क़व्वाली  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

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qavvali gate qavval

qavvali (urdoo:قوٌالی,) ek vishesh prakar ki gayanapaddhati athava dhun jisamen kee prakar ke kavyavidhan ya git, yatha qasida, gazal, rubaee adi gae ja sakate hain. qavvali ke gayak qavval kahe jate hain aur ise samoohik gan ke roop men aksar piron ke majaron ya soofiyon ki majalison men gaya jata hai. qavvali jatigat pesha nahin, balki karmagat hai, at: qavvalon ki koee vishesh jati nahin, balki qavvali pesha hota hai.

itihas

kuchh vidvanh 'qavval' shabd ki vyutpatti arabi ki 'nakl' dhatu se manate hain jisaka arth 'bayan karana' hota hai. lekin vidvanon ki adhik snkhya isaka mool arabi ke 'kaul' shabd se manati hai jisaka arth 'kahana' athava 'prashnsa karana' hai. bharat men qavvali gayan ka arnbh khvaja moinuddin chishti ke karan hua bataya jata hai, jo 10vin muharram, 561 hijari ko ajamer pahunche the aur jinhonne sarvapratham farasi men gazalen kahi thin. parntu da.bhagavatasharan upadhyay ke anusar[1] amir khusaro (janm 652 hijari) bharat men sarvapratham qavvali gayan ka prachalan kiya tha.

qavvali ki lokapriyata

qavvali ki lokapriyata soofiyon ke karan huee. upasana sabhaon men soophi snt samavet svar men qavvali gana arnbh karate the aur kuchh samay bad hi, bhavavesh men akar, jhoom jhoomakar gane lagate the. sabha men upasthit shesh sara samaj unaka anukaran karata tha. pashchath avesh utpann karane ke sadhan aur madhyamaroop men qavvali ko svikriti mili. dhire-dhire qavvali ganevalon ke dal sngathit hone lage jo age chalakar peshevar ho ge. vishay ke anusar qavvali ke kee bhed hote hain; yatha, hamd, nat, manakavat adi. hamd men eeshvar ki prashnsa ke git rahate hain, nat men rasool ki shan ka bakhan hota hai aur manakavat men auliya ke snbndh men varnan kiya jata hai.[2]

qavvali ki snrachana

qavvali any shastriy sngit ki mahafilon se bhinn hoti hai. shastriy sngit men jahan mukhy akarshan gayak hota hai qavvali men ek se adhik gayak hote hain aur sabhi mahattvapoorn hote hain. qavvali ko sunane vale bhi qavvali ka ek abhinn ang hote hain. qavvali gane valon men 1-3 mukhy qavval, 1-3 dholak, tabala aur pakhavaj bajane vale, 1-3 haramoniyam bajane vale, 1-2 sarngi bajane vale aur 4-6 tali bajane vale hote hain. sabhi log apani varishthata ke kram men bayen se danye baithate hain, arthath agar ap sunanen valo ko dekh rahe hain to sabase varishth kavval sabase dahini or baithe honge.

  • qavvali ka prarambh keval vady yntr bajakar kiya jata hai. ye ek prakar se soofi snton ko nimantran hota hai kyonki aisa vishvas hai ki soofi snt ek duniya se doosari duniya men bhraman karate rahate hain.
  • isake bad mukhy qavval 'alap' ke sath qavvali ka pahala chhand gate hain; ye ya to allah ki shan men hota hai athava soofi rahasyamayata liye hota hai. isako bina kisi dhun ke gaya jata hai aur is samay vady-yntro ka prayog nahin hota hai. is 'alap' ke madhyam se qavval ek mahaul taiyar karate hain jo dhire dhire apane charam par pnhuchata hai.
  • alap ke bad baki sahayak gayak apane-apane andaj men usi chhand ko gate hain. isi samay haramoniyam aur (tabala, dholak aur pakhavaj) sath dena prarambh karate hain.
  • isake bad qavval mukhy bhag ko gate huye mahafil ho usake charam tak pnhuchate hain. kuchh qavval (nusarat fateh ali khan) qavvali ke mukhy bhag ko gate samay kisi vishesh 'rag' ka prayog karate hain aur bich bich men saragam ka prayog karate huye sunane valon ko bhi qavvali ka ek ang bana lete hain.
  • qavvali ka ant achanak se hota hai.

qavvali gate samay qavvalon aur sathiyon ke oopar paise udane ki bhi pratha hai. adarsh sthiti men qavval isase bekhabar rahate huye apana gayan jari rakhate hain lekin kabhi kabhi qavval ankhon ke madhyam se athava sir hilakar unaka abhivadan bhi karate hain. is pratha ko bilkul bhi bura nahin mana jata hai.

purane samay men qavvali keval adhyatmik bhavana se gayi jati thi lekin adhunik kal men (pichhali kee shatabdiyon se) qavvali men any bhavanaye bhi sammilit ho gayi hain. inamen do mahattvapoorn hain; pahali 'sharab ki tarif men' aur doosari 'priyatam ke bichhoh ki sthiti'. am taur par ek qavvali ki avadhi 12-30 minat ki hoti hai. ajakal ke daur men qavvali ki lambi avadhi usaki lokapriyata ghatane ka mukhy karan hai. isi karan bisavin shatabdi ke prarambh men qavvali ki lokapriyata ghati thi aur 'gazal' ke lokapriyata achanak badhi thi.[3]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi sahity ka brihat itihas, pratham bhag, prishth 728, na.pr. sabha, kashi
  2. “khand 2”, hindi vishvakosh, 1975 (hindi), bharatadiskavari pustakalay: nagari pracharini sabha varanasi, 458.
  3. kavvali (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el.) antardhvani blaaug spaaut. abhigaman tithi: 11 joon, 2011.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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