वर्तनी (हिन्दी)  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

likhane ki riti ko vartani ya akshari kahate hain. ise 'hijje' bhi kaha jata hai.

uchcharan

vartani ka sidha snbndh uchcharan se hota hai. hindi men jo bola jata hai vahi likha jata hai. yadi uchcharan ashuddh hoga to vartani bhi ashuddh hogi. prayah apani matribhasha ya boli ke karan tatha vyakaran snbndhi gyan ki kami ke karan uchcharan men ashuddhiyan a jati hain jisake karan vartani men bhi ashuddhiyan a jati hain.
snskrit bhasha ke mool shlokon ko adadhrit karate samay snyuktakshar purani shaili se bhi likhe ja sakenge. jaise:snyukt, chihn, vidya, chachchal, vidvan, vriddh, dvitiy, buddhi adi. kintu yadi inhen bhi uparyukt niyamon ke anusar hi likha jae to koee apatti nahin hogi.

karak chihn

  1. hindi ke karak chihn sabhi prakar ke sngya shabdon men pratipadik se prithakh likhe jaen. jaise: ram ko, ram se, stri se, seva men adi. sarvanam shabdon men ye chihn pratipadik ke sath milakar likhe jaen. jaise- toone, apane, tumase, usane, usase adi.
  2. sarvanamon ke sath yadi do karak chihn hon to unamen se pahala milakar aur doosara prithakh likha jae. jaise- usake lie, isamen se.
  3. snyukt kriya padon men sabhi angibhoot kriyaen prithak-prithakh likhi jaen. jaise- padha karata hai, a sakata hai, jaya karata hai, khaya karata hai, ja sakata hai, kar sakata hai, khela karega, ghoomata rahega, adi.

haifan (yojak chihn)

  • haifan ka vidhan spashtata ke lie kiya gaya hai.
  • dvndv samas men padon ke bich haifan rakha jae. ram-lakshman, shiv-parvati snvad, dekh-rekh chal-chalan hnsi-majak, len-den, khelana-koodana adi.
  • sa, jaisa adi se poorv haifan rakha jae. jaise: tum-sa, ram- jaisa, chakoo-se tikhe.
  • tatpurush samas men haifan ka prayog keval vahin kiya jae jahan usake bina bhram hone ki snbhavana ho, anyatha nahin. jaise-bhoo-tatv. samanyat: tatpurush samas men haifan lagane ki avashyakata nahin hai. jaise ramarajy, rajakumar, gngajal, gramavasi, atmahatya adi.

isi tarah yadi 'a-nakh' (bina nakh ka) samast pad men haifan n lagaya jae to use 'anakh' padhe jane se 'krodh' ka arth nikal sakata hai. a-nati (namrata ka abhav) anati (thoda), a-paras (jise kisi ne n chhua ho):aparas (ekacharmarog), bhoo-tattv (prithvi-tatv) bhootattv (bhoot hone ka bhav) adi samast padon ki bhi yahi sthiti hai. ye sabhi yugm vartani aur arth donon drishtiyon se bhinn-bhinn shabd hain.

  • kathin sndhiyon se bachane ke lie bhi haifan ka prayog kiya ja sakata hai. jaise-davi-akshar (davyakshar), davi-arthak (davyarthak) adi.

avyay

  • 'tak', 'sath', adi avyay sada prithakh likhe jaen. jaise: yahan tak, apake sath.
  • ah, oh, aha, ai, hi, to, so, bhi, n, jab, tab, kab, yahan vahan, kahan, sada, kya, shri, ji, tak, bhar, matr, sath, ki, kintu, magar, lekin, chahe ya athava, tatha, yatha, aur adi, anek prakar ke bhavon ka bodh karane vale avyay hain.

kuchh avyayon ke age karak chihn bhi ate hain. jaise-ab se, tab se, yahan se, vahan se, sada se, adi. niyam ke anusar avyay sada prithakh likhe jane chahie. jaise ap hi ke lie, mujh tak ko, apake sath, gaz bharakapada, deshabhar, ratabhar, dinabhar, vah itana bhar kar de, mujhe jane to do, kam bhi nahin bana, pachas rupe matr adi.

  • sammanarthak 'shri' aur 'ji' avyay bhi prithakh likhe jaen. jaise:shriram, kanhaiyalal ji, mahatma ji adi. (yadi shri, ji adi vyaktivachak sngya ke hi bhag hon to milakar likhe jaen. jaise: shriram, ramaji lal, somayaji adi)
  • samast padon men prati, matr, yatha adi avyay jodakar likhe jaen (yani prithakh nahin likhe jaen) jaise pratidin, pratishat, manavamatr, nimittamatr, yathasamay, yathochit adi. yah sarvavidit niyam hai ki samas hone par samast pad ek mana jata hai. at: use vibhakt roop men n likhakar ek sath likhana hi sngat hai. 'das rupe matr' 'matr do vyakti' men padabndh ki rachana hai. yahan matr alag se likha jae (yani milakar nahin likhen)

anusvar (n), chndrabindu (n)

anusvar vynjan hai aur anunasikata svar ka nasiky vikar. hindi men ye donon arthabhedak bhi hain. at: hindi men anusar (.) aur anunasikata chihn () donon hi prachalit rahenge. anusvar

  • snskrit shabdon ka anusvar any vargiy varnon se pahale yathavath rahega. jaise snyog, snrakshan, snlagn, snvad, ansh, kns, adi.
  • snyukt vynjan ke roop men jahan pncham varn ke bad savargiy shesh char varnon men se koee varn ho to ekarupata aur mudran/lekhan ki suvidha ke lie anusvar ka hi prayog karana chahie. jaise pnkaj, gnga, chnchal, knjoos, knth, thnda,snt, sndhya, mndir, snpadak adi (kanth, thanda, snt, mandir, sandhya, sampadak, sambandh, vale roop nahin) koshthak men rakhe hue roop snskrit ke udadharanon men hi many honge. hindi men bindi (anusvar) ka prayog karana hi uchit hoga.
  • yadi pnchamakshar ke bad kisi any varg ka koee varn ae to pnchamakshar anusvar ke roop men parivartit nahin hoga. jaise vadamay,any, chinmay, unmukh, adi (vanmay, any, chinmay, unmukh adi roop grahay nahin honge)
  • pncham varn yadi davittv roop men (dubara) ay to pncham varn anusvar men parivartit nahin hoga. jaise- ann, sammelan, sammati adi (ant, snmelan, snmati roop grahay nahin honge).
  • angrezi, urdoo se grihit shabdon men adhe varn ya anusvar ke bhram ko door karane ke lie nasiky vynjan ko poora likhana achchha rahega. jaise limaka, tanakhah, tinaka, tamaga, kamasin adi.
  • snskrit ke kuchh tatsam shabdon ke ant men anusvar ka prayog mh ka soochak hai. jaise- ahn (ahamh), evn (evamh), shivn (shivamh),

anunasikata (chndrabindu)

  • hindi ke shabdon men uchit dhng se chndrabindu ka prayog anivary hoga.
  • anunasikata vynjan nahin hai, svaron ka dhvanigun hai. anunasik svaron ke uchcharan men nak se bhi hava nikalati hai. jaise-an, oon, en, man, hoon, aen.
  • chndrabindu ke bina pray: arth men bhram ki gunjaish rahati hai. jaise -hns:hns, angana: angana, svang(sv+ang): svang adi men.

atev aise bhram ko door karane ke lie chndrabindu ka prayog avashy kiya jana chahie. kintu jahan (visheshakar shirorekha ke oopar judane vali matra ke sath) chndrabindu ke prayog se chhapaee adi men bahut kathinaee ho aur chndrabindu ke sthan par bindu ka (anusvar chihn ka) prayog kisi prakar ka bhram utpann n kare, vahan chndrabindu ke sthan par bindu ke prayog ki chhoot rahegi. jaise:nahin, men main, adi. kavita adi ke prasng men chhnd ki drishti se chndrabindu ka yatha sthan avashy prayog kiya jae. isi prakar chhote bachchon ki praveshikaon men jahan chndrabindu ka uchcharan abhisht ho, vahan mote aksharon men usaka yathasthan sarvatr prayog kiya jae. jaise: kahan, hnsana, angan, snvarana, mn, main nahin adi.

visarg (:)

  • snskrit ke jin shabdon men visarg ka prayog hota hai, ve yadi tatsam roop men prayukt hon to visarg ka prayog avashy kiya jae jaise: 'du:khanubhooti' men. yadi us shabd ke tadbhav roop men visarg ka lop ho chuka ho to us roop men visarg ke bina bhi kam chal jaega. jaise 'dukh-sukh ke sathi'.
  • tatsam shabdon ke ant men prayukt visarg ka prayog anivary hai. yatha:-at:, pun:, svat:, pray:, poornat:, moolat:, antat:, vastut:, kramash:, adi.
  • 'h' ka aghosh uchcharit roop visarg hai, at: usake sthan par (s) ghosh 'h' ka lekhan kisi halat men n kiya jae (at: pun: adi ke sthan par atah, punah adi likhana ashuddh vartani

ka udaharan mana jaega. )

  • du:sahas/dussahas, ni:shabd/nishshabd ke ubhay roop many honge. inamen davitv vale roop ko prathamikata di jae.
  • ni: svarth many hai(nissavarth uchit nahin hoga)
  • nistej, nirvachan, nishchal adi shabdon visarg vala roop (ni:tej, ni:vachan, ni:chal) n likha jae.
  • ant:karan, ant:pur, prat: kal adi shabd visarg ke sath hi likhe jaen.
  • tadabhav/deshi shabdon men visarg ka prayog n kiya jae. is adhar par chh: likhana galat hoga. chhah likhana hi thik hoga.
  • prayadavip, samaptapray adi shabdon men tatsam roop men bhi visarg nahin hai.
  • visarg ko varn ke sath milakar likha jae, jabaki kolan chihn (upaviram) shabd se kuchh doori par ho. jaise: at: yon hai:-

halh chihn

  • isako halh chihn kaha jae, n ki halnt. vynjan ke niche laga halh chihn us vynjan ke svar rahit hone ki soochana deta hai, yani vah vynjan vishuddh roop se vynjan hai. is tarah se 'jagat' halnt shabd kaha jaega, kyonki yah shabd vynjanant hai, svarant nahin.
  • snyuktakshar banane ke niyam ke anusar dh, chhh, th, thh, dh, dhh, hh men halh chihn ka hi prayog hoga. jaise;-chihn, buddha, vidvan adi men.
  • tatsam shabdon ka prayog vanchhaniy ho, tab halnt rupon ka hi prayog kiya jae; vishesh roop se tab jab unase samast pad ya vyutpann shabd banate hon. yatha:- prakh-(pragaitihas) , tejash -(tejasvi), vidyuth -(vidyullata) adi. tatsam snbodhan men he rajanh, he bhagavanh roop hi svikrit honge. hindi shailimen he raja, he bhagavan likhe jaen. jin shabdon men halh chihn lupt ho chuka ho unamen use phir se lagane ka prayatn n kiya jae. jaise:- mahanh vidvan adi (kyonki hindi men ab 'mahan' se 'mahanata' aur 'vidvanon' jaise roop prachalit ho chuke hain.
  • vyakaran grnthon men vynjan sndhi samajhate hue keval utane hi shabd die jaen, jo shabd rachana ko samajhane ke lie avashyak hon (uth+nayan=unnayan, uth+las=ullas) ya arth ki drishti se upayogi hon (jagadish, jaganmata, jagajjanani).
  • hindi men hridayngam (hridayamh+gam), snchit(samh+chith) adi shabdon ka sndhi-vichchhed samajhane ki avashyakata pratit nahin hoti. isi tarah 'sakshatkar', 'jagadish', 'shatkon', jaise shabdon ke arth ko samajhane ki avashyakata ho, tabhi unaki sndhi ka havala diya jae. hindi men inhen svatntr shabdon ke roop men grahan karana hi achchha hoga.

svar parivartan

  • snskritamoolak tatsam shabdon ki vartani ko jyon-ka-tyon grahan kiya jae. at: 'brahma' ko 'bramha' ko 'chihn' 'urin' ko 'urin' men badalana uchit nahin hoga. isi prakar grahit, drishtavy, pradarshini, atyadhik, anadhikar adi ashuddh prayog grahy nahin hain. inake sthan par kramash: grihit, drashtavy, pradarshani, atyadhik, anadhikar hi likhana chahie.
  • jin tatsam shabdon men tin vynjanon ke snyog ki sthiti men ek dvitvamoolak vynjan lupt ho gaya hai use n likhane ki chhoot hai.:- arddh-ardh, tattv-tattv adi.

'e','au',ka prayog

  • hindi men ai, au ka prayog do prakar ke uchcharan ko vyakt karane ke lie hota hai. pahale prakar ka uchcharan 'hai', aur 'aur', adi men mool svaron ki tarah hone laga hai; jabaki doosare prakar ka uchcharan 'gavaiya' , 'kaua' adi shabdon men sndhyaksharon ke roop men aj bhi surakshit hai. donon hi prakar ke uchcharanon ko vyakt karane ke lie inhin chihnon(ai, au) ka prayog kiya jae. 'gavayya', kavva', adi snshodhanon ki avashyakata nahin hai. any udaharan hain:- bhaiya, saiyad, taiyar, hauva, adi.
  • dakshin ke ayyar, nayyar, ramayya, adi vyakti namon ko hindi uchcharan ke anusar aiyar, naiyar, ramaiya adi n likha jae, kyonki mool bhasha men isaka uchcharan bhinn hai.
  • avval, qavval, qavvali jaise shabd prachalit hain. inhen lekhan men yathavat rakha jae.
  • snskrit ke tatsam shabd 'shayya' ko 'shaiya' n likha jae.

poorvakalik kridnt pratyay 'kar'

  • poorvakalin kridnt pratyay 'kar' kriya se milakar likha jae. jaise :- milakar, kha+pikar, ro+rokar adi.
  • kar+kar se 'karake' aur kara+ kar se 'karake' banega.

vala

  • kriya rupon men 'karane vala' 'ane vala' 'bolane vala' adi ko alag likha jae. jaise: - main ghar jane vala hoon jane vale log.
  • yojak pratyay ke roop men 'gharavala' 'topivala' , 'dilavala', doodhavala adi ek shabd ke saman hi likhe jaenge.
  • 'vala' jab pratyay ke roop men aega tab to niyam 2 ke anusar milakar likha jaega, anyatha alag se. yah vala, yah vali, pahale vala, achchha vala, lal vala, kal vali, bat adi men vala nirdeshak shabd hai. at: ise alag hi likha jae.

isi tarah lnbe balon vali ladaki dadhi vala adami adi shabdon men bhi vala alag likha jaega. isase ham rachana ke star par antar kar sakate hain. jaise- ganvavala, ganv vala makan,

shrutimoolak 'y', 'v'

  • jahan shrutimoolak y, v ka prayog vikalp se hota hai vahan n kiya jae, arthath kie: kiye, nee: nayi, hua: huva adi men se pahale (svaratmak) rupon ka prayog kiya jae. yah niyam kriya, visheshan, avyay adi sabhi rupon aur sthitiyon men lagoo mana jae. jaise:- dikhae ge, ram ke lie, pustak liye hue, nee dilli adi.
  • jahan 'y' shrutimoolak vyakaranik parivartan n hokar shabd ka hi mool tattv ho vahan vaikalpik shrutimoolak svaratmak parivartan karane ki avashyakata nahin hai.

jaise:- sthayi, avyayibhav, dayitv adi (arthath yahan sthaee, avyeebhav, daitv nahin likha jaega).

videshi dhvaniyan

urdoo shabd-
urdoo se ae arabi -farasi moolak ve shabd jo hindi ke ang ban chuke hain aur jinaki videshi dhvaniyon ka hindi dhvaniyon men rupantar ho chuka hai, hindi roop men hi svikar kie ja sakate hain. jaise:- kalam qila dag adi (qalam, qila dag) nahin). par jahan unaka shuddh videshi roop men prayog abhisht ho athava uchcharanagat bhed batana avashyak ho, vahan unake hindi men prachalit rupon men yathasthan nukte lagae jaen. jaise:-khana: khana, raj: raz phan: fan adi.

angrezi shabd
angrezi ke jin shabdon men ardhavivrit 'o' dhvani ka prayog hota hai, unake shuddh roop ka hindi men prayog abhisht hone par 'a' ki matra ke oopar ardhachndr ka prayog kiya jae (aau) jahan tak angrezi aur any videshi bhashaon se ne shabd grahan karane aur unake devanagari lipyntaran ka snbndh hai, agast-sitnbar, 1962 men vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog dvara vaigyanik shabdavali par ayojit bhashavidon ki sngoshthi men antararashtriy shabdavali ke devanagari lipyntaran ke snbndh men ki gee sifarish ullekhaniy hai. usamen kaha gaya hai ki angrezi shabdon ka lipyntaran itana klisht nahin hona chahie ki usake vartaman devanagari varnon men anek ne snket-chihn lagane paden. angrezi shabdon ka devanagari lipyntaran manak angrezi uchcharan ke adhik-se adhik nikat hona chahie.

dvidha roop vartani
hindi men kuchh prachalit shabd aise hain jinaki vartani ke do-do roop barabar chal rahe hain. vidvatsamaj men donon rupon ki ek si manyata hai. kuchh udaharan hain:- garadan/gardan, garami/garmi, baraf/barf, bilakul/bilkul, vapas/vapis, bimari/bimari, dukan/dookan, akhirakar/akhirakar, chihan/chinh adi.

any niyam

  • shirorekha ka prayog prachalit rahega.
  • phulastaaup (poorn viram) ko chhodakar shesh viramamadi chihn vahi grahan kar liye ge hain angrezi men prachalit hain. yatha:- (haifan/yojak chihn), (daish/nirdeshak chihn), (kolan end daish/vivaran chihn) (koma/alpaviram), (semikolan/ardhaviram),: (kolan/upaviram), ? (kvashchan mark/prashn chihn) ! (sain aauf interogeshan/vismayasoochak chihn), (apostrafi/oordhv alp viram), " " (dabal invarted komaz/uddharanachihn), () [] (tinon koshthak),

(...lop chihn), (snkshepasoochak chihn) (hnsapad).

  • visarg ke chihn ko hi kolan ka chihn man liya gaya hai. par donon men yah antar rakha gaya hai ki visarg varn se satakar aur kolan shabd se kuchh doori par rahe.
  • poorn viram ke lie khadi paee (.) ka hi prayog kiya jae. vaky ke ant men bindu (angrezi phulastaaup) ka nahin.

manak vartani ke prayog ka udaharan

hindi ek vikasashil bhasha hai. sngh ki rajabhasha ghoshit ho jane ke bad yah shanai:-shanai: akhil bharatiy roop grahan kar rahi hai. any kshetriy bhashaon ke snpark men akar, unase bahut kuchh grahan karake aur hinditar bhashiyon dvara prayukt hote-hote usaka yathasamay ek sarvasammat akhil bharatiy roop vikasit hoga-aisi asha hai. yadyapi yah sahi hai ki ek vistrit bhoo-khnd men aur bahubhashi samaj ke bich vyavahrat kisi bhi vikasashil bhasha ke uchcharanagat gathan men anekarupata milana svabhavik hai, use vyakaran ke kathor niyamon men jakada nahin ja sakata; usake prayogakartaon ko kisi aise shabd ko, jisake do ya adhik samanantar roop prachalit ho chuke hon, ek vishesh roop men prayukt karane ke lie badhy nahin kiya ja sakata; aise shabdarupon ke bare men kisi visheshgy samiti dvara nirnay de dene ke bad bhi unaki grahyata-agrahyata ke vishay men matabhed bana hi rahata hai; phir bhi prathamat: kam-se-kam lekhan, tnkan aur mudran ke kshetr men to hindi bhasha men ekaroopata aur manakikaran ki tatkal avashyakata hai. kya aisa karana aj ke yntradhin jivan ki anivaryata nahin hai? bhasha vishayak kathor niyam bana dene se unaki svikaryata to sndehaspad ho jati hai, sath hi bhasha ke svabhavik vikas men bhi avarodh ane ka thoda sa dar rahata hai. phalat: bhasha gatishil, jivnt aur samayanuroop nahin rah pati. hindi varnamala ke manakikaran men aur hindi vartani ke ekarupata vishayak niyam nirdharit karate samay in sab tathyon ko dhyan men rakha gaya hai aur isilie, jahan tak ban pada hai, kafi had tak udaratapoorn niti apanaee gee hai.

hindi ke snkhyavachak shabdon ki ekaroopata

hindi pradeshon men snkhyavachak shabdon ke uchcharan aur lekhan men pray: ekarupata ka abhav dikhaee deta hai. isalie ek se sau tak sabhi snkhyavachak shabdon par vichar karane ke bad inaka jo manak roop svikrit hua, vah is prakar hai:- ek, do, tin, char, panch , chhah, sat, ath, nau, das, gyarah, barah, terah, chaudah, pndrah, solah, satrah, atharah, unnis, bis, ikkis, baees, teees, chaubis, pachchis, chhabbis, sattaees, atthaees, unatis, tis, ikatis, battis, taintis, chauntis, paintis, chhattis, saintis, adatis, unatalis, chalis, ikatalis, bayalis, taintalis, chauvalis, paintalis, chhiyalis, saintalis, adatalis, unachas, pachas, ikyavan, bavan, tirapan, chauvan, pachapan, chhappan, sattavan, atthavan, unasath, sath, ikasath, basath, tirasath, chaunsath, painsath, chhiyasath, sadasath, adasath, unahattar, sattar, ikahattar, bahattar, tihattar, chauhattar, pachahattar, chhihattar, satahattar, athahattar, unyasi, assi, ikyasi, bayasi, tirasi, chaurasi, pachasi, chhiyasi, sattasi, atthasi, navasi, nabbe, ikyanabe, banabe, tiranabe, chauranabe, pnchanabe, chhiyanabe, sattanabe, atthanabe, ninyanabe, sau.

kramasoochak snkhyaen
pahala, doosara, tisara, chautha, panchavan, chhatha, satavan, athavan, nauvan, dasavan (pratham dvitiy, tritiy, chaturth, pncham, shashth, saptam, ashtam, navam, dasham).

bhinnasoochak snkhyaen
ek chauthaee, adha, paun, sava(sava ek nahin), dedh (sadhe ek nahin), paune do, sava do, dhaee, (sadhe do nahin), paune tin, sava tin, sadhe tin, adi.

manak vartani

bharat sarakar ke kendriy hindi nideshalay ne sanh 1983 men shiksha mntralay dvara poorv men kie hindi bhasha ki lipi v vartani ke manakikaran snbndhi prayason ka samanvit roop 'devanagari lipi tatha hindi vartani ka manakikaran' ke roop men prastut kiya. inhonne vartani ke sambandh men kuchh sujhav prastut kiye hai jinaka vivaran is prakar hai:-

khadi paee vale vynjan

khadi paee vale vynjanon ke snyukt roop parnparagat tarike se khadi paee ko hatakar hi banae jaen. yatha:-

khyati, lagn, vighn vyas
kachcha, chhajja shlok
nagany rashtriy
kutta, pathy, dhvani, nyas svikrit
pyas, dibba, sabhy, ramy yakshma
shayya trynbak
any vynjan
  • k aur ph / f ke snyuktakshar pakka, daftar adi ki tarah banae jaen, n ki snyukt, pakka datphar ki tarah.
  • n, chh, t, th, d, dh, d aur h ke snyuktakshar hal chihn lagakar hi banae jaen. yatha:-
ashuddh shuddh
vanamay vanmay
vidaya vidya
chihan chihn
  • snyukt 'r' ke prachalit tinon roop yathavath rahenge. yatha:- prkar, dhrm, rashtr
  • shr ka prachalit roop hi many hoga. ise sh ke sath r mishrit karake nahin likha jaega. t + r ke snyukt roop ke lie pahale tr ko manak mana gaya hai. isi tarah any snyukt vynjanon par bhi yahi niyam lagoo honge. jaise:- kr, pr, br, sr, hr adi
  • halh chihn yukt varn se banane vale snyuktakshar ke dvitiy vynjan ke sath 'i' ki matra ka prayog snbndhit vynjan ke tatkal poorv hi kiya jaega, n ki poore yugm se poorv. yatha:-
ashuddh shuddh
kutatim kuttim
chitathiyan chitthiyan

ashuddhiyan

prayah log jin shabdon ke uchcharan evn vartani men ashuddhiyan karate hain, un shabdon ke ashuddh aur shuddh roop age talika men diye ja rahe hain-

svar snbndhi ashuddhiyan
'a' 'a' snbndhi ashuddhiyan
ashuddh shuddh
akash akash
agami agami
ajamaish ajamaish
antyakshari antyakshari
aryavart aryavart
alapin alapin
ajakal ajakal
dhakana dhakana
chaharadivari chaharadivari
hastakshep hastakshep
hathini hathini
'i' 'ee' snbndhi ashuddhiyan
ashuddh shuddh
ashirvad ashirvad
ishvar eeshvar
dipika dipika
lijiye lijiye
hani hani
balmiki balmiki
shirshak shirshak
koti koti
ginana ginana
'u' 'oo' snbndhi ashuddhiyan
ashuddh shuddh
anudit anoodit
ashirvad ashirvad
ashirvad ashirvad
ashirvad ashirvad
ashirvad ashirvad
ashirvad ashirvad
'ri' snbndhi ashuddhiyan
ashuddh shuddh
anugrahit anugrihit
rigaved rigved
tritiy tritiy
ritu ritu
paitrik paitrik
'e' 'ai' snbndhi ashuddhiyan
ashuddh shuddh
jesa jaisa
pesa paisa
phainkana phenkana
saina sena
bhashaain bhashaen
senik sainik
'o' 'au' snbndhi ashuddhiyan
ashuddh shuddh
alokik alaukik
odyogik audyogik
lauhar lohar
tyohar tyohar
orat aurat
prodh praudh
anusvar(n), chndrabindu(n) snbndhi ashuddhiyan
ashuddh shuddh
ankh ankh
dant dant
banh banh
munh munh
goonga goonga
tangana tangana
visarg (ah) snbndhi ashuddhiyan
ashuddh shuddh
pratakal pratahkal
pray prayah
nisvarth niahsvarth
dukh duahkh
nishulk niahshulk
vynjan snbndhi ashuddhiyan
'chh' 'ksh' snbndhi ashuddhiyan
ashuddh shuddh
akanchha akanksha
nachhatr nakshatr
snchhep snkshep
rachchha raksha
chhin kshin
'j' 'y' snbndhi ashuddhiyan
ashuddh shuddh
ajodha ayodhya
jachana yachana
jamuna yamuna
jadi yadi
jog yog
't' 'th' snbndhi ashuddhiyan
ashuddh shuddh
kanisht kanishth
ghanisht ghanishth
pravisht pravishth
ikatta ikattha
vishishth vishisht
'd' 'd' 'dh' 'dh' snbndhi ashuddhiyan
ashuddh shuddh
kannad kannad
ped ped
shadyntr shadyntr
sidiyan sidhiyan
padata padata
'n' 'n' snbndhi ashuddhiyan
ashuddh shuddh
archana archana
shravan shravan
vismaran vismaran
pranam pranam
maran maran
'b' 'v' snbndhi ashuddhiyan
ashuddh shuddh
nabab navab
bikat vikat
poorb poorv
dhovi dhobi
qamayavi kamayabi
'n' 'n' 'n' 'n' 'm' snbndhi ashuddhiyan
ashuddh shuddh
ang ang
kanth kanth
chanchal chnchal
pandit pndit
jhanda jhanda
'y' snbndhi ashuddhiyan
ashuddh shuddh
antardhyan antardhan
samarth samarthy
manavar manyavar
kavitri kavayitri
grihasthy grihasth
'r' 'd' snbndhi ashuddhiyan
ashuddh shuddh
umarana umadana
paratyek pratyek
brij braj
pinjada pinjara
mirach mirch
'sh' 'sh' 's' snbndhi ashuddhiyan
ashuddh shuddh
utkarsh utkarsh
manushy manushy
dushkarm dushkarm
amavashya amavasya
snsodhit snshodhit


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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