भक्ति रस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharatamuni[1] se lekar panditaraj jagannath[2] tak snskrit ke kisi pramukh kavyachary ne ‘bhakti ras’ ko rasashastr ke antargat manyata pradan nahin ki. jin vishvanath ne vakyn rasatmakn kavyamh ke siddhant ka pratipadan kiya aur ‘muni-vachan’ ka ullaghnn karate hue vatsaly ko nav rason ke samakaksh sangopang sthapit kiya, unhonne bhi 'bhakti' ko ras nahin mana. bhakti ras ki siddhi ka vastavik srot kavyashastr n hokar bhaktishastr hai, jisamen mukhyataya ‘gita’, ‘bhagavat’, ‘shandily bhaktisootr’, ‘narad bhaktisootr’, ‘bhakti rasayan’ tatha ‘haribhaktirasamritasindhu’ prabhooti granthon ki ganana ki ja sakati hai.

bhakti ras ya bhav

bhakti ko ras manana chahie ya bhav, yah prashn is bisavin shatabdi tak ke kavy-marmgyon ke age ek jatil samasya ke roop men samane ata raha hai. kuchh visheshgy bhakti ko balapoorvak ras ghoshit karate hain. kuchh paramparanumodit rason ki tulana men use shreshth batate hain, kuchh shant ras aur bhakti ras men abhed sthapit karane ki cheshta karate hain tatha kuchh use any rason se bhinn, sarvatha alaukik, ek aisa ras manate hain, jisake antargat shesh sabhi pradhan rason ka samavesh ho jata hai. unaki drishti men bhakti hi vastavik ras hai. shesh ras unake ang ya rasabhasamatr hain. is prakar bhakti ras ka ek svatntr itihas hai, jo ras tattv vivechan ki drishti se mahatta rakhata hai.

  • natyashastr’ ke sarvapradhan vyakhyata abhinav gupt[3] ne bharatamuni ke ras-siddhant ki vyakhya karate hue shant ko navan ras siddh kar diya, par nav rason ke atirikt any kisi ras ki svatntr sthiti ko svikar nahin kiya. sabaka nau men se hi kisi n kisi ras men antarbhav man liya aur - ‘evn bhaktavapi vachyamiti’ likhakar vahi bat bhakti par bhi lagoo kar di. yahi nahin, unhonne bhakti ko ras manane ka spasht nishadh bhi kiya hai. yatha -

‘ateveshvarapranidhanavishaye bhaktishraddhesmritimatidhrityutsahadyanupravishtebhyoanyathaivagamiti n tayo: prithakh rasatven gananamh’[4], arthath atev eeshvaropasana vishayak bhakti aur shraddha, smriti, mati, dhriti, utsah adi men hi samavisht hone ke karan angaroop hi hai, at: unaka prithakh rasaroop se pariganan nahin hota.

  • mammat[5]ne bhakti ka n to shant ras men antarbhav mana aur n hi svatntr rasaroop men hi use sthapit kar sake. abhinavagupt ki ukt dharana se bhi ve santusht nahin hue, atev madhyam marg ka anusaran karate hue unhonne bhakti ki mool bhavana ‘devadivishayak rati’ ko vyabhichari bhavon se pusht bhav vishesh ke roop men spasht manyata de di -

'ratirdevadivishaya vyabhichari tathaanjit:. bhav:, prokt:[6].'

  • kya ras itane (nau) hi hain? is prashn ko samane rakhakar jagannath [7] ne apane poorvapaksh ka niroopan karate hue bhakti ko ras manane vale mat ke adhar se poori abhigyta pradarshit ki -
    'bhagavan jisake alambn hain, romanch, ashrupatadi jisake anubhav hain, bhagavatadi puran shravan ke samay bhagavadbhakt jisaka prakat anubhav karate hain aur bhagavan ke prati anuragasvaroopa bhakti hi jisaka sthayi bhav hai, us jivan ras ka shant ras men antarbhav nahin kiya ja sakata hai, kyonki anurag aur virag paraspar virodhi hain. kintu bhakti devadirati - vishay se sambandh rakhati hai. atev vah bhav ke antargat hai aur usamen rasatv nahin mana ja sakata[8].

pahale to lekhak ne ras ke vibhav, anubhav, snchari tatha sthayi sabhi rasangon ka ullekh karake usaka poora svaroop khada kiya, phir ras ke navatv ki roodhi ke agrah se usane shant ras men bhakti ras ke antarbhav par vichar kiya hai. tadanantar ‘muni vachan’ ka ullaghnn n ho jae, yah sochakar bhakti ko ras n manakar bhav manane ke paksh ka hi samarthan kar diya. tark yah diya ki devadivishayak rati ke adhar par bhakti ko ras mana jayega to putradi vishayak rati ke adhar par svatntr vatsaly ras ko bhi manana padega. yahi nahin, isase age jugutsa aur shok ko sthayi bhav n manakar shuddh bhav hi manavane ka agrah kiya ja sakata hai. jisake parinamasvaroop sara rasashastr vishrrinkhal ho jane ki ashnka hoti hai[9]. atev muni vachan se niyantrit rason ki navatv ganana hi many honi chahie. yahan panditaraj ne nishchay hi snkirn paramparavadi drishtikon ka parichay diya hai. anurag aur virag ke virodh ki jo mahattvapoorn samasya unhonne uthayi, usaka bhi samuchit vishleshan vivechan nahin kiya gaya. bhakti men anurag eeshvar ke prati aur virag snsar ke prati rahata hai, at: alamban bhed hone se donon ka vaise virodh siddh nahin hota, jaise ‘rasagngadhar’ ke rachayita ne parikalpit kar liya.

  • bhamah[10], dandi[11] adi ke dvara many ‘preyas’ alnkar men jin ratyadik bhavon ka samavesh hota tha, unamen putravishayak rati ki tarah devadivishayak rati ki bhi ganana ki ja sakati hai, isaka sapraman nirdesh karate hue bhakti ras ke vikas ka kuchh sambandh ukt alnkar se bhi bataya gaya hai.[12] bhaktishastr men gita - upanishad ke antargat brahm ke rasamay tatha anandamay hone ka anek sthanon par ullekh milata hai. gita men bhakti aur bhakt ko vishesh mahatta pradan ki gee hai, kintu ‘bhagavatapuran’ ko hi bhakti ko vyapak evn shreshth rasaroop men pratishthapit karane ka maulik shrey hai. ‘bhagavat’ ke prarambh men hi bhagavadvishayak alaukik ras tatha usake rasikon ka ullekh milata hai -

'nigamakalpatarorgalitn phaln shukamukhadamritadravasnsutamh.
pibat bhagavatn rasamalayamh muhuraho rasika bhuvi bhavuka:.[13]

  • bhakti ras ki mahatta tatha usaka svaroop ‘bhagavat’ men sthan-sthan par vyakt kiya hai.[14]
  • shandily bhaktisootr men bhakti ko ‘paranuraktirishvare’ roop men paribhashit karate hue use dvesh ki virodhini tatha ‘ras’ se pratipady hone ke karan bhi ragasvaroopa mana gaya hai-

‘dveshapratipakshabhavadrasashabdachch rag:.[15].

  • isi tarah ‘narad bhaktisootr’ men bhakti ko ‘paramapremaroopa’ kaha gaya hai. in sootr granthon men gyan aur bhakti ke parasparik sambandh tatha rag aur virag ki bhavana ke bhaktigat avirodh par bhi sookshm prakash dala gaya hai. bhakti ki upalabdhi amritatv, tripti aur siddhikarak hoti hai tatha usase shok, dvesh, rati aur utsah adi ka shaman hota hai. [16] ise batakar shant aur bhakti ras ke bich jo dvaidh khada karane ki cheshta ki jati hai, usaka tattvik nishadh kiya gaya hai.
  • madhusoodan sarasvati ke ‘bhaktirasayan’ namak granth men bhakti ke alaukik mahattv aur rasatv ka vishad niroopan karate hue use ek or dasavan ras bataya gaya hai, to doosari or sab rason se shreshth bhi mana gaya hai. usake rasangon ka nirdesh bhi ‘bhaktirasayan’ men milata hai.
  • ‘bhagavadbhaktichandrika’ namak granth ke rachayita ne bhi parabhakti ko ras kaha hai- parabhakti: prokta ras iti.[17]
  • gaudiy sampraday ke pratishthit achary roopagosvami[18] krit ‘haribhaktirasamritasindhu’ men kavy shastriy drishti se bhakti ras ka vistar ek sunishchit vyavastha ke sath kiya gaya hai. ‘bhagavat’ ke bad bhakti ras ki manyata ka sarvadhik shrey roopagosvami ko hi hai. unhonne bhakti ke panch roop mane hain -
  1. shanti,
  2. priti,
  3. prey,
  4. vatsal
  5. madhur.

ye shant, dasy, sakhy, vatsaly, madhury panch bhav-bhakti ke mool hain. utkrishtata ke adhar par bhakti ras parakoti aur aparakoti ka mana gaya hai. in bhavon ka mool ‘bhagavat’ ki navadha bhakti tatha ‘narad bhakti sootr’ ki ekadash asaktiyon men mil jata hai. granth ke dakshin vibhag men bhakti ke rasangon ka vivechan vistar sahit kiya gaya hai. chaitany mahaprabhu gaudiy bhakti sampraday ke pravartak the. unaki upasana ka adhar rasaplavit tivr pramanubhooti rahi hai. atev unhin ke sampraday men bhakti ras ka vishad vistar hua, yah svabhavik hi tha.

  • hindi men ritikalin kavyacharyon ne bhaktimoolak kavy ki to rachana ki, parantu kavy ras ke roop men bhakti ki pratishtha ka kadachith koee bhi prayas unhonne nahin kiya. dev ne avashy bhakti ras par vichar karate hue usako prem, shuddh tatha premashuddh namak tin bhed kie hain aur premashrayi bhakti ke antargat shant ki ganana ki hai.
  • adhunik lekhakon men ‘hariaudh’ ko is sthiti se sabase adhik kshobh hua, jo unake ‘vatsaly ras’ shirshak men bhaktivishayak prasngantar banakar tivrata se vyakt hua. bhakti ras ka mahattv any rason ki tulana men batate hue unhonne likha- raso vai s:. ras shabd ka arth hai - y: rasayati anandayati s ras:. vaishnavon ko madhury upasana param priy hai. atev bhagavadanuragaroopa bhakti ko ras manate hain......mera vichar ki vatsal men utana chamatkar nahin, jitana bhakti men.... . harishchandr ne ‘bhakti ya dasy’ likhakar use dasy tak parimit kar diya hai, kintu bhakti bahut vyapak aur udatt hai, sath hi usamen itana chamatkar hai ki shrringar ras bhi samata nahin kar sakata.[19]
  • isi prakar kanhaiyalal poddar ne bhi is samasya par vichar karate hue ki ‘bhakti bhav hai ya ras’ apana mat balapoorvak bhakti ke rasatv ke paksh men diya hai-
dukh aur ashchary hai ki jin sakshyabhas shrringaradi rason men chidanand ke anshansh ke sphuran matr se rasanubhooti hoti hai, unako ras sngya di jati hai aur jo sakshath chidanandatmak bhakti ras hai, use ras n manakar bhav mana gaya hai. yahi kyon, krodh, bhay, jugutsa adi sthayi bhavon ko (jo pratyakshat: sukhavirodhi hain) raudr, karun, bhayanak aur bibhats ras ki sngya di gee hai.[20]

poddar ne bhakti ras ke rasangon ki vyakhya nimnalikhit roop men nirdharit ki hai aur sabako alaukik mana hai. sthayi bhav - bhagavadvishayak anurag. alamban vibhag - bhagavan ram, krishn adi ke akhil vishv saundary nidhi divy vigrah. anubhav-bhagavan ke anany premajany ashru, romanch adi. vyabhichari bhav-harshash, sukh, aveg, chapalata, unmad, chinta, dainy, dhriti, smriti aur mati. shant ras ki tarah hi unhonne bhakti ras ko vastavik brahmanand sahodar bataya hai. rati sthayi alamban bhed se hi ras ya bhav hota hai, atev alaukik alamban hone se to yah alaukik bhakti ras hoga hi.

  • adhunik marathi ras shastriyon ne bhakti ras ki samasya par gambhiratapoorvak vichar kiya hai. vatave ne bibhats tatha raudr ras ko kam karake nav rason men unake sthan par vatsaly aur bhakti ras ko sthapit karane ka prastav kiya hai.[21]
  • di. ke. bedekar ne isase bharat ke ras-chatushtay ki vyakhya bhng hoti huee dekhakar vatave ke mat ka tivr virodh kiya hai. unaki dharana hai ki ras-vyavastha ka mool adhar ‘devasur-katha’ hai aur raudr aur bibhats ko nikal dene se vah bina ravan ke ramayan jaisi ekapakshi ho jati hai.[22]
  • ma. da. alatekar bhakti ka shrringar men antarbhav karate hain, isi tarah kri. kolhatakar adbhut men. anandaprakash dikshit ne inake mat ka satark virodh kiya hai. d. sa. pngu nirjiv alamban hone se, ra. shri jog bhakti ki avyapakata tatha usake mool men bhavana n hone se tatha ra. hinganekar shakti ke vikriyahin hone se usaki rasatv ka adhikari nahin manate. shivaram pant ne bhakti ke vividh roopon ki kalpana karake ‘deshabhakti’ ko svatntr ras bataya hai, jisaka sthayi bhav unhonne ‘deshabhiman’ nirdharat kiya hai.

nishkarsh

vastut: bhakti ras ka alamban laukik n hokar alaukik hi manana samichin hoga. bhaktishastr men nirakar-nirgun brahm ki avataravad ke adhar par is prakar sagun-sakar kalpana ki gee ki vah bhakti-bhavana ka vastavik alamban ban saka. nishchay hi bhakti kavy men bhavana ka jo vistar bharatiy sahity men milata hai, usako dekhate hue bhakti ko ras n svikar karana vastusthiti ki upeksha karana hai. yah avashy hai ki mahattv ke sath bhakti ras ki apani anek simaen bhi hain, jinaki upeksha nahin ki ja sakati. bharat ki sabhi pramukh prantiy bhashaon men bhakti ka sahity upalabdh hota hai. hindi sahity men soor, tulasi, mira adi ki rachanaen bhi bhakti ras ka shreshth udaharan prastut karati hain. nirgunadhara ke kavy men jahan tak vaishnav bhavana ka pravesh hua hai, vahin tak bhakti ras ki vyapti hai, anyatha nahin.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 3 shati ee.
  2. 17-18 shati ee.
  3. 10-11 shati ee.
  4. abhinavabharati
  5. (12 shati ee. poorva)
  6. kavy prakash, 4|35
  7. 17-18 shati ee.
  8. ras gngadhar, prishth 45-46
  9. ityakhiladarshan: vyakuli syath
  10. 7vin shati ee. poorva.
  11. 7vin shati ee.
  12. snskrit sahity ka itihas, kanhaiyalal poddar, prishth 90-91
  13. bhagavat, 1|3
  14. bhagavat, shlok-4|9|10; 6|12|22; 11|3|32 adi
  15. bhaktisootr, 6
  16. narad bhaktisootr, 4-5
  17. amritarasollas
  18. 15-16 shati ee.
  19. koshotsav smarak sngrah, prishth 425-26
  20. sa. s., prishth 72-73
  21. ras-vimarsh
  22. alochana, ank 4 : prishth 86

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