बुंदेलखंड  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

orachha qila, bundelakhnd
Orchha Fort, Bundelkhand

bundelakhnd uttar pradesh ke dakshin aur madhy pradesh ke poorvottar men sthit hai. yah ek pahadi ilaka hai, jisamen poorv svatntray yug men anek chhoti-badi riyasaten thin. bundelakhnd ka adhikansh bhoobhag ab uttar pradesh men hai, kintu kuchh bhag madhy pradesh men bhi mila hai. yah us bhookhand ka nam hai, jisake uttar men yamuna aur dakshin men vindhy parvat shrinkhala, poorv men betava aur pashchim men tauns athava tamasa nadi sthit hai.

  • ek kavi ne apani kavita men bundelakhnd ka parichay is prakar diya hai-

khajuraho, devagadh ka duniya bhar men bakhan .
patthar ki moortiyon ko mano nil ge pran..
chanderi, gvaliyar ki aitihasik kirti-chhata.
tirth amarakntak, chitrakoot, balaji mahan..
sonagiri, pava giri, papaura ke dharm-sthal.
apane dharm-snskriti par hamako bhari ghamnd..
jay jay bharat akhnd jay bundelakhnd ..

itihas

bundelon ka poorvaj pncham bundela tha. bundelakhnd bundel rajapooton ke nam par prasiddh hai, jinake rajy ki sthapana 14vin shati men huee thi. isase poorv yah pradesh 'jujhauti' athava 'jejakabhukti ' nam se jana jata tha aur chandelon dvara navin se chaudahavin shatabdi tak shasit hota raha. gorelal tivari ka mat hai ki bundelakhnd nam 'vindhyelakhnd' ka apabhrnsh hai.[1] rajy ke pramukh nagar the-

'mahoba-zila hamirapur tatha kalnjar' kalnjar men rajy ki suraksha ke lie ek mazaboot qila tha. sherashah is qile ki gherabandi ke samay 1545 ee. ke samay yahin mara gaya tha.

bundeli mati men janmih anek vibhootiyon ne n keval apana balki is anchal ka nam khoob roshan kiya aur itihas men amar ho ge. alha-oodal, eesuri, kavi padmakar, jhansi ki rani lakshmibaee, daau. harisinh gaur adi anek mahanh vibhootiyan isi kshetr se snbaddh hain. anek itihas purushon aur alha ki baban ladaiyan bundelakhnd ka praman hain. yahan ke vir yoddha bundela kahalae. bundeli yahan ki sanskritik, samajik aur rajanitik chetana ki boli rahi hai. yahan ke log bundeli boli bolane ke karan hi 'bundela' kahalae. bundelakhand ke rupayan ka gahara sambandh maharaja chhatrasal ke mahattvapoorn sthan jejakabhukti se hai.

madhy kal se pahale bundelakhnd shabd is nam se prayog men nahin aya. adhunik yug men hi isake any nam aur unake upayog hue hain. bisavin shati ke prarnbhik dashak men bundelakhnd ka itihas maharaj rayabahadur sinh ne likha tha. isame bundelakhnd ke antargat ane vali jagiron aur unake shasakon ke namon ki ganana mukhy thi. panna darabar ke prasiddh kavi krishn tatha divan pratipal sinh ne apane sroton se bundelakhnd ka itihas likha; parantu ve vidvanh bhi samajik sanskritik chetanaon ke prati udasin rahe.

bundelakhnd ka kramavar itihas:-

udyog aur vyapar

nrisinhadev pailes, bundelakhnd
Nrisinghdev Palace, Bundelkhand

dastakari ke lie bundelakhnd ki prasiddhi door-door tak hai. chnderi ke kapade aur zari ke kam ke lie, goo kapade bunane ke lie tatha datiya, orachha, panna aur chhatarapur mitti ke bartan tatha lakadi aur patthar ke kam ke lie prasiddh hai. yahan koriyon ke dvara jajam, dari, kalin, loharon ke dvara bandook ke kunde aur nal, gadariyon ke dvara knbal tatha bajiron ke dvara chataeeyan, bachchon ke letane ke lie chngela, tokaniyan, chuliya-tipare aur pnkhe adi badi kushalata se banate hain.

avadharana ke anusar

ek prachalit avadharana ke anusar vah kshetr jo uttar men yamuna, dakshin men vindhy pleton ki shreniyon, uttar-pashchim men chambal aur dakshin poorv men panna, aur azamagadh shreniyon se ghira hua hai, bundelakhand ke nam se jana jata hai.

ke alava uttar-pashchim men chambal nadi tak prasarit vistrit pradesh ke nam tha. kaningham ne "bundelakhand ke vistar ke samay isamen gnga aur yamuna ka samast dakshini pradesh jo pashchim men betava nadi se poorv men chanderi aur sagar ke zilon sahit vindhyavasini devi ke mandir tak tatha dakshin men narmada nadi ke muhane ke nikat bilhari tak prasarit tha.

snskriti

bundeli snskriti ke rng atyadhik samriddh aur vividhavarni hai. daau. narmadaprasad gupt ke dvara likha gaya hai ki yahan ki lok snskriti pulind, nishad shabar, ramath, dangi adi aryetar snskritiyon ke dvara prabhavit thi. ary rishiyon ki ashrami snskriti ramayan kal men phali-phooli thi. aur vany snskriti mahabharat kal men bhi bani rahi thi. bundelakhnd ki lok snskriti ki ninv nag vakatak kal men rakhi gee thi. lok snskriti aur lok kalaon ko is kal men jitana nikhar aur utkarsh prapt hua hai, utana in sat-ath sau varshon men kabhi nahin dikhaee diya hai. bundeli lok snskriti aur lok kalaon ki dhara in samast parivartanon aur parivarddhanon men bhi ajastr roop se bahati rahi hai.

bundelakhnd shaury, sahas aur shrringar ke lie sabase adhik prasiddh anchal hai. bharat ke madhy bhag men sthit hone ke karan yahan ki bhoomi par anek jatiyon- janajatiyon ka hamesha se avagaman raha hai. yahan anek snskritiyan ati jati rahi hai, isake karan bundelakhnd ki snskriti men kee jatiyon ki snskriti ke bahut se tattv milate hain, jiname yoddha jatiyon- janajatiyon ke logon ki snskritiyon ka avagaman adhik raha hai. isake karan yahan ke logon men shaury aur sahas jaisi pravrittiyon ka vikas hua hai.

khajuraho ke kala mandir in mndiron men bundelakhnd ki hi nahin, vishv ki apratim dharohar hain. khajuraho ke mandir men ek taraf nrity, sngit aur utsav ayojan ke drishy utkirn kiye jate hain to doosari taraf akhet, hasti yuddh adi ke drishy utkirn kiye jate hain.

rajashekhar ne kavy mimansa men bundelakhnd ke nartak, gayak, vadak, charan, chitere, vit, veshya, indrajalik ke atirikt hath ke talon par nachane vale, tairak, rasson par nachane vale, danton se khel dikhane vale, pahalavan, patebaj aur madariyon ka ullekh kiya hai. poore bundelakhnd men utsav-mahotsav manane ki pratha chali a rahi hai. isaka ullekh alabaruni ne kiya hai-

  • chait ki ekadashi ko jhoole ka din
  • poornima ko vasantotsav
  • ashvin poornima ko pashuon ka tyohar aur kushtiyon ka ayojan
  • kartik pratipada ko dipavali ka utsav tatha
  • phalgun poornima men striyon ka dolotsav evn holi, adi manaye jate hain, aur yah sab bundelakhnd ki bhoomi par aj bhi sahaj upalabdh hai.

bundelakhnd ka bhojan, pey v vastrabharan

mahua aur ber bundelakhnd ke logon ka sabase priy bhojan hai. ye donon vriksh is jagah ke lokapriy vriksh hain. yahan mahua ko meva, ber ko kaleva (nasta) aur gulachul ka sabase badhiya mishthan mana jata hai, jaisa ki is pnkti se spasht hota hai

mua meva ber kaleva gulachul badi mithaee.
itani chizen chaho to gudane karo sagaee..

chillah tara ghat, bundelakhnd- 1838

lata machhuon ko bhoonakar aur usake bad koot kar unamen gari, chiraunji adi meva mila kar chhoti- chhoti kuchaiya ki tarah banaya jata hai, yah is jagah ka vishesh bhojan raha hai. yahan ke log bahar se ane vale mehamanon ke lie isi bhojan ko parosate the. yahan ke logon ki ek kahavat adhik prachalit hain ki khanen ko mua, pairabai men amoa is bat ka snket deti hai ki sthaniy logon men mua aur amoa donon kafi lokapriy raha hai. bhojan ke snbndh men anek lok manyataen prachalit hain:-

chait mithi chimari baisakh mitho matha
jeth mithi dobari asadh mithe latha.
savan mithi khir- khnd yadon bhujen chana,
kvanr mithi kokari lyab kori tor ke.
katik mithi koodee dahi daro mare kon.
agahan khav joonari muri niboo zor ken.
poos mithi khichari gur daro phor kon.
monv mithi mithe poda ber phagun hora balen.
samai- samai ki mithi chizen sugar khabaiya khaven.

bundelakhndavasiyon men har mausam men alag bhojan khane ka prachalan tha. ye log bhojan khane men kabhi- kabhi kafi savadhani se kam lete hain. bundelakhnd ke logon men ber ka bahut hi vishesh mahattv tha. yahan ki ek kahavat hai

mukhen ber, aghane ponda ye log bhojan khane se pahale ber zaroor khate the.

kani ur bhala ki ani yahan ke logon ka manana tha ki kachche chaval ki nonk bhale ki nonk ke barabar hanikarak hoti hai.

bundelakhnd ke logon ke bhojan ka prabhav lok snskriti par dikhaee deta tha. isalie vah log yah manate the ki jaisa bhojan kiya jaega, vaisa hi man hoga.

jaiso anajal khaiye, taisoee man hoye.
jaiso pani pijie, taisi bani hoy..

tesoo aur sanjhi ka khel

bachchon ko kaise kalatmak gatividhiyon dvara snskarit karana hai, yah lok samuday achchhi tarah samajhata tha. shayad tabhi kuchh aise avasar jutaye gaye jinase balak balikaon ko apani parampon ka gyan ho sake. aise hi do avasar hain sanjhi aur tesoo ke khel. vaise to yah donon khel adhikansh uttar bharat men lokapriy hai parantu bundelakhnd men inaki apani hi chhata hai.

tesoo aur sanjhi ki kahani

bahut sal pahale jngal ke kinare ganv men ek brahman apani putri ke sath rahata tha. us jngal men ek rakshas bhi rahata tha. brahman ki rupavan kanya ko rakshas ne dekh liya aur us par mohit ho gaya. usane ladaki se usaka parichay liya aur usake pita se milane ki ichchha prakat ki brahman bahut ghabaraya usane socha yah rakshas mana karane par bhi manane vala nahin hai. isase usane rakshas se kaha ki vivah to ho jayega. parantu kuchh rasmen poori karani padegi isaliye kuchh din ka samay lagega.

in dinon brahman ki ladaki jo khel gobar ki thapaliyon se kheli vah sanjhi ya chanda taraiyan kahalaya aur tabhi se sanjhi khelane ki parampara ka arnbh hua. kvar mah ke yah solah din solah shraddh ke din mane jate hain. aur solah din bitane par rakshas aya parantu brahman ke parivar vale nahin pahunche. usane phir bahana banaya ki ab usaki ladaki nau din mitti ke gaur banakar khelegi. rakshas nau din bad phir vapis ane ki kah kar chala gaya. tabhi se yah nau din naurata kahalaye aur in dinon suata khelane ki pratha shuroo huee. nau din bhi khatm ho gaye, brahman ne usase kaha ab panch din tum aur meri beti ghar-ghar bhikh mangoge tab sharad poornima ke din tumhari shadi ho sakegi, rakshas is bat ke liye bhi man gaya aur tabhi se dashahare se poornima tak us rakshas ke nam par tesoo aur brahman ki ladaki ke nam par sanjhi mangane ki pratha ka arnbh hua.

is prakar jab bhikh mangate panch din bit gaye aur brahman ke parivar ke log nahin aye to brahman ko koee rasta dikhaee nahin diya. sharad poornima ke din usane vivah nishchit kar diya. lekin vivah ke sadhe tin phere hi pade the ki brahman ke parivar ke log a gaye aur unhonne us rakshas ko mar dala. unaki ladaki ka adha vivah rakshas se ho chuka tha, isaliye use bhrasht man kar unhonne use bhi mar dala isaliye tesoo aur sanjhi ka poora vivah nahin hone diya jata hai. unhen bich men phod diya jata hai. brahman ke bhaiyon ne socha n unaka chhota bhaee ghar chhod kar bhagata aur n hin unake kul ko is prakar dag lagata isaliye unhonne us brahman ko bhi mar dala. isiliye naurata men mitti ke gaur banakar khela jane vala suata, tesoo ke vivah ke bad us brahman pita ke pratik suata ke roop men phod diya jata hai.

tesoo ka git sanjhi ka git

tesoo bhaiya bade kasaee
ankh phod bandook chalaee
sab bachchan se bhikh mngaee
donon mar ge log lugaee.

meri sanjhi bhog le bhog le
aur ki sanjhi loy le log le
meri sanjhi palaka lote lote
aur ki sanjhi ghooro lete lete
meri sanjhi pan khaye pan khaye
aur ki sanjhi kutta ko kan khaye
meri sanjhi palaka lote
aur ki sanjhi tat odhe.

bundelakhand ki mahima

is kavita ke dvara bundelakhnd ki mahima is prakar hai.

yah bundelakhand ki dharati hai, hire upajaya karati hai.
kalindi shashimukh ki veni, chambal, son khanakate kngana.
vindhy uroj sal ban anchal, nirmal hnsi doodhiya jharana.
ken, dhasan rajat kar dhauni, vetravati sadi ki sikudan.
dhoop chhanh ki manahar angiya, khajuraho vilas grih upavan.
pahin mukhar narmada painjani, pag-pag sharmaya karati hai.
yah bundelakhand ki dharati, hire upajaya karati hai.

paramanand diya hi isane, yahin rashtrakavi hamane paya.
isi bhoomi se chal tulasi ne, dhar-dhar sitaram ramaya.
chitrakoot devagadh yahin par, pavan tirth prakriti rngashala.
jhansi ke ran-bichi yahin par, dhadhaki pratham kranti ki jvala.
pichhen rahakar yah svadesh ko, neta de jaya karati hai.
yah bundelakhand ki dharati, hire upajaya karati hai.

bundelakhnd ki kala

hamen aj bhi bundelakhnd ke bite vaibhav ki jhalak ukt bhoomi par chhitaki huee pashan kal se prapt hoti hai. is kala ne bundelakhnd ki bhoomi par kitana adar paya aur is kala ka yahan kitana vikas hua, yah bat puratattv-visheshgyon se chhipi huee nahin hai. bundelakhnd se pragaitihasik kal ki adivasiyon dvara pooji jane vali moortiyan bhi prapt hoti hain. inaka mooly kala ki drishti se adhik nahin hai, kintu moortikala ke adi roop ka inase achchha gyan prapt hota hai. ye moortiyan bahut mayane rakhati hain aur amooly hain. bundelakhnd ke any sthanon men pakke rng ki chitrakari bhi milati hai. in chitrakariyon ka rng itana pakka hai ki ab tak kisi prakar bhoomi se mit nahin paya hai. in chitrakariyon men manushyon aur ghodon ke bhadde chitr hain. shila-bhittiyon par devara ke nikat gairik rng ke bane hue chitr manav prakriti ki adim anubhootiyon ke sakshi hain. in chitron men pashuon ka pradarshan kiya gaya hai.

ramayan tatha mahabharat ke svarn yugon ki kala-kritiyon ka snbndh jahan tak hai, bundelakhnd ki kya sare bharat men ve nahin ke barabar hai. yudhishthir ke sabha-bhavan ka nirman mahabharat yug men jis kushalata se danav adi kalakaron ne kiya tha, usaka varnan grnthon men hi simit hai.

kalin aur khajuraho ki kala kritiyan

tritiy shatabdi se teharavin shatabdi tak is prant men us sthapaty kala ka srijan hua jo kalin aur khajuraho ki krittiyon men jivant roop men aj bhi vartaman hain. kalin ki kala chndeli kal ki hai. khajuraho ki usase bhi pahale ki hai, khajuraho men chini yatri huenasang, jo ki harshavardhan ke rajy-kal men aya tha, ne bhi mndir ka hona likha hai. khajuraho ka vishal mandir, devagadh ki vishnu moorti, datiya ka purana mahal, panna ka brihaspati kund, jatara ka madanasagar adi vastukala ke praman hai.

khajuraho men bis mandiron ke samooh ki kavi kalpana ki moortiyon ko bana ke prithvi par utara gaya hai. is mandir ke bahar aur bhitar donon or ki divaron ko devataon, apsaraon, sundariyon, vidyadharon, yugal-mithunon, gaj aur shardool ki sundar kala-kritiyon se sajaya gaya hai. khajuraho ke shilpi anupam krititv hain, usaki nari pratimaen itani sundar hain ki unako dekh kar aisa lagata hai mano jad men chetan apane sampoorn vaibhav ke sath jag utha ho. itana sammohan hai ki pashan men jivan sapndan ka bhram hone lagata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. aitihasik sthanavali |lekhak: vijayendr kumar mathur |prakashak: rajasthan hindi grnth akadami, jayapur |snkalan: bharatakosh pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 640 |

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