu ganika roopajiva vilasini.
                                    avasthatoapara chashtau vigyeyaah khanditadayah..

'shrrigaraprakash‘ men nayika bhed adhik vistar ke sath varnit hai. yahan, adhama aur jyeshtha nayikaen ullikhit nahin hain. svakiya evn parakiya ke prithak-prithakh bhed bataye gaye hain- uttama, madhyama, kanishtha, oodha, anoodha, dhira, adhira, mugdha, madhya aur pragalbha. bhedopabhedon ka samagratah kshata, yatayat aur yayavara char bhed tatha samanya ke-oodha, anoodha, svaynvara, svairini evn veshya ye panch bhed kiye gaye hain. bhoj ne apane granth men madhya aur pragalbha ke ‘dhira adhira‘ sngyk tritiy bhed ko nahin svikara evn unhonne jyeshtha ka namollekh n karake ‘poorvanoodha’ ko hi jyeshtha angikar kiya hai. samanyata nayika ke bhojakrit bhed vivechan ko shastr men apoorv hi manana padega. isake pashchath ‘mandar-marandachampoo’granth men krishnakavi ne ‘kshata, akshata’ adi nayika-vivechan men bhojadev ka ullekh kiya hai.

hemachandr ke kavyanushasan men nayika bhed

kavyanushasan men hemachandr ne bhi nayika-vivechan kiya hai, kintu yahan atyant snkshipt vivaran hai. madhya, mugdha aushr pragalbha tinon ke do-do bhed vay evn kaushal ke adhar par kiya gaya hai. yatha-vayasa mugdha, kaushalen mugdha, vayasa madhya, kaushalen madhya aur isi prakar vayasa-pragalbha, kaushalen pragalbha dhira, adhira adi bhed bhi madhya adi nayikaon ke svikare gaye hain. bharatamuni ke natayashastriya rityanusar poorvamoodha jyeshtha, pashchashadoodha kanishtha nayikaen kahi gayi hain. parakiya nayika ke matr tin hi bhed-virahotkanthita, abhisarika tatha vipralabdha mane hai. isake atirikt vagbhatalnkar tatha prataparooyashobhooshan granthon men bhi snkshepatah nayika bhed ka kathan hai. vivechan men koee ullekhaniy vaishishtay nahin hai. vagbhatt ne char-anoodha, svakiya, parakiya aur parangana (samanya) bhed likha hai.

sahity darpan men nayika bhed

snskrit ke kavyashastriy granthon men ‘sahity darpan‘ ka atyant mahatvapoorn sthan hai. is granth men nayika bhed ka vivechan milata hai. achary vishvanath ne apane poorvacharyon dvara niroopit nayika ke pramukh bhed hi svikar kar upabhed kathan men navinata ki kalpana ki hai. yatha-svakiya ke mukhy mugdha, madhya aur pragalbha tin bhedon ke upabhed parigan sarvatha navin hai-

mugdha-
  1. prathamavatirnayauvana
  2. prathamavatirnamadanavikara
  3. ratau vama (yah shingabhoopal ne bhi svikara hai)
  4. mane mridu
  5. samadhikalajjavati.
madhya-
  1. vichitrasurata
  2. gadhataroonya
  3. samastaratakovida
  4. eeshatpragalbha vachana
  5. madhyamavridita.
pragalbha-
  1. smarandha
  2. gadhataroonya
  3. samastarakovida
  4. bhavonnata
  5. svalp vrida
  6. akrantanayaka.

madhya, pragalbha ke dhira adi tinon bhed evn jyeshtha aur kanishtha upabhed bhi varnit hain. sahityadarpan men is prakar madhya tatha pragalbha ke barah bhed, mugdha ek bhed, sviya ke kul terah bhed hue. parakiya ke kanya-parodha do bhed, samanya ek bhed, ab kul solah prakar ki nayikaen ho gayin. avasthiti ke anusar svadhinabhartrika adi ath bhed phir uttam, madhyam aur adham aur adham bhed se tin prakar ki nayikaen. ant men yadi bhedopabhedon ka snkalan kar diya jay to-16×8=12×3=384 prakar ki nayikaon ki ganana is granth men ki gayi hai. jaisa ki oopar ki pnktiyon men kaha- parakiya ke poorvacharyon dvara vivechit tin hi bhed mane hain-

  1. virahotkanthitaka
  2. abhisarika
  3. vasakasajja.

bhanudatt ke rasamnjari men nayika bhed

bhanudatt ke chhand rasamnjari, rasatarngini aur anyay kritiyon ki rachana ke atirikt subhashit granthon men bhi prapt hote hain. kavi ki janmabhoomi mithila rahi parantu sarasvat-sadhana-sthal prayag tha. kavi kisi nripati virabhanu ka ashrit raha. yah snket hamen padyaveni men uddhat (chhand snkhya- 68) tatha sooktisundar (chhand snkhya- 102) se prapt hota hain.

                                    trayavasthaiv parastri syath prathamn virahonmanaah.
                                    tatoabhisarika bhootvaabhisaranti brajet svayamh..
                                    snketachch paribhrashta vipralabdha bhaveth punah.
                                    paradhinapatitven nanyavasthatr sngata..

yahi nahin padyaveni ke hi chhand snkhya 161 men usane nrip virabhanu ke vijayabhiyan ka atyant sundar varnan kiya hai-nripati ne vishal sena ke sath prasthan kiya, ranabherinad, ghodon ki hinahinahat aur hathiyon ke chinghad se bhishan kolahal utpann hue. brahmand-pind men ek darar si padane lagi. nrip-parakram ke tap se tapt ude hue suhage se mandakini, chandrama tatha tarakadal roop dhar usako punah poorit kiya. ashrayadata ki hi prashnsa men aisa varnan sambhav hai. bhanudatt ki rachanaon men nijamashah tatha sherashah ke bhi yashagan milate hain. paramparaya prachinakal men kati prayah kisi n kisi nripati ne ashray men kavy-sadhana karate rahe. hindi sahity ka ritikal is tathy ko sampusht karata hai. ritikal ke kavi aur achary rajyashray avashy hue, tabhi unhonne nijamashah evn baghel nripati virabhanu ke gun aur yash bakhane hain. antim ashrayadata kadachith virabhanu raha. usaki bhent kavi se prayag men huee. virabhanu ka shasanakal 1540-1555 eesaviy sanh raha. isaka rajy-vistar prayag tak tha. ‘gulabadan‘ men ullekh hai ki arail tatha kada ka nripati viravahan raha, yah nishchay hi virabhanu ka muslim nam hai. virabhanu parakram, udarata evn danashilata se arjit yash ke pashchath antimavay men prayagavasi ban gaya tha. virabhanooday kavy men ullekh hai-‘putr ramachandr ke lie rajyabhar tyag kar vishay, abhilasha adi se chitt ko nivritt kar gnga-yamuna ke tat par nivas sthapit kiya‘ (12/27). vedaraksha-avatar svaroop (virabhanu) ne putr ramachandr ko yuvaraj-pad par abhishikt kar apani chittavrittiyon ko, dharmaparayan (nrip) ne gnga-tat brahmanishth kar[1] liya.
kavi bhanudatt ne apani kavy-pratibha ko samyakh vistar prayag men hi udaramana nrip virabhanu ka snrakshan prapt kar liya. kavi aur nrip donon hi ki chitavritiyan antim vay men samanabhavi thin. antim vay men hi donon ki bhent huee thi. prayagasth gnga-yamuna ke prati virabhanu ki nishtha thi evn kavi ke hday men pragadh lalak-samast bhoo-mandal ke paryatan ka menra shram vyarth raha, vad ke lie vidya prapt ki, apana ‘sv’ gnvakar vibhinnadharadhishon ke ashram men pahuncha, kamalamukhi sundariyon par drishti dali aur viyog duahkh jhela, sab vyarth, jo prayag men basakar narayan ki aradhana nahin ki[2]. kavi bhanudatt ki prayag ke prati astha vahan nivasane ki lalak ka hi pratiphal tha jo vah paryatan karate yahan pahuche aur nripati virabhanu ke ashrayi bane. vah kahate hain-sundar bhavan tyag kar nikunj men rahana sukhakar hai, dhan-sampatti dan ki vastu hai, sngrah karane ke lie nahin, tirthon ke jal ka pan kalyanakar hai, kush ki shayya par shayan karana sabhi astaranon ke shayan se shreshthatam hain,chitt ko dharmamarg men pravritt karana shreyaskar hai tatha sarvadhik kalyanadayak hai-gnga-yamuna ke sngam par rahakar puran-purush ka[3] smaran karana. spasht hai, is karan bhanudatt ne prayag men nrip virabhanu ka ashray grahan kar apani kavy-pratibha ko nikhara.

nayika-niroopan ka mahatv

rasamnjari nayika-niroopan ke mahatv aur pramukhata isalie hai ki rason men shrringar ras sarvashreshth mana jata hai, rasangon men usaka alamban vibhav aur usamen nayika ka mahatv. yah rasamnjari nayika bhed vishay ke niroopan men sarvatha navin parampara ka pravartak granth hai. isase poorv kavyashastriy acharyon ne nayikadi niroopan vishay ko adhar man svatantr granth ki rachana nahin ki thi. rasamnjari ki rachana ke pashchath is vishay ko lekar snskrit, hindi evn any bhashaon men granth pranayan prarambh hua. parinamatah is granth aur usamen vivechit vishay-vastu ka svatantr mahatv hai. rasamnjari men bhi bhanudatt ne sviya, parakiya, samanya-poorvacharyon dvara vivechit tin bhedon ka ullekh kar mugdha, madhya, pragalbha prasiddh tinon bhed svikara hai. unhonne mugdha ke char navin bhed kiya-agyat yauvana, gyat yauvana, navodha aur vishrabdh navodha. yah sngya granthakar ne ankurit yauvan, roop ki vishishtata ke adhar par diya hai, spashtataah bhed ki sngya nahin di hai. madhya ki ek nootan vyakhya ‘samanalajjamadanetyabhihita‘ evn ‘ativishrabdhanavodha‘ di gayi hai. pragalbha ke bhi do roop ratipritimati tatha anandasammohita bataye gaye hain. madhya, pragalbha ke dhira adi upabhed is prakar chhah, jyeshtha, kanishtha bhed se barah aur mugdha kul terah bhed jo sahity darpa men charchit hain, vahi is granth men bhi hain. phir bhanudatt ne inhen shatsnkhyakh pariganit kiya-gupta, vidagdha, vritt suratagopana, vartishyaman suratagopana. vidagdha evn kriyavidagdha do prakar ki hoti hain. anushayana-vartaman sthanavighatanadanushayana, bhavisthanabhav shnkaya anushayana tatha svanadhishthan snketasthaln prati bharturgamananumanadanushayana. anushayanabhav ke tin bhed hue. parakiya ke in svaroopon ke niroopan ka karan nishchit hi tatkalin samaj men abhijatyavargiy nagarajanon men vikasit kamashastranusari vilas-las priyata rahi hogi. yadi paryavekshan kiya jay to rasamnjari karta dvara varnit gupta, vidagdha, lakshita, kulata, anushayana evn mudita ka antarbhav parakiya ke hi antargat ho jata hai.
bhanudatt ne poorvacharyon ke hi saman samanya ka ek roop mana. snkalan karane par solah prakar ki, phir unake tin roop- any sambhog dukhita, vakroktigarvita (k) premagarvita (kh) saundaryagarvita. is prakar 13 (sviya) aur 1 (samanya) ke uttam, madhyam evn adham tin-tin bhed. parinamatah rasamnjari men varnit nayikaon ki snkhya 128×3=364huee. itana hi nahin punah divy, adivy tatha divyadivy pratyek ke tin-tin bhed svikarane par 364×3=1052 snkhya hoti hai.

hajarat saiyyad akabar shah husaini-shrringaramnjari

akabarashah upanam ‘bade sahab‘ dvara yah granth telugu bhasha men rachit hai. isaka snpadan daa. raghavanh ne tatha prakashan 1952 men haidarabad rajy ke puratatv vibhag ne kiya. granth ke bhoomikabhag men granthakar ne spasht kiya hai-rasamnjari, amodaparimal (tika), shrringaratilak, rasikapriya, rasarnav, prataparoodriy, sundar shrringar, navarakavy, dasharoopak, vilasaratnakar, kavyapariksha, kavy prakash adi prachin granthon ka alodan-vilodan karake yuktiyukt lakshanon ke prachin udaharanon ke adhar par nayika bhedon ki kalpana kar, jinake udaharan n the unake udaharanon ki rachana kar, jinake nam n the unake namakaran karake, prachin lakshan granthon se ‘uparyukt udaharan sambandhit nayika vivechan men likhakar yah rachana ki gayi. navaras men shrringararas ki pramukhata hone ke karan shrringar rasalamban vibhav ke anuroop nayika niroopan kiya gaya hai. bhanudatt virachit rasamnjari hi shrringaramnjari ka adhar hai. yatr-tatr granthakar ne navin upabhedon ki parikalpana avashy kar dali hai. yatha-parakiya ke do any bhed anya aur parodha. phir parodha do prakar ki-udbuddha (svayamanuragini), udbodhita (nayakaprerita). tab unhonne dhira, adhira, dhiradhira men tin bhed udbodhita ke hi svikara hai. isi prakar udbuddha ke tin roop bataye hain-gupta, nipuna evn lakshita. nipuna ke tin bhed-vadnipuna, kriyanipuna, pativachchanipuna. pratham do to ‘vagvidagdha‘ evn ‘kriyavidagdha’ ke hi doosare namakaran hain, tisara bhed navin kalpana hai. lakshita do prakar ki-prachachhan, prakash lakshita. ‘prakash-lakshita’ ke kulata, mudita, anushayana, sahasika bhed kiye gaye hain. chaturth sahasika naya bhed hai. is granth men samanya nayika ke panch sarvatha navin bhed kiye gaye hain-svatantrata, jananyadhina, niyamita, klriptanurag, kalpitanuraga. isi prakar ‘anyasambhogaduahkhita‘ aur ‘manavati’ ka kathan ‘khandita’ ke prasng men aya hai. avastha ke anusar vivechit asht nayikaon men ek nayi ‘vakroktigarvita’ jodi gayi hai. svadhipatika ke bhed kathan men yuktiyukt avadharana ki hai. sviya-mugdha-madhya praglabha-parakiya-samanya-dootivachchika evn bhavishnkita, ye shrringaramnjari men varnit ath prakar. proshitapatika ke sthan par avasit-pravasapatika. virahotknthita ke do bhed-karyavilamb surata aur anutpann sambhoga. phir ‘anutpann sambhoga’ ke char bhed bataye hain-

  1. darshananutapita
  2. chitranutapita.
  3. chitranutapita
  4. svapnanutapita.

vipralabdha ke do bhed-nayakavachchitat tatha sakhivachchita. khndita chhah prakar ki dhira, adhira, dhiradhira, anyasambhog-duahkhita evn eeshryagarvita. ye bhedobhaped granthakar ne poorn vistar ke sath vivechit kiye hain. aisa vistrit niroopan any kisi granth men upalabdh nahin hai. itane se hi ‘bade sahab’ ne viram nahin liya. apitu unhonne ‘proshitapatika‘ tatha ‘kalahantarita’ ke bhi bhed bataye hain. yatha-eeshryakalah tatha pranayakalah vali do prakar ki kalahantarita. proshitapatika-pravasayapatika-pravasyapatika evn sakhnutapita men proshitapatika ke bhed kiye gaye hain. parakiyabhisarika-jyotsnabhisarika, tamobhisarika, divabhisarika, garvabhisarika, kamabhisarika panch prakar ki pariganit ki gayi hain. anekashah navin bhedobhedon ki udbhavana ke karan -shrringaramnjari nayika bhed-niroopan vishayak granthon men atyant mahatvapoorn hai.

nayika bhed niroopak any granth

shrringaramritalahari, rasaratnahar, rasachandrika, sabhyalnkaranamh adi ke atirikt rasik jivanamh. in granthon men nayi udbhavanaen nahin hain. gaudiy-vaishnavapampara men bhi nayika vivechan kiya gaya hain. kavi karnapoor-virachit alnkarakaustubh men nayika ke bhedopabhed kul 1108snkhya tak pahuncha diye gaye hain.

navaramajjari

rachayita narahari achary. yah pandrahavin shati-antim bhag aur satarahavin shati-prathamabhag ke madhy upasthit rahe. granth chhah ullason men nibaddh hai-doosare, tisare tatha chauthe ullason men kramashah nayak bhed, nayika bhed evn nayika upabhedon ka kathan kiya gaya hai.

shrringaramritalahari

rachayita mathura nivasi samaraj dikshit. bundelakhand nripati anandaray ke sabhapandit rahe. isase atirikt ratikallolini, aksharagumph adi any granthon ki bhi rachana dikshit ji ne ki thi. ;shrringaramritalahari samagrat shrringar ras aur usake bhed-sahit nayak bhed, nayak sahay, nayakopacharavrittiyan, nayika, nayikavastha, nayikashreni, dooti, nayika-alnkar, viyog men nayika ki das avasthaen tatha uchhdipan vibhavon ki vivechika hai. rachana satarahavin shatabdi ki hai.

rasik jivan

rachayita gadadharabhatt. pita gauripati tatha pitamah damodar (shnkar) bhatt. rachanakal solahavin shati ka antim bhag. ras-vivechak yah granth kavy-sngrah roop nibaddh hai. isamen das prabandh aur lagabhag pandrah sau chhand hain. isamen chauthe se naven prabandh men kramashah navaras, balavayav, nayak-nayika, shrringararas, pravasadi, rituvarnan tatha anyaras varnit hain.

shrringarasarini

rachayita mithilavasi mahamahopadhyay achary chitradhar hain. rachana-samay- atharahavin shati-uttarardh bhag. inaki doosari rachana ‘viratngini’ hai. shrringarasarini men

  1. sabhyalnkaranamh-gnganath jha kendriy snskrit vidyapith, ilahabad se prakashit.
  2. sampoornanand snskrit vishvavidyalay- ladyu granthamala. 27 (snvath 2038) rachayita-pandit ramanand tripathi, snpadak-shri kamalapati tripathi. shrringararas-vivechan granth hain. yahan shrringar ke vividh pakshon ke sng rati,kamadasha, man, nayika tatha nayika-alnkar nivechit hain.
rasaratnahar

rachayita shivaram tripathi. rachana-samay atharahavin shatabdi. yah laghu kalevariy granth hai. pratipadit ka adhar dasharoopak tatha rasamajjari pratit hote hain. kul ek sau do chhand. 18chhandon men ras, shrringar, nayika-prabhed, sakhi, dooti, nayak-prabhed, sahayak, vipralambh, stri, alnkar, vyabhichari-bhav aur any ath ras vishleshit hain.

rasakaumdi

rachanakar ghasiram pandit. rachana-samay atharahavin shati ka uttar bhag. inaki doosari rachana ‘ramachandr’ hai. rasakaumudi men char adhyay hain. yahan kramashah nayika prabhed, nayasngh, anubhavadi evn navon ras vivechit hain. shrringaranayikatilakamh (rachanakar rngachary rnganathachary), kavyakaumudi (rachayita hariram siddhant nagish), rasaratnavali (rachanakar vireshvar pandit bhattachary ‘shrivar’ samay-sataravin shati-prarambh) men bhi nayak-nayika ke bhed-prabhed vicharit hain.

rasakaustubh

rachanakar venidattasharman. sambhavatah yah atharahavin shatabdi-uttarabhag ki rachana. do any granth-alnkaramajjari tatha viroodavali. pratham rasakaustubh men shrringararas se sambaddh samagri-samagr vivechit hai. ras vishleshan se atirikt yahan man-virati ke upay, kamadashaen, vibhav, nayika bhed, sakhi, dootibhed, nayikabhedadi ka vivechan kiya gaya hai.

sahityakar

rachayita- achyutarayasharmanh modak. samay unnisavin shatabdi. granth ki vastusamagri barah adhyayon men vivechit hai. samudr manthan men nirast ratnon ke nam par adhyayon ko namit kiya gaya hai. dasaven rambharatn men nayika-bhed tatha gyarahaven chandraratn men nayak-niroopan aur bhed-vivechana prastut ki gayi hai.

kavidev-shrringar vilasini

kavi dev hindi sahity men shrringarakalin shreshth kavi hain. granth nirman ka kal is prakar diya hai- ‘isase prakat hai ki ukt grranth dev ne dakshin konkan desh men jise vah videsh kahate hain aur jo krishnaveni namak nadi ke sngam par sthit hai, snvath 1950 (1700ee0) ke shravan ki bahula navami ko sooryoday ke samay poorn kiya tha. 2××× ne kavi-bhram door karane ki drishti se apane prachalit nam dev ka prayog isamen kar diya hai-‘

                                                anukoolo dakshastatha dhrishtah shath nar ev.
                                                bhavati chaturdhanayakah snvarnay kavi dev..

itana hi nahin dev ek hindi granth hai ‘ras vilas‘. isamen kavi ne ras, usake bhav-vibhav aur nayika-bhed vivechan kiya hai. kee chhand adhikanshatah ek se hain-

                                                sadaivaik nari ratah soanukool ityev.
                                                dakshah sarvavadhooshvatho, samapritikar ev..

[4]

rasakhan ki drishti men nayika-bhed

rasakhan ke anusar nayika se abhipray us stri se hai jo yauvan, roop, kul, prem, shil, gun, vaibhav aur bhooshan se sampann ho. rasakhan premonmatt bhakt kavi the. unhonne apani svachchhnd bhavana ke anukool krishn prem ka chitran apane kavy men kiya. isilie rasakhan ka nayika-bhed varnan n to shastriy vidhi ke anuroop hi hai aur n hi kisi kram ka usamen dhyan rakha gaya hai. krishn ke prati gopiyon ke prem-varnan men nayika-bhed ka chitran svabhavik roop se ho gaya hai. nayika bhed ki parnpara ke darshan snskrit sahity tatha snskrit-kavy-shastr men hote hain. nayikaen tin prakar ki bataee hain-

  1. svakiya
  2. parakiya evn
  3. samany.

isake atirikt bhi nayika ke jati, dharm, dasha evn avasthanusar anek bhed kie ge hain.[5] premomng ke kavi se nayika bhed ke sagar men gote lagakar samast bhedopabhed niroopan ki asha karana nirarthak hi hoga, kyonki inhonne gopiyon ke svaroop ko adhik mahattv n dekar unaki bhavanaon ko hi adhik mahattv diya hai. phir bhi gopiyon ke niroopan men kahin-kahin nayika bhed ke darshan ho jate hain.

parakiya nayika

jo nayika par purush se priti kare, use parakiya kahate hain. rasakhan ke kavy men niroopit gopiyan par stri hain. par purush krishn prem ke karan ve parakiya nayika kahalaengi. rasakhan ne anek padon men[6] unaka sundar niroopan kiya hai. unhonne parakiya nayika ke chitran men nayikaon ki lok laj tatha apane kutunbiyon ke bhay se unaki vedanamayi sthiti aur premonmad ka bada hi marmasparshi chitran kiya hai-

kalhi bhath murali-dhuni men rasakhani liyo kahun nam hamarau.
ta chhin tain bhee bairini sas kitau kiyau jhankat deti n dvarau.
hot chavav balai son ali ri jau bhari ankhin bhentiyai pyaro.
bat pari abahin thithakyau hiyare atakyau piyare patavari॥[7]

parakiya nayika ke bhed

parakiya nayika ke do bhed mane ge hai[8]-

  1. anootha aur
  2. oodha.

rasakhan ne oodha nayika ka varnan kiya hai. parakiya ke avasthanusar chh: bhed hote hain-

  1. mudita,
  2. vidagdha,
  3. anushayana,
  4. gupta,
  5. lakshita,
  6. kulata.

inamen se rasakhan ne oodha mudita aur vidagdha ka hi chitran kiya hai.

oodha

oodha vah nayika hai jo apane pati ke atirikt any kisi purush se prem kare rasakhan ne is pad men oodha ka varnan kiya hai-

'auchak drishti pare kahoon kanh joo tason kahai nanadi anuragi.
sau suni sas rahi mukh mori, jithani phirai jiy main ris pagi.
nike nihari kai dekhai n ankhin, hon kabahoon bhari nain n jagi.
ma pachhitavo yahai ju sakhi ki kalnk lagyau par ank n 'lagi.[9]

mudita

yah parakiya ke avasthanusar bhedon men se ek hai. par-purush-milan-vishayak manobhilasha ki akasmat poorti hote dekhakar jo nayika mudit hoti hai use mudita kahate hain. rasakhan ne bhi nayika ki modavastha ka sundar chitran kiya hai-

'jat huti jamana jal kaun manamohan gheri layau mag ai kai.
mod bharayau lapatai layau, pat ghoonghat tari dayau chit chai kai.
aur kaha rasakhani kahaun mukh choomat ghatan bat banai kai.
kaisen nibhai kulakani rahi hiye sanvari moorati ki chhabi chhai.[10]

vidagdha

chaturatapoorvak par purushanurag ka snket karane vali nayika ko vidagdha kahate hain. vidagdha ke do bhed hote hain-

  1. vachanavidagdha
  2. kriyavidagdha.
vachanavidagdha nayika

jo nayika vachanan ki chaturata se par purushanurag vishayak kary ko snpann karana chahe use 'vachanavidagdha' kahate hain. rasakhan ki gopiyan anek sthanon par vachan chatury se kam leti hain-

chhir jau chahat chir gahen ajoo leu n ketik chhir achaihau.
chakhan ke mis makhan mangat khau n makhan ketik khaihau.
janati haun jiy ki rasakhani su kahe kaun etik bat badhaihau.
goras ke mis jo ras chahat so ras kanhajoo neku n paihau.[11]

yahan gopiyon ne vachanavidagdhata dvara apani ichchha ka spashtikaran kar diya hai.

kriyavidagdha

jo nayika kriya ki chaturata se par-purushanurag vishayak kary ko sampann karana chahe, use kriyavidagdha kahate hain. rasakhan ne nimnalikhit pad men kriya vidagdha nayika ka sundar chitran kiya hai-

khelai alijan ke gan main ut pritam pyare saun neh navino.
bainani bodh karai it kaun, ut sainani mohan ko man lino.
nainani ki chalibi kachhu jani sakhi rasakhani chitaive kon kino.
ja lakhi pai jnbhaee gee chutaki chatakai bida kari dino.[12]

dashanusar nayikaen

nayika ke dashanusar tin bhed hote hain-

  1. garvita
  2. any snbhog dukhita
  3. manavati men se rasakhan ke kavy men any snbhog du:khita tatha manavati nayika ka chitran milata hai.
any snbhog dukhita

any stri ke tan par apane priyatam ke priti-chihn dekh kar du:khit hone vali nayika ko 'any snbhog du:khit' kahate hain rasakhan ne bhi any snbhog du:khita nari ka chitran kiya hai.

kah kahoon sajani sng ki rajani nit bitai mukund kon heri.
avan roz kahain manabhavan avan ki n kabaun kari pheri.
sautin-bhag badhyau braj main jin lootat hain nisi rng ghaneri.
mo rasakhani likhi bidhana man mari kai apu bani haun anheri॥[13]

manavati

apane priyatam ko any stri ki or akarshit janakar eershyapoorvak man karane vali nayika manavati kahalati hai. rasakhan ne manini nayika ka chitran tin padon men kiya hai. dooti nayika ko samajha rahi hai ki mere kahane se too man ko tyag de. tujhe basnt men man karana kisane sikha diya.[14] agale pady men vah krishn ki sundarata evn gunon ka bakhan karake ant men kahati hai ki tujhe kuchh nahin lagata. n jane kisane teri mati chhini hai.[15] pun: nayika ko samajhati huee kahati hai ki man ki avadhi to adhi ghadi hai, too man tyag de-

man ki audhi hai adhi ghari ari jau rasakhani darai hit ke dar,
kai hit chhodiyai pariyai paini aise katachhanahin hiyara-har.
mohanalal kon hal bilokiyai neku kachhoo kini chhoobekar saun kar,
nan karibe par vare hain pran kaha karihain ab han karibe par.[16]

rasakhan ne manini nayika ke man ka svabhavik chitran kiya hai. nayika ko samajhaya ja raha hai ki too kisi prakar man tyag de.

avasthanusar nayikaen

avasthanusar nayika ke das bhed mane ge hain jinamen se do ki charcha rasakhan ne ki hai-

  1. agatapatika
  2. proshitapatika.
agatapatika

apane priyatam ke agaman par prasann hone vali nayika 'agatapatika' kahalati hai. rasakhan ne agatapatika nayika ka chitran bahut hi sundar tatha bhavapoorn dhng se kiya hai-

nah-biyog badhyau rasakhani malin maha duti deh tiya ki.
pnkaj son mukh gau murajhaee lagin lapatain bari svans hiya ki.
aise men avat kanh sune hulasain tarakin ju tani angiya ki.
yau jagajoti uthi ang ki usakai dee manau bati diya ki.[17]

nayika virah-pidit hai kintu krishn ke agaman se usaki pida samapt ho jati hai aur usaki prasannata ka thikana nahin rahata. jaise dipak ki batti badhane se prakash badh jata hai vaise hi priy ke agaman se nayika ka sharir praphullit ho uthata hai.

proshitapatika

priyatam ke viyog se du:khit virahini nayika ko proshitapatika kahate hain. rasakhan ke kavy men proshitapatika nayika ke anek udaharan milate hain-

unahin ke sanehan sani rahain unahin ke ju neh divani rahain.
unahin ki sunain n au bain tyaun sain son chain anekan thani rahain.
unahin sng dolan main rasakhani sabai sukh sindhu aghani rahain.
unahin bin jyaun jalahin hvai min si ankhi meri ansuvani rahain.[18]

nimn pad men parakiya madhya proshitapatika ka chitran kiya gaya hai-

auchak drishti pare kahoon kanh joo tason kahai nanadi anuragi.
so suni sas rahi mukh mori, jithani phirai jiy main ris pagi.
niken nihari kai dekhe n ankhin, hon kabahoon bhari nain n jagi.
mo pachhitavo yahai ju sakhi ki kalnk lagyau par ank n lagi॥[19]

rasakhan ke kavy men proshitapatika nayika ka niroopan kee sthanon par milata hai.

vay
kram se nayika

vay:kram se nayika ke tin bhed mane ge hain-

  1. mugdha,
  2. madhya,
  3. praudha.

rasakhan ne mugdha nayika ka varnan kiya hai.

mugdha

jisake sharir par nav yauvan ka snchar ho raha ho, aisi lajjashila kishori ko 'mugdha nayika' kahate hain. rasakhan ne mugdha nayika ki vay:sndhi avastha ka sundar chitr khincha hai-

banki maror gahi bhrikutin lagin ankhiyan tirachhani tiya ki.
tank si lank bhee rasakhani sudamini te duti dooni hiya ki.
sohain tarng anng ki angani op uroj uthi chhatiya ki.
joban-joti su yaun damakai usakaee dee mano bati diya ki.[20]

jis prakar krishn kavy men parakiya nayikaon ko vishesh gaurav diya gaya hai, usi prakar rasakhan ne bhi parakiya varnan ko mahattv diya. isake tin pradhan ki saphalata ke lie bhavon ka marmik chitran avashyak hai.

  1. rati bhav ki jitani adhik marmikata aur tallinata parakiya prem men snbhav hai utani svakiya prem men nahin.
  2. doosara karan yah hai ki parakiya prem ka kshetr bahut vistrit hai. usamen prem ke vibhinn roopon aur paristhitiyon ke varnan ka avakash rahata hai. is prakar kavi ko apani pratibha ke pradarshan ka asim avasar milata hai.
  3. tisara karan hai lilavatari krishn ka madhur roop. krishn parabrahm parameshvar hai aur gopiyan jivatmaen hain. annt jivatmaon ke pratik roop men annt gopiyon ka chitran anivary tha. atev krishn bhakt shrringari kaviyon ne sabhi gopiyon ke prati krishn (bhagavan) ke sneh ki aur krishn ke prati sabhi gopiyon ke utkat anurag ki vynjana ke lie parakiya-prem ka vidhan kiya. yahan tak ki unake kavy men svakiya ka kahin bhi chitran nahin hua. parakiya nayika niroopan ke antargat rasakhan ne oodha mudita, kriyavidagdha, vachanavidagdha anyasnbhogadu:khita, manavati, agatapatika, proshitapatika evn mugdha adi nayikaon ka chitran kiya hai. rasakhan ka uddeshy nayika-bhed niroopan karana nahin tha atev unhonne gopiyon ke snbndh se krishn ka varnan karate hue prasnganusar nayikaon ke bahy roop evn unaki antarvrittiyon ka chitran kiya hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. (viralabhavananishthobrahmanishthaparoabhoot-virabhanooday/1-47)
  2. (rasatadi़ni/5/5)
  3. (stheyn tatr sitasitasy savidhadhyeyn purann mahah-rasatnraginiah 7221)
  4. jha, jagadannd. kavyashastriy grnthon men nayika-bhed (hindi) snskritabhashi (blaaug). abhigaman tithi: 3 apral, 2015.
  5. jati ke anusar nayika ke char bhed kie ge hain-
    1. padamini,
    2. chitrini,
    3. shnkhini,
    4. hastini.
    • dharm ke anusar tin prakar ki nayikaen mani gee hain-
    1. garvita,
    2. anyasnbhogadu:khita,
    3. manavati.
    • avastha ke anusar nayika ke das bhed kie ge hain-
    1. svadhinapatika,
    2. vasakasajja,
    3. utknthita,
    4. abhisarika,
    5. vipralabdha,
    6. khndita,
    7. kalahantarita,
    8. pravatsyatpreyasi,
    9. proshitapatika,
    10. agatapatika. - brajabhasha sahity men nayika bhed, pri0 219
  6. sujan rasakhan, 203, 139, 178, 74, 81, 126
  7. sujan rasakhan, 99
  8. sahity-darpan pri0 166
  9. sujan rasakhan, 138
  10. sujan rasakhan, 36
  11. sujan rasakhan, 42
  12. sujan rasakhan, 116
  13. sujan rasakhan, 106
  14. sujan rasakhan, 113
  15. sujan rasakhan, 114
  16. sujan rasakhan, 115
  17. sujan rasakhan, 117
  18. sujan rasakhan, 74
  19. sujan rasakhan, 138
  20. sujan rasakhan, 51

snbndhit lekh

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