रस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ras ka shabdik arth hai 'anand'. kavy ko padhane ya sunane se jis anand ki anubhooti hoti hai, use 'ras' kaha jata hai.

  • pathak ya shrota ke hriday men sthit sthayibhav hi vibhavadi se snyukt hokar ras ke roop men parinat ho jata hai.
  • ras ko 'kavy ki atma' ya 'pran tatv' mana jata hai.

bharatamuni dvara ras ki paribhasha

ras utpatti ko sabase pahale paribhashit karane ka shrey bharat muni ko jata hai. unhonne apane 'natyashastr' men ath prakar ke rason ka varnan kiya hai. ras ki vyakhya karate hue bharatamuni kahate hain ki sab naty upakaranon dvara prastut ek bhavamoolak kalatmak anubhooti hai. ras ka kendr rngamnch hai. bhav ras nahin, usaka adhar hai kintu bharat ne sthayi bhav ko hi ras mana hai.

bharatamuni ne likha hai- vibhavanubhavavyabhichari- snyogadrasanishpatti arthat vibhav, anubhav tatha snchari bhavon ke snyog se ras ki nishpatti hoti hai. at: bharatamuni ke 'ras tattv' ka adharabhoot vishay naty men ras ki nishpatti hai.

  • kavy shastr ke marmgy vidvanon ne kavy ki atma ko hi ras mana hai. any vidvanon ke anusar ras ki paribhasha is prakar hai-
  1. achary dhannjay ke anusar, 'vibhav, anubhav, sattvik, sahity bhav aur vyabhichari bhavon ke snyog se asvadyaman sthayi bhav hi ras hai.
  2. sahity darpanakar achary vishvanath ne ras ki paribhasha is prakar di hai- vibhavenanubhaven vyakt: sachcharina tatha. rasatameti ratyadi: sthayibhav: sachetasamh॥
  3. daau. vishvambhar nath kahate hain, "bhavon ke chhndatmak samanvay ka nam hi ras hai."
  4. achary shyam sundar das ke anusar, "sthayi bhav jab vibhav, anubhav evn snchari bhavon ke yog se asvadan karane yogy ho jata hai, tab sahriday prekshak ke hriday men ras roop men usaka asvadan hota hai."
  5. achary ramachndr shukl ke anusar, jis prakar atma ki muktavastha gyanadasha kahalati hai. usi prakar hriday ki muktavastha ras dasha kahalati hai.

ras ke avayav

ras ke char avayav ya ang hain:-

sthayi bhav

sthayi bhav ka matalab hai pradhan bhav. pradhan bhav vahi ho sakata hai jo ras ki avastha tak pahunchata hai. kavy ya natak men ek sthayi bhav shuroo se akhiri tak hota hai. sthayi bhavon ki snkhya 9 mani gee hai. sthayi bhav hi ras ka adhar hai. ek ras ke mool men ek sthayi bhav rahata hai. atev rason ki snkhya bhi 9 hain, jinhen navaras kaha jata hai. moolat: navaras hi mane jate hain. bad ke acharyon ne 2 aur bhavon vatsaly aur bhagavad vishayak rati ko sthayi bhav ki manyata di hai. is prakar sthayi bhavon ki snkhya 11 tak pahunch jati hai aur tadanuroop rason ki snkhya bhi 11 tak pahunch jati hai.

vibhav

sthayi bhavon ke udbodhak karan ko vibhav kahate hain. vibhav do prakar ke hote hain-

  • alnban vibhav
  • uddipan vibhav
alnban vibhav

jisaka alnban ya sahara pakar sthayi bhav jagate hain alnban vibhav kahalata hai. jaise- nayak-nayika. alnban vibhav ke do paksh hote hain:-

  1. ashrayalnban
  2. vishayalnban

jisake man men bhav jage vah ashrayalnban tatha jisake prati ya jisake karan man men bhav jage vah vishayalnban kahalata hai. udaharan : yadi ram ke man men sita ke prati rati ka bhav jagata hai to ram ashray honge aur sita vishay.

uddipan vibhav

jin vastuon ya paristhitiyon ko dekhakar sthayi bhav uddipt hone lagata hai uddipan vibhav kahalata hai. jaise- chandani, kokil koojan, ekant sthal, ramanik udyan, nayak ya nayika ki sharirik cheshtaen adi.

anubhav

manogat bhav ko vyakt karane vale sharir-vikar anubhav kahalate hain. anubhavon ki snkhya 8 mani gee hai-

  • stnbh
  • sved
  • romanch
  • svar-bhng
  • kamp
  • vivarnata (rngahinata)
  • ashru
  • pralay (sngyahinata ya nishcheshtata).

snchari ya vyabhichari bhav

man men sncharan karane vale (ane-jane vale) bhavon ko snchari ya vyabhichari bhav kahate hain. snchari bhavon ki kul snkhya 33 mani gee hai-

snchari ya vyabhichari bhav
harsh vishad tras[1] lajja glani
chinta shnka asooya[2] amarsh[3] moh
garv utsukata ugrata chapalata dinata
jadata aveg nirved[4] dhriti[5] mati
bibodh[6] shram alasy nidra svapn
smriti mad unmad avahittha[7] apasmar (moorchchha)
vyadhi (rog) maran

ras ke prakar

ras sthayi bhav udaharan chitr
shrringar ras rati/prem shrringar ras (snbhog shrringar)

bataras lalach lal ki, murali dhari lukay.
saunh kare, bhaunhani hnsai, dain kahai, nati jay. (bihari)

viyog shrringar (vipralnbh shrringar)

nisidin barasat nayan hamare,
sada rahati pavas ritu ham pai jab te syam sidhare॥ (sooradas)

Krishna-Radha-1.jpg
hasy ras has

 tnboora le mnch par baithe premapratap, saj mile pndrah minat ghnta bhar alap.
ghnta bhar alap, rag men mara gota, dhire-dhire khisak chuke the sare shrota. (kaka hatharasi)

karun ras shok

sok bikal sab rovahin rani. roopu silu balu teju bakhani॥
karahin vilap anek prakara. parihin bhoomi tal barahin bara॥(tulasidas)

vir ras utsah

vir tum badhe chalo, dhir tum badhe chalo.
samane pahad ho ki sinh ki dahad ho.
tum kabhi ruko nahin, tum kabhi jhuko nahin॥ (dvarika prasad maheshvari)

Jarasandh1.jpg
raudr ras krodh

shrikrishn ke sun vachan arjun kshobh se jalane lage.
sab shil apana bhool kar karatal yugal malane lage॥
snsar dekhe ab hamare shatru ran men mrit pade.
karate hue yah ghoshana ve ho ge uth kar khade॥ (maithilisharan gupt)

bhayanak ras bhay

udhar garajati sindhu lahariyan kutil kal ke jalon si.
chali a rahin phen ugalati phan phailaye vyalon - si॥ (jayashnkar prasad)

vibhats ras jugupsa/ghrina

sir par baithyo kag ankh dou khat nikarat.
khinchat jibhahin syar atihi annd ur dharat॥
gidh janghi ko khodi-khodi kai mans uparat.
svan angurin kati-kati kai khat vidarat॥(bharatendu)

adbhut ras vismay/ashchary

akhil bhuvan char- achar sab, hari mukh men lakhi matu.
chakit bhee gadgadh vachan, vikasit drig pulakatu॥(senapati)

shant ras sham\nirved (vairagy\vitarag)

man re tan kagad ka putala.
lagai boond binasi jay chhin men, garab karai kya itana॥ (kabir)

vatsaly ras vatsaly

kilakat kanh ghutaruvan avat.
manimay kanak nnd ke angan bimb pakarive ghavat॥(sooradas)

Krishna-parents.jpg
bhakti ras bhagavadh vishayak rati\anurag

ram japu, ram japu, ram japu bavare.
ghor bhav nir- nidhi, nam nij nav re॥

Surdas.jpg
vishesh
  • shrringar ras ko rasaraj ya rasapati kaha gaya hai.
  • natak men 8 hi ras mane jate hain kyonki vahan shant ko ras nahin gina jata. bharat muni ne rason ki snkhya 8 mani hai.
  • shrringar ras ke vyapak dayare men vatsal ras v bhakti ras a jate hain, isalie rason ki snkhya 9 hi manana zyada upayukt hai.

inhen bhi dekhen: alnkar, chhand, savaiya evn chaupaee


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. bhay ya vyagrata
  2. doosare ke utkarsh ke prati asahishnuta
  3. virodhi ka apakar karane ki akshamata se utpann dukh
  4. apane ko kosana ya dhikkarana
  5. ichchhaon ki poorti, chitt ki chnchalata ka abhav
  6. chaitany labh
  7. harsh adi bhavon ko chhipana

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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