उपसर्ग  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

upasarg = up (samip) + sarg (srishti karana) ka arth hai- kisi shabd ke samip a kar naya shabd banana. jo shabdansh shabdon ke adi men jud kar unake arth men kuchh visheshata late hain, ve upasarg kahalate hain. 'har' shabd ka arth hai parajay. parntu isi shabd ke age 'pr' shabdansh ko jodane se naya shabd banega - 'prahar' (pr + har) jisaka arth hai chot karana. isi tarah 'a' jodane se ahar (bhojan), 'samh' jodane se snhar (vinash) tatha 'vi' jodane se 'vihar' (ghoomana) ityadi shabd ban jaenge. uparyukt udaharan men 'pr', 'a', 'samh' aur 'vi' ka alag se koee arth nahin hai, 'har' shabd ke adi men judane se usake arth men inhonne parivartan kar diya hai. isaka matalab hua ki ye sabhi shabdansh hain aur aise shabdanshon ko upasarg kahate hain. hindi men prachalit upasargon ko nimnalikhit bhagon men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai.

  1. snskrit ke upasarg,
  2. hindi ke upasarg,
  3. urdoo aur farasi ke upasarg,
  4. angrezi ke upasarg,
  5. upasarg ke saman prayukt hone vale snskrit ke avyay.

snskrit ke upasarg

kram upasarg arth shabd
1 ati adhik atyadhik, atynt, atirikt, atishay
2 adhi oopar, shreshth adhikar, adhipati, adhinayak
3 anu pichhe, saman anuchar, anukaran, anusar, anushasan
4 ap bura, hin apayash, apaman, apakar
5 abhi samane, charon or, pas abhiyan, abhishek, abhinay, abhimukh
6 av hin, nich avagun, avanati, avatar, avanati
7 a tak, samet ajivan, agaman
8 uth ooncha, shreshth, oopar udgam, utkarsh, uttam, utpatti
9 up nikat, sadrish, gaun upadesh, upavan, upamntri, upahar
10 durh bura, kathin durjan, durgam, durdasha, durachar
11 dush bura, kathin dushcharitr, dussahas, dushkar
12 nirh bina, bahar, nishedh niraparadh, nirjan, nirakar, nirgun
13 nish rahit, poora, viparit nissar, nistar, nishchal, nishchit
14 ni nishedh, adhikata, niche nivaran, nipat, niyog, nishedh
15 para ulta, pichhe parajay, parabhav, paramarsh, parakram
16 pari asapas, charon taraph parijan, parikram, paripoorn, parinam
17 pr adhik, age prakhyat, prabal, prasthan, prakriti
18 prati ulata, samane, har ek pratikool, pratyaksh, pratikshan, pratyek
19 vi bhinn, vishesh videsh, vilap, viyog, vipaksh
20 samh uttam, sath, poorn snskar, sngam, sntusht, snbhav
21 su achchha, adhik sujan, sugam, sushikshit, supatr

hindi ke upasarg

kram upasarg arth shabd
1 a abhav, nishedh achhoota, athah, atal
2 an abhav, nishedh anamol, anaban, anapadh
3 ku bura kuchal, kuchaila, kuchakr
4 du kam, bura dubala, dulara, dudharoo
5 ni kami nigoda, nidar, nihattha, nikamma
6 au hin, nishedh augun, aughar, ausar, ausan
7 bhar poora bharapet, bharapoor, bharasak, bharamar
8 su achchha sudaul, sujan, sughad, suphal
9 adh adha adhapaka, adhakachcha, adhamara, adhakachara
10 un ek kam unatis, unasath, unahattar, untalis
11 par doosara, bad ka paralok, paropakar, parasarg, parahit
12 bin bina, nishedh binabyaha, binabadal, binapae, binajane

arabi-farasi ke upasarg

kram upasarg arth shabd
1 kam thoda, hin kamazor, kamabakht, kamakl
2 khush achchha khushanasib, khushakhabari, khushahal, khushaboo
3 gair nishedh gairahazir, gairaqanooni, gairamulk, gair-zimmedar
4 na abhav napasnd, nasamajh, naraz, nalayak
5 b aur, anusar banam, badaulat, badastoor, bagair
6 ba sahit bakayada, baijzat, baadab, bamauka
7 bad bura badamash, badanam, badaqismat,badaboo
8 be bina beeeman, beijzat, bechara, bevakoof
9 la rahit laparavah, lachar, lavaris, lajavab
10 sar mukhy sarataj, saradar, sarapnch, sarakar
11 ham saman, sathavala hamadardi, hamarah, hamumr, hamadam
12 har pratyek haradin, harasal, harek, harabar
 

angrezi ke upasarg

kram upasarg arth shabd
1 sab adhin, niche sab-jaj sab-kameti, sab-inspektar
2 dipti sahayak dipti-kalektar, dipti-rajistrar, dipti-ministar
3 vais sahayak vaisaray, vais-chansalar, vais-president
4 janaral pradhan janaral mainejar, janaral sekretari
5 chif pramukh chif-ministar, chif-injiniyar, chif-sekretari
6 hed mukhy hedamastar, hed klark
 

upasarg ke saman prayukt hone vale snskrit ke avyay

kram upasarg arth shabd
1 adhah niche adhahpatan, adhogati, adhomukhi, adholikhit
2 antah bhitari antahkaran, antahpur, antarman, antardeshiy
3 a abhav ashok ,akal, aniti
4 chir bahut der chirnjivi, chirakumar, chirakal, chirayu
5 punarh phir punarjanm, punarlekhan, punarjivan
6 bahirh bahar bahirgaman, bahishkar
7 sath sachcha sajjan, satkarm, sadachar, satkary
8 pura puratan puratattv, puravritt
9 sam saman samakalin, samadarshi, samakon, samakalik
10 sah sath sahakar, sahapathi, sahayogi, sahachar

 


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
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madhyamik
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shodh

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