भारतीय शास्त्रीय संगीत  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharatiy shastriy sngit ki utpatti vedon se mani jati hai. samaved men sngit ke bare men gaharaee se charcha ki gee hai. bharatiy shastriy sngit gahare tak adhyatmikata se prabhavit raha hai, isalie isaki shuruat manushy jivan ke antim lakshy 'moksh' ki prapti ke sadhan ke roop men huee. sngit ki mahatta is bat se bhi spasht hai ki bharatiy acharyon ne ise 'pncham ved' ya 'gndharv ved' ki sngya di hai. bharatamuni ka 'natyashastr' pahala aisa grnth tha, jisamen natak, nrity aur sngit ke mool siddhanton ka pratipadan kiya gaya tha.

itihas

'bharatiy shastriy sngit' bharatiy sngit ka abhinn ang hai. lagabhag tin hazar varsh poorv rache ge vedon ko sngit ka mool srot mana jata hai. yah mana jata hai ki brahma ne narad muni ko sngit varadan men diya tha. charon vedon men, samaved ke mntron ka uchcharan us samay ke vaidik saptak ya samagan ke anusar saton svaron ke prayog ke sath kiya jata tha. guru shishy parnpara ke anusar, shishy ko guru se vedon ka gyan maukhik hi prapt hota tha. unamen kisi prakar ke parivartan ki snbhavana se manahi thi. is tarah prachin samay men vedon v sngit ka koee likhit roop n hone ke karan unaka mool svaroop lupt hota gaya. bharatamuni dvara rachit 'natyashastr', bharatiy sngit ke itihas ka pratham likhit praman mana jata hai. isaki rachana ke samay ke bare men kee matabhed hain. aj ke bharatiy shastriy sngit ke kee pahaluon ka ullekh is prachin grnth men milata hai. bharatamuni ke 'natyashastr' ke bad sharngadev dvara rachit 'sngit ratnakar' aitihasik drishti se sabase mahattvapoorn grnth mana jata hai. 12vin sadi ke poorvaddh men likhe gaye sat adhyayon vale is grnth men sngit v nrity ka vistar se varnan kiya gaya hai.[1]

sngit ratnakar

'sngit ratnakar' men kee talon ka ullekh hai. is grnth se pata chalata hai ki prachin bharatiy parnparik sngit men us samay badalav ane shuroo ho chuke the aur sngit pahale se udar hone laga tha. ek hazaravin sadi ke ant tak, us samay prachalit sngit ke svaroop ko prabndh kaha jane laga. prabndh do prakar ke hua karate the-

  1. nibaddh prabndh
  2. anibaddh prabndh

nibaddh prabndh ko tal ki paridhi men rah kar gaya jata tha, jabaki anibadv prabndh bina kisi tal ke bndhan ke, mukt roop men gaya jata tha. prabndh ka ek achchha udaharan hai- jayadev dvara rachit 'git govind'.

vibhajan

yug parivartan ke sath sngit ke svaroop men bhi parivartan ane laga tha, kintu mool tatv ek hi rahe. mugal kalin bharatiy sngit farasi v muslim snskriti ke prabhav se achhoota nahin rah saka. uttar bharat men mugal samrajy zyada phaila hua tha, jis karan uttar bharatiy sngit par islamik snskriti v islam ka prabhav zyada mahasoos kiya ja sakata hai. jabaki dakshin bharat men prachalit sngit kisi prakar ke bahari prabhav se achhoota hi raha. is tarah bharatiy sngit ka do bhagon men vibhajan ho gaya-

  1. uttar bharatiy sngit ya hindustani sngit 
  2. karnatak shaili

uttar bharatiy sngit men kafi badalav ae. sngit ab mndiron tak hi simit n rahakar shahnshahon ke darabar ki shobha ban chuka tha. isi samay kuchh nee shailiyan bhi prachalan men aeen, jaise- khayal, gajal adi aur bharatiy sngit ka kee ne vadyon se bhi parichay hua, jaise- sarod, sitar ityadi. bad men soofi andolan ne bhi bharatiy sngit par apana prabhav jamaya. age chalakar desh ke vibhinn hisson men kee nee paddhatiyon v gharanon ka janm hua. british shasanakal ke dauran kee ne vady prachalan men ae. am janata men bhi prasiddh aj ka vady haramoniyam, usi samay prachalan men aya tha. is tarah bharatiy sngit ke utthan v usamen parivartan lane men har yug ka apana mahattvapoorn yogadan raha.[1]

shastriy sngit ka adhar

bharatiy shastriy sngit svaron v tal ke anushasit prayog par adharit hai. sat svaron v baees shrutiyon ke prabhavashali prayog se vibhinn tarah ke bhav utpann karane ki cheshta ki jati hai. sat svaron ke samuh ko 'saptak' kaha jata hai. bharatiy sngit saptak ke ye sat svar is prakar hain-

  1. shadaj (sa)
  2. rishabh (re)
  3. gndhar (g)
  4. madhyam (m)
  5. pncham (p)
  6. dhaivat (dh)
  7. nishad (ni)

'saptak' ko moolat: tin vargon men vibhajit kiya jata hai- 'mandr saptak', 'madhy saptak' v 'tar saptak', arthath saton svaron ko tinon saptakon men gaya aur bajaya ja sakata hai. shadj v pncham svar achal svar kahalate hain, kyonki inake sthan men kisi tarah ka parivartan nahin kiya ja sakata aur inhen inake shuddh roop men hi gaya bajaya ja sakata hai. jabaki any svaron ko unake komal v tivr roop men bhi gaya jata hai. inhin svaron ko vibhinn prakar se goonth kar ragon ki rachana ki jati hai.[1]

hindustani shaili

ringar, prakriti aur bhakti ye hindustani shaili ke pramukh vishay hain. tabala vadak hindustani sngit men lay banaye rakhane men madadagar siddh hote hain. tanapura ek any sngit vadyayntr hai, jise poore gayan ke dauran bajaya jata hai. any vadyayntron men sarngi v haramoniyam shamil hain. farasi sngit ke vadyayntron aur shaili, in donon ka hi hindustani shaili par kafi had tak prabhav pada hai.

pramukh roop

sngit ki hindustani shaili ke nimn roop hain-

(1.) dhrupad - yah gayan ki prachinatam evn sarvapramukh shaili hai. dhrupad gayan shaili men eeshvar v rajaon ka prashasti gan kiya jata hai. isamen brijabhasha ki pradhanata hoti hai.
(2.) khyal - yah hindustani shastriy sngit ki sabase lokapriy gayan shaili mani jati hai. khyal ki vishay vastu rajastuti, nayika varnan aur shrringar ras adi hote hain.
(3.) dhamar - isaka gayan bharat ke pramukh tyoharon men se ek holi ke avasar par hota hai. dhamar gayan men pray: bhagavan shrikrishn aur gopiyon ke holi khelane ka varnan kiya jata hai.
(4.) thumari - thumari gayan men niyamon ki adhik jatilata nahin dikhaee deti hai. yah ek bhav pradhan tatha chapal chal vala shrringar pradhan git hai. is shaili ka janm avadh ke navab vajidali shah ke raj darabar men hua tha.
(5.) tappa - hindi mishrit pnjabi bhasha ka shrringar pradhan git tappa hai. yah gayan shaili chnchalata v lachchhedar tan se yukt hoti hai.

karnatak shaili

karnatak shastriy shaili men ragon ka gayan adhik tej aur hindustani shaili ki tulana men kam samay ka hota hai. tyagaraj, muthusvami dikshitar aur shyama shastri ko karnatak sngit shaili ki trimoorti kaha jata hai, jabaki purndar das ko aksar karnatak shaili ka pita kaha jata hai. karnatak shaili ke vishayon men pooja-archana, mndiron ka varnan, darshanik chintan, nayak-nayika varnan aur deshabhakti shamil hain.

shaili ke pramukh roop

karnatak shaili ke pramukh roop is prakar hain-

(1.) varnam - isake tin mukhy bhag 'pallavi', 'anupallavi' tatha 'muktayishvar' hote hain. vastav men isaki tulana hindustani shaili ki thumari ke sath ki ja sakati hai.
(2.) javali - yah prem pradhan giton ki shaili hai. bharatanatyam ke sath ise vishesh roop se gaya jata hai. isaki gati kafi tivr hoti hai.
(3.) tillana - uttari bharat men prachalit 'tarana' ke saman hi karnatak sngit men tillana shaili hoti hai. yah bhakti pradhan giton ki gayan shaili hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 sngit (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 16 disambar, 2012.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah