राग  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

rag gayan samay talika

rag bharatiy shastriy sngit ki atma hain. yah sngit ka mooladhar hai. 'rag' shabd ka ullekh bharatamuni ke 'natyashastr' men bhi milata hai. 'rag' men kam se kam panch aur adhik se adhik sat svaron hote hain. rag vah sundar rachana hai, jo kanon ko achchhi lage.

srijan

ragon ka srijan baees shrutiyon ke vibhinn prakar se prayog, vibhinn ras ya bhavon ko darshane ke lie kiya jata hai. prachin samay men ragon ko purush v stri ragon men arthat rag v raginiyon men vibhajit kiya gaya tha. sirf yahi nahin, kee ragon ko putr rag ka bhi darja prapt tha. udaharanat: rag bhairav ko purush rag aur bhairavi, bilavali sahit kee any ragon ko usaki raginiyan tatha rag lalit, bilaval adi ragon ko inake putr ragon ka sthan diya gaya tha. bad men age chalakar pndit vishnunarayan bhatakhnde ne sabhi ragon ko das thaton men baaunt diya. arthat ek that se kee ragon ki utpatti ho sakati thi. agar that ko ek ped mana jae v usase upaji ragon ko usaki shakhaon ke roop men dekha jae to yah galat nahin hoga. udaharanat: rag shnkara, rag durga, rag alhaiya bilaval adi rag that bilaval se utpann hote hain. that bilaval men sabhi svar shuddh mane ge hain. at: takaniki drishti se is that se upaje sabhi ragon men sare svar shuddh prayog kie jane chahie. kintu das thaton ke is siddhant ke bare men kee matantar hain, kyonki kuchh rag kisi bhi that se mel nahin khate, kintu unhen niyamaraksha hetu kisi n kisi that ke antargat sammilit kiya jata hai.[1]

  • 'abhinav ragamnjari' men rag ki paribhasha is prakar di gee hai-

yoayn dhvani-visheshastu svar-varn-vibhooshit:.
rnjako janachittanan s rag kathito budhai:..

arthath

svar aur varn se vibhooshit dhvani, jo manushyon ka manornjan kare, rag kahalata hai.

vibhajan

kisi bhi rag men adhik se adhik sat v kam se kam panch svaron ka prayog karana avashyak hai. is tarah ragon ko moolat: tin jatiyon men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai-

  1. audav jati - jahan rag vishesh men panch svaron ka prayog hota ho. 
  2. shadav jati - jahan rag men chh: svaron ka prayog hota ho.
  3. snpoorn jati - jahan rag men sabhi sat scharon ka prayog kiya jata ho.

svaron ka mahattv

rag bhupali

kisi bhi rag men do svaron ko vishesh mahattv diya jata hai. inhen 'vadi svar' v 'snvadi svar' kahate hain. vadi svar ko "rag ka raja" bhi kaha jata hai, kyonki rag men is svar ka bahutayat se prayog hota hai. doosara mahattvapoorn svar hai snvadi svar, jisaka prayog vadi svar se kam magar any svaron se adhik kiya jata hai. is tarah kinhin do ragon men jinamen ek saman svaron ka prayog hota ho, vadi aur snvadi svaron ke alag hone se rag ka svaroop badal jata hai. udaharanat: rag bhoopali v deshakar men sabhi svar saman hain, kintu vadi v snvadi svar alag hone ke karan in ragon men asani se antar bataya ja sakata hai. har rag men ek vishesh svar samuh ke bar-bar prayog se us rag ki pahachan darshayi jati hai. jaise rag hamir men 'g m dh' ka bar-bar prayog kiya jata hai aur ye svar samooh rag hamir ki pahachan hain.

svaroop

rag ke svaroop ko aroh v avaroh gakar pradarshit kiya jata hai jisamen rag vishesh men prayukt hone vale svaron ko kram men gaya jata hai. udaharan ke lie rag bhoopali ka aroh kuchh is tarah hai: sa re g p dh san.

pahachan

har rag men ek vishesh svar samooh ke bar bar prayog se us rag ki pahachan darshayi jati hai. jaise rag hamir men 'g m dh' ka bar bar prayog kiya jata hai aur ye svar samooh rag hamir ki pahachan hain.

prakar

ragon ke prakar

mugal़kalin shasan ke dauran hi shayad ragon ke gane bajane ka nirdharit samay kabhi prachalan men aya. jinhen unaki prakriti ke adhar par vibhajit kiya gaya. jinaka varnan nimn prakar se diya ja sakata hai:-

  • jin ragon ko dopahar ke barah baje se madhyaratri tak gaya bajaya jata tha unhen poorv rag kaha gaya.
  • madhyaratri se dopahar ke bich gae bajae jane vale ragon ko uttar rag kaha gaya.
  • kuchh rag jinhen bhor ya sndhyakalin samay men gaya jata tha unhen sndhiprakash rag kaha gaya. *yahi nahin kuchh rag ritupradhan bhi mane ge. jaise rag meghamalhar varsha ritu men gaya jane vala rag hai. isi tarah rag basnt ko vasnt ritu men gae jane ki pratha hai.

lakshan

prachin kal men rag ke das lakshan mane jate the, jinake nam hain– grah, ansh, nyas, apanyas, shadavatv, odavatv, alpatv, bahutv, mand aur tar. inamen se kuchh lakshan aj bhi parivartit roop men prayog kiye jate hain. adhunik samay men rag ke nimnalikhit lakshan mane jate hain–

rag kedar
  1. oopar yah bataya gaya hai ki vah rachana jo kanon ko achchhi lage, rag kahalati hai. isalie yah spasht hai ki rag ka pratham lakshan ya visheshata hai ki pratyek rag men rnjakata avashy hona chahie.
  2. rag men kam se kam panch aur adhik se adhik sat svar hone chahie. panch svaron se kam ka rag nahin hota hai.
  3. pratyek rag ko kisi n kisi that se utpann mana gaya hai. jaise rag bhoopali ko kalyan that se aur rag bageshvari ko kafi that se utpann mana gaya hai.
  4. kisi bhi rag men shadaj arthath sa kabhi varjit nahin hota, kyonki yah saptak ka adhar svar hota hai.
  5. pratyek rag men m aur p men se kam se kam ek svar avashy rahana chahie. donon svar ek sath varjit nahin hote. agar kisi rag men p ke sath shuddh m bhi varjit hai, to usamen tivr m avashy rahata hai. bhoopali rag men m varjit hai to malakosh men p, kintu koee rag aisa nahin hai jisamen m aur p donon ek sath varjy hote hon.
  6. pratyek rag men aroh-avaroh, vadi-samvadi, pakad, samay adi avashyak hain.
  7. rag men kisi svar ke donon roop ek sath ek doosare ke bad prayog nahin kiye jane chahie. udaharanarth komal re aur shuddh re athava komal g aur shuddh g donon kisi rag men ek sath nahin ane chahie. yah avashy hi sambhav hai ki aroh men shuddh prayog kiya jae aur avaroh men komal, jaise khamaj rag ke aroh men shuddhi ni aur avaroh men komal ni prayog kiya jata hai.

bharat ki snskriti ka ek stnbh bharatiy shastriy sngit, jivan ko snvarane aur suruchipoorn dhng se jine ki kala hai. yah adhar hai har tarah ke sngit ka sath hi aisi garimamayi dharohar hai, jisase lok aur lokapriy sngit ki anek dharaen nikalati hain. yah n keval tij tyoharon men rag rng bharati hain balki vibhinn snskaron aur avasaron men bhi ullasamay banate hue anokhi raunak pradan karati hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. bharatiy shastriy sngit (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 16 disambar, 2012.

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