बिरहा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

biraha ahiron ka jatiy lokagit hai. lokagiton men isaka sthan usi tarah mahattvapoorn hai, jis tarah snskrit men 'dvipadi', prakrit men 'gatha' aur hindi men 'baravai' ka hai. yah do kadiyon ki rachana hai. jab ek paksh apani bat kah leta hai to doosara paksh usi chhand men uttar deta hai. matraon ki snkhya isamen simit nahin hotin. gane vale ki dhunakar matraen ghat-badh jati hain.

utpatti

is lok sngit ki utpatti ke sootr unnisavin shatabdi ke prarambh men milate hain. british shasanakal men gramin kshetron se palayan kar mahanagaron men majadoori karane ki pravritti badh gayi thi. aise shramikon ko roji-roti ke lie lambi avadhi tak apane ghar-parivar se door rahana padata tha. din bhar ke kathor shram ke bad ratri men chhote-chhote samooh men yah log isi lok-vidha ke giton ka oonche svaron men gayan kiya karate the. lagabhag 55 varsh pahale varanasi ke thatheri bazar, chaukhambha adi vyavasayik kshetron men shramikon ko biraha gayan karate hue dekha-suna jata tha.

prachalit roop

prarambh men biraha shram-mukt karane vale lokagit ke roop men hi prachalit tha. biraha gayan ke aj do prakar milate hain[1]-

  1. pahale prakar ko "khadi biraha" kaha jata hai. gayaki ke is prakar men vadyon ki sngati nahin hoti, parantu gayak ki lay ekadam pakki hoti hai. pahale mukhy gayak tar saptak ke svaron men git ka mukhada arambh karata hai aur phir gayak dal usamen sammilit ho jata hai.
  2. biraha gayan ka doosara roop mnchiy hai.
"n biraha ki kheti karai, bhaiya, n biraha pharai dar. biraha basalai hiradaya men ho, ram, jab tum gaile tab gav."

'biraha' ki utpatti ke sambandh men bhojapuri biraha ki ukt pnktiyan drashtavy hain. yah mukhy roop se prem aur virah ki upayukt vynjana ke lie sarthak lok chhand hai. vipralambh shrringar ko adhikansh biraha men sthan prapt hai. kahate hain, isaka janm bhojapur pradesh men hua. gadariye, pasi, dhobi, ahir aur any charavah jatiyan kabhi-kabhi hod badakar ratabhar biraha gati hain.[2]

vady

biraha gayan ke mnchiy roop men vadyon ki sngati hoti hai. pramukh roop se dholak, haramoniyam aur karatal ki sngati hoti hai. karatal gulli ke akar men lagabhag 8 -9 inch lambe stil ke do tukade hote hain, jise gayak apani donon hatheliyon ke bich rakh kar apas men takarate hue bajate hain. biraha lokagit ka filmon men prayah nahin ke barabar upayog hua hai. ashcharyajanak roop se 1955 ki film "munimaji" men biraha ka atyant maulik roop men prayog kiya gaya hai. devanand aur nalini jayavant abhinit is film ke sngitakar sachin dev barman hain tatha hemant kumar aur sathiyon ke svaron men is biraha ka gayan kiya gaya hai. is biraha men bhi shiv vivah ka hi prasng hai. git ki antim pnktiyon men do nam liye ge hai- pahale "barasati" aur phir "dukhaharan" . pahala nam akhade ke guru ka aur doosara nam gayak ka hai. yah git barasati yadav akhade ka hai aur ise kisi dukhaharan namak gayak ne gaya tha.

biraha dngal

kalantar men lok-rnjan-git ke roop men biraha ka vikas hua. parvon-tyoharon athava mangalik avasaron par biraha gayan ki parampara rahi hai. kisi vishesh parv par mandir ke parisaron men biraha dngal ka prachalan bhi hai. biraha ke dngali svaroop men gayakon ki do toliyan hoti hai aur ve bari-bari se biraha giton ka gayan karate hain. aisi prastutiyon men gayak dal paraspar saval-javab aur ek-doosare par kataksh bhi karate hain. is prakar ke gayan men ashusarjit lok-gitakar ko pramukh sthan milata hai. biraha ke akhade (guru gharana) bhi hote hai. vibhinn akhadon ke bich svasth pratispardha ka bhav rahata hai. lagabhag panch dashak pahale ek aise hi akhade ke guru pattoo saradar bhi the. vah biraha-giton ke anoothe rachanakar aur gayak the. unake akhade ke saikadon shishy the, jinhen samaj men lok gayak ke roop men bharapoor samman prapt tha. guru pattoo saradar nirakshar the.[1]

gayan ke vishay

biraha gayan men pahale devi-devataon ki stuti ki jati hai, tatpashchath kautumbik jivan ke vibhinn sambandhon ka svabhavik varnan, gram jivan ke chitr, prem aur virah ke komal prasng, naihar aur sasural ki minamekh, nayikaon ki pranay umngen, anabyahi gramin nari ki vyatha, sas-bahoo ke jhagade, nanad-bhavaj ki chuhal adi vishayon ke varnan mukhar hote hain. yadyapi viraha bhojapur ki dharati men upaja hai, tathapi aj ke lok-jivan men biraha ne samast krishak jatiyon ke giton men apana sthan bana liya hai. gate samay uthane vali avaz ki oonchaee se door-door tak van-prantar men hriday ki tis goonjane lagati hai.

prasng

biraha giton ke prasng adhikatar ramayan, mahabharat aur pauranik kathaon par adharit hote hain. kabhi-kabhi lokagitakar samayik vishayon par bhi git rachate hain. guru pattoo saradar ne 1965 ke bharat-pak yuddh men bharat ki vijay-gatha ko in pnktiyon men vyakt kiya tha[1]-

"chamake lalabahadur ramanagariya vala, ayoob ke muh ko kala kar diya...."

virah-vyatha ki abhivyakti

bharatiy lok sngit men anek aisi shailiyan prachalit hain, jinamen nayak se bichhad jane ya nayak se lambe samay tak door hone ki sthiti men virah-vyatha se vyakul nayika lokagiton ke madhyam se svayn ko abhivyakt karati hai. desh ke prayah pratyek kshetr men nayika ki virah-vyatha ka prakatikaran karate git bahutere hain, parantu virah-pidit nayak ki abhivyakti dene vale lokagit bahut kam milate hain. uttar pradesh ke poorvanchal kshetr men lok-sngit ki yah vidha atyant lokapriy hai, jise 'biraha' nam se pahachana jata hai.

"saune hoy to pairiyo, natar nage bhalai doee kan.
chhita hoy to vyaiyo, natar kvanre shri bhagavan.
ranipura men mridng bajo re, aur moo men baji mauchng.
nachat avat purani moo ki, barethin ooke sasoo gore ang.
are bhale ki ani se todarab palera, bhale ki ani se.
ghar niya riya rav joo, gharai niyan kishori maharaj.
ghare to niyan ranadoola, adi karat taravar. bhale ki ani. ....."


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
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shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 lok git shaili biraha (hindi) avaz. abhigaman tithi: 05 joon, 2015.
  2. hindi sahity kosh, bhag 1 |prakashak: gyanamandal limited, varanasi |snkalan: bharatakosh pustakalay |snpadan: daau. dhirendr varma |prishth snkhya: 433 |

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