ध्रुपद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

dhrupad
dhrupad gayan karate fariduddin dagar
vivaran 'dhrupad' bharat ki prasiddh gayan shaili hai. yah gayan shaili apane ap men paripoorn hai, jo vedon se chali a rahi hai.
utpatti adhikansh vidvanon ka mat hai ki pandrahavin shatabdi men gvaliyar ke raja manasinh tomar ne isaki rachana ki thi.
baniyan dhrupad gayan ki char baniyan mani jati hain-
  1. 'gouhar bani'
  2. 'khndar bani'
  3. 'nauhar bani'
  4. 'dangur bani'
vishesh dhrupad gnbhir prakriti ka git hai. ise gane men kanth aur phephade par bal padata hai. isaliye log ise 'mardana git' kahate hain.
snbndhit lekh ziya fariduddin dagar, tanasen, svami haridas, baijoo bavara.
bahari kadiyan shastriy sngit ke pad, khayal, dhrupad adi ka janm brajabhoomi men hone ke karan in sabaki bhasha braj hai aur dhrupad ka vishay samagr roop braj ka ras hi hai.

dhrupad athava dhruvapad (angrezi: Dhrupad) bharat ki samriddh gayan shaili hai. 'dhrupad' ka shabdash: arth hota hai- 'dhruv+pad' arthath 'jisake niyam nishchit hon, atal hon, jo niyamon men bndha hua ho.' yah atyadhik prachin shaili hai.

utpatti

aj tak sarv sammati se yah nishchit nahin ho paya hai ki dhrupad ka avishkar kab aur kisane kiya. is sambandh men vidvanon ke kee mat hain. adhikansh vidvanon ka mat yah hai ki pandrahavin shatabdi men gvaliyar ke raja manasinh tomar ne isaki rachana ki. itana to nishchit roop se kaha ja sakata hai ki raja manasinh tomar ne dhrupad ke prachar men bahut hath bntaya. unhonne dhrupad ka shikshan dene hetu vidyalay bhi khola. akabar ke samay men tanasen aur unake guru svami haridas, nayak baijoo aur gopal adi prakhyat gayak hi gate the.

paribhasha

'natyashastr' ke anusar varn, alnkar, gan-kriya, yati, vani, lay adi jahan paraspar sambaddh rahen, un giton ko 'dhruv' kaha gaya hai. jin padon men yah niyam shamil hon, unhen 'dhruvapad' ya 'dhrupad' kaha jata hai.[1]

visheshata

dhrupad gnbhir prakriti ka git hai. ise gane men kanth aur phephade par bal padata hai. isaliye log ise mardana git kahate hain. natyashasr ke anusar varn, alnkar, gan- kriya, yati, vani, lay adi jahan dhruv roop men paraspar snbaddh rahen, un giton ko dhruva kaha gaya hai. jin padon men ukt niyam ka nirvah ho raha ho, unhen dhruvapad athava dhrupad kaha jata hai. shasriy sngit ke pad, khayal, dhrupad adi ka janm brajabhoomi men hone ke karan in sabaki bhasha braj hai aur dhrupad ka vishay samagr roop braj ka ras hi hai. kalantar men mugal kal men khyal urdoo ki shabdavali ka prabhav bhi dhrupad rachanaon par pada. vrindavan ke nidhivan nikunj nivasi svami haridas ne inake vargikaran aur shastriyakaran ka sabase pahale prayas kiya. svami haridas ki rachanaon men gayan, vadan aur nrity snbndhi anek paribhashik shabd, vadyayntron ke bol evn nam tatha nrity ki talon v mudraon ke spasht snket prapt hote hain. sooradas dvara rachit dhruvapad apoorv nad-saundary, gamak evn vilakshan shabd- yojana se otaprot dikhaee dete hain.

hindustani sngit men char bhagon men bnta puratan svar sngit, jisamen sabase pahale vistrit parichayatmak alap kiya jata hai aur phir us lay, tal aur dhun ki badhat se phailaya jata hai. yah bad men prachalit chhote khayal se snbndhit hai, jisane kuchh had tak dhrupad ki lokapriyata ko kam kar diya hai, shastriy dhrupad ki guru gnbhir rajasi shaili ke lie atyadhik shvas niyntran ki avashyakata hoti thi. isaka gayan nayakon, eeshvaron aur rajaon ki prashnsa men kiya jata tha.

baniyan

dhrupad gayan shaili apane ap men paripoorn hai. yah vedon se chali a rahi hai. is shaili ko svami haridas, tanasen, baijab babar jaise sngit sadhakon ne apani sadhana se sincha hai. dhrupad gayan ki char baniyan mani jati hain-

  1. gouhar bani
  2. khndar bani
  3. nauhar bani
  4. dangur bani

uparokt char gharanon men dangur bani aur gauuhar bani prachalan men hain.[2]

samriddh gayan shaili

dhrupad bharat ki samriddh gayan shaili hai. isamen alapachari ka mahattv hota hai. sundar aur snth alap dhrupad ke pran hain. nom-tom ki alapachari dhrupad gayan ki visheshata hai. prachin kal men "too hi annt hari" jaise shabdon ka prayog hota tha. bad men inhi shabdon ka sthan nom-tom ne le liya. shabd adhikanshat: eeshvar aradhana se yukt hote hain. gamak ka vishesh sthan hota hai. is gayaki men vir, bhakti, shrringar adi ras bhi hote hain. poorv men dhrupad ki char baniyan mani jati thin arthath dhrupad gayan ki char shailiyan. in baniyon ke nam the khanadari, nohari, gaurahari aur dagur.

pramukh gayak

'dagar bndhu' ke nam se sabhi parichit hain. umakant v ramakant gundecha ne dhrupad gayaki men ek nee misal kayam ki hai. inhonne dhrupad gayaki ko paripoorn kiya hai. inaka dhrupad gayan atyant hi madhur, sundar aur bhavaprad hota hai. inhonne sooradas, miran adi ke padon ka gayan bhi dhrupad men sammilit kiya hai.[3]

fariduddin dagar

ziya fariduddin dagar bharat ke prasiddh dhrupad gayakon men gine jate the. prasiddh dhrupadiya gayak ustad ziyaudadin dagar ke bete fariduddin dagar ne apane divngat bhaee ziya mohiuddin dagar (mashahoor rudr vina vadak) ke sath milakar dhrupad shaili ke gayan ko punarjivit karane men aham bhoomika nibhaee thi. ustad fariduddin dagar ki sabase badi upalabdhi yah rahi ki unhonne sngit ke daman men sabase zyada sitare jade. unake shagird pn. umakant-ramakant gundecha, pn. ritik sanyal, uday bhavalakar, pushparaj koshthi aj dhrupad ke aise benajir hire hain, jinaki chamak ne duniyabhar men dhrupad ko roshan kiya. fariduddin dagar ne svayn to guni shishy taiyar kie hi, sath hi bhopal sthit gundecha bndhuon ke dhrupad snsthan ka bhoomipoojan kar ne chiragon ko roshan karane ki zamin men bij bhi dal die the.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika-tippani aur sndarbh

  1. dhrupad ki parnpara badhate gundecha bndhu (hindi) bibisi. abhigaman tithi: 21 janavari, 2016.
  2. vina, vani, venu ka sngam hai dhrupad gayan (hindi) amar ujala.kaaum. abhigaman tithi: 21 janavari, 2016.
  3. dhrupad ek samriddh gayan shaili (hindi) (html) surshree.blogspot.in. abhigaman tithi: 20 janavari, 2016.

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