ठुमरी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

thumari bharatiy sngit ki ek gayan shaili hai, jisamen ras, rng aur bhav ki pradhanata hoti hai. khayal shaili ke drut lay ki rachana (chhota khayal) aur thumari men moolabhoot antar yahi hota hai ki chhota khayal men shabdon ki apeksha rag ke svaron aur svar sngatiyon par vishesh dhyan rakhana padata hai, jabaki thumari men ras ke anukool bhavabhivyakti par dhyan rakhana padata hai. prayah thumari gayak ya gayika ko ek hi shabd athava shabd samooh ko alag-alag bhav men prastut karana hota hai. is prakriya men rag ke nirdharit svaron men kahin-kahin parivartan karana padata hai.

utpatti

prachin kal men ek 'chhalika' namak shaili thi. isamen abhinay tatha gayan ki paddhati thi. mahakavi kalidas ne 'malavikagnimitr' namak natak men malavika dvara chhalika ka bada hi sundar varnan kiya hai. thumari isaka hi parivartit roop mani jati hai. ek dusare mat ke anusar- raja manasinh tomar ne thumari ko janm diya. any mat yah bhi hai ki thumari ka janm un lok giton se hua hai, jo ki nrity ke sath gaye jate the. bhasha vigyan ki drishti se thumari 'thumak' shabd se nikali hai, jisaka arth hai 'sundar-padakshep'. isase spasht hota hai ki thumari aur nrity ka ghanishth sambandh raha hoga. ek vichar yah bhi hai ki thumari ka janm avadh ke navabo ke darabar men hua. un navabon ko khayal shaili pasnd nahin thi. unhen to koee halki shaili chahie thi, jisaka ki nrity ke sath prayog kiya ja sake aur thumari hi isake lie sarvadhik upayukt thi.[1]

vibhajan

thumari men svaron ka vistar kramabaddh nahin tha. dhire-dhire thumari men kramabaddhata ati gayi aur ise 'shastriy sngit' men sthan mila. isake do bhag ho ge-

  1. vilnbit thumari
  2. drut thumari

rason ki drishti se thumari shrringar v karun ras par hi adharit hoti hai, kintu shant aur bhakti ras ke bhi git thumari shaili men gaye jate hain.

rag

thumari ke lie mukhy rag hote hain- bhairavi, kaphi, tilng, gara, piloo, jhinjhoti, pahadi, khamaj adi. thumari ke tal bhi nishchit hain- kaharava, dadara, dipachndi, adi. khayal, tappa, dhrupad ki sabhi visheshataen thumari men payi jati hain. yah ek prakar se sabhi shailiyon ka sar hai. thumari gane ke lie kalpanashil hona avashyak hai, isake sath hi bhavapoorn hriday, madhur aur lochak avaz bhi avashyak hai. yah gun striyon men adhik pae jate hain. isalie ise 'stri pradhan gayan shaili' bhi kaha jata hai. kintu ise stri-purush donon hi gate hain.[1]

shaili

vartaman samay men thumari ki mukhy roop se do shailiyan mani jati hain-

  1. poorab ang
  2. pnjabi ang

inake atirikt munbee aur poona men gayi jane vali khayal ang ki thumari bhi hai. bade gulam ali khan pnjabi ang ki thumari ke achchhe gayak rahe hain. is ang ki thumari men tedi aur ulajhi tanon ka prayog hota hai. poorab ang ki thumari men bol-banav aur tanen saral hoti hain. thumari atynt bhavanukool gayan shaili hai. isi karan yah sahaj roop se doosaron par prabhav jama leti hai.

prasiddh thumari gayak aur gayika

prasiddh thumari gayakon men sohani maharaj, abdul karim khan aur faiyaz khan adi ke nam pramukh hain. striyon men gauhar jan, indu bala, malika jan adi thin. adhunik kal men girija devi, savita devi aur shobha gurtoo adi isaki mukhy gayika hain.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 thumari gayan shaili (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 11 aktoobar, 2012.

bahari kadiyan

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