उपसर्ग

भारत डिस्कवरी प्रस्तुति
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upasarg = up (samip) + sarg (srishti karana) ka arth hai- kisi shabd ke samip a kar naya shabd banana. jo shabdaansh shabdoan ke adi mean ju d kar unake arth mean kuchh visheshata late haian, ve upasarg kahalate haian. 'har' shabd ka arth hai parajay. parantu isi shabd ke age 'pr' shabdaansh ko jo dane se naya shabd banega - 'prahar' (pr + har) jisaka arth hai chot karana. isi tarah 'a' jo dane se ahar (bhojan), 'samh' jo dane se sanhar (vinash) tatha 'vi' jo dane se 'vihar' (ghoomana) ityadi shabd ban jaeange. uparyukt udaharan mean 'pr', 'a', 'samh' aur 'vi' ka alag se koee arth nahian hai, 'har' shabd ke adi mean ju dane se usake arth mean inhoanne parivartan kar diya hai. isaka matalab hua ki ye sabhi shabdaansh haian aur aise shabdaanshoan ko upasarg kahate haian. hindi mean prachalit upasargoan ko nimnalikhit bhagoan mean vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai.

  1. sanskrit ke upasarg,
  2. hindi ke upasarg,
  3. urdoo aur farasi ke upasarg,
  4. aangrezi ke upasarg,
  5. upasarg ke saman prayukt hone vale sanskrit ke avyay.

sanskrit ke upasarg

kram upasarg arth shabd
1 ati adhik atyadhik, atyant, atirikt, atishay
2 adhi oopar, shreshth adhikar, adhipati, adhinayak
3 anu pichhe, saman anuchar, anukaran, anusar, anushasan
4 ap bura, hin apayash, apaman, apakar
5 abhi samane, charoan or, pas abhiyan, abhishek, abhinay, abhimukh
6 av hin, nich avagun, avanati, avatar, avanati
7 a tak, samet ajivan, agaman
8 uth ooancha, shreshth, oopar udgam, utkarsh, uttam, utpatti
9 up nikat, sadrish, gaun upadesh, upavan, upamantri, upahar
10 durh bura, kathin durjan, durgam, durdasha, durachar
11 dush bura, kathin dushcharitr, dussahas, dushkar
12 nirh bina, bahar, nishedh niraparadh, nirjan, nirakar, nirgun
13 nish rahit, poora, viparit nissar, nistar, nishchal, nishchit
14 ni nishedh, adhikata, niche nivaran, nipat, niyog, nishedh
15 para ulta, pichhe parajay, parabhav, paramarsh, parakram
16 pari asapas, charoan taraph parijan, parikram, paripoorn, parinam
17 pr adhik, age prakhyat, prabal, prasthan, prakriti
18 prati ulata, samane, har ek pratikool, pratyaksh, pratikshan, pratyek
19 vi bhinn, vishesh videsh, vilap, viyog, vipaksh
20 samh uttam, sath, poorn sanskar, sangam, santusht, sanbhav
21 su achchha, adhik sujan, sugam, sushikshit, supatr

hindi ke upasarg

kram upasarg arth shabd
1 a abhav, nishedh achhoota, athah, atal
2 an abhav, nishedh anamol, anaban, anapadh
3 ku bura kuchal, kuchaila, kuchakr
4 du kam, bura dubala, dulara, dudharoo
5 ni kami nigo da, nidar, nihattha, nikamma
6 au hin, nishedh augun, aughar, ausar, ausan
7 bhar poora bharapet, bharapoor, bharasak, bharamar
8 su achchha sudaul, sujan, sugh d, suphal
9 adh adha adhapaka, adhakachcha, adhamara, adhakachara
10 un ek kam unatis, unasath, unahattar, uantalis
11 par doosara, bad ka paralok, paropakar, parasarg, parahit
12 bin bina, nishedh binabyaha, binabadal, binapae, binajane

arabi-farasi ke upasarg

kram upasarg arth shabd
1 kam tho da, hin kamazor, kamabakht, kamakl
2 khush achchha khushanasib, khushakhabari, khushahal, khushaboo
3 gair nishedh gairahazir, gairaqanooni, gairamulk, gair-zimmedar
4 na abhav napasand, nasamajh, naraz, nalayak
5 b aur, anusar banam, badaulat, badastoor, bagair
6 ba sahit bakayada, baijzat, baadab, bamauka
7 bad bura badamash, badanam, badaqismat,badaboo
8 be bina beeeman, beijzat, bechara, bevakoof
9 la rahit laparavah, lachar, lavaris, lajavab
10 sar mukhy sarataj, saradar, sarapanch, sarakar
11 ham saman, sathavala hamadardi, hamarah, hamumr, hamadam
12 har pratyek haradin, harasal, harek, harabar

 

aangrezi ke upasarg

kram upasarg arth shabd
1 sab adhin, niche sab-jaj sab-kameti, sab-ianspektar
2 dipti sahayak dipti-kalektar, dipti-rajistrar, dipti-ministar
3 vais sahayak vaisaray, vais-chaansalar, vais-presideant
4 janaral pradhan janaral mainejar, janaral sekretari
5 chif pramukh chif-ministar, chif-ianjiniyar, chif-sekretari
6 hed mukhy hedamastar, hed klark

 

upasarg ke saman prayukt hone vale sanskrit ke avyay

kram upasarg arth shabd
1 adhah niche adhahpatan, adhogati, adhomukhi, adholikhit
2 aantah bhitari aantahkaran, aantahpur, aantarman, aantardeshiy
3 a abhav ashok ,akal, aniti
4 chir bahut der chiranjivi, chirakumar, chirakal, chirayu
5 punarh phir punarjanm, punarlekhan, punarjivan
6 bahirh bahar bahirgaman, bahishkar
7 sath sachcha sajjan, satkarm, sadachar, satkary
8 pura puratan puratattv, puravritt
9 sam saman samakalin, samadarshi, samakon, samakalik
10 sah sath sahakar, sahapathi, sahayogi, sahachar

 


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