अपभ्रंश भाषा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(अपभ्रंश se punarnirdeshit)

apabhrnsh bhasha madhy bharatiy-ary bhashaon (lagabhag 12 vin shatabdi) ke tisare aur antim charan ki sahityik bhasha hai.

  • sahityik bhasha hone ke bavazood apabhrnsh men aise parivartan parilakshit hue hain, jo uttari bharat men boli jane vali boliyon men hue honge.
  • madhy bharatiy-ary bhasha men snskrit se kafi svaravaigyanik aur roopatmak antar drishtigochar hota hai. roodh vyakaranavadi aise sabhi antaron ko apabhrnsh ki sngya dete hain, jisaka arth vipath hona hai. arnbhik kal men is prachalan ko bhrasht mana jata tha. shauraseni prakrit ko apabhrnsh ka arnbhik charan mana jata hai. jab sahityik upayog ke lie prakrit ko aupacharik roop diya gaya (sootrabaddh kiya gaya), to isake boligat prakaron ko apabhrnsh ke roop men pahachana jane laga.
  • tisari shatabdi men bharat muni ne naty vidya par apane grnth natyashastr men do prakar ki sthaniy boliyon ka ullekh kiya hai, prakrit (bhashaen) aur usake bhrnsh (vibhashaen).
  • satavin shatabdi ke kavi dndi ne abhir jaisi kavyatmak bhashaon ko apabhrnsh kaha hai. is tarah is nishkarsh par pahuncha ja sakata hai, ki tisari shatabdi men nishchit roop se apabhrnsh ke nam se gyat boliyan thin, jo kramashah sahityik star tak vikasit hueen.
  • chhathi shatabdi men bhamah ne kavita ko snskrit, prakrit tatha apabhrnsh ke roop men vargikrit kiya. chhathi shatabdi tak apabhrnsh ko sahityik bhasha ke roop men manyata mil chuki thi aur yah ek roodhibaddh shaili men qayam rahi, yahan tak ki navin bharatiy-ary bhashaon ke sath bhi isaka astitv bana raha.
  • ab bhi apabhrnsh sirf kavita ki bhasha ke roop men gyat hai, kyonki koee gady ya naty rachana is bhasha men nahin hai.
  • adhikansh vartaman sahity jain pauranik kathaon aur kinvadntiyon par adharit hai. is bhasha ki kuchh shastriy rachanaen hain, athavin shatabdi men svaynbhoodev dvara rachit, ramayan ka jain snskaran pum chariu; 10 vin shatabdi ke pushpadnt dvara likhit mahapuran (63 jain, charitron ke jivan par adharit) aur nay kumar chariu; 10vin shatabdi ke dhanapal ki bhavisayattakaha; aur 11vin shatabdi ke padmakirti ki pasanah chariu hai.
  • doha chhnd, jinamen se pratyek apane ap men snpoorn hai aur ek svatntr avadharana ko moortiman karata hai, apabhrnsh ka lokapriy sahityik svaroop hai. dohon ke kuchh ullekhaniy snkalan hain, satavin shatabdi men devasen ki rachana savay- dhammadoha aur athavin shatabdi men kanh ki rachana doha kosh.
  • hemachndr ne 12 vin shatabdi men prakrit vyakaran par apane grnth men apabhrnsh ki vyapak vivechana ki hai. kaha jata hai ki unaki tippaniyan pashchimi boliyon par adharit thin. snbhavana hai ki inhin boliyon se apabhrnsh kavy ka arnbh hua hoga.

apabhrnsh ke kaviyon ne apani bhasha ko keval 'bhasa', 'desi bhasa' athava 'gamell bhasa' (gramin bhasha) kaha hai, parntu snskrit ke vyakaranon aur alnkaragrnthon men us bhasha ke lie pray: 'apabhrnsh' tatha kahin-kahin 'apabhrasht' sngya ka prayog kiya gaya hai. is prakar apabhrnsh nam snskrit ke acharyon ka diya hua hai, jo apatat:tiraskarasoochak pratit hota hai. mahabhashyakar patnjali ne jis prakar 'apabhrnsh' shabd ka prayog kiya hai usase pata chalata hai ki snskrit ya sadhu shabd ke lokaprachalit vividh roop apabhrnsh ya apashabd kahalate the. is prakar pratiman se chyut, skhalit, bhrasht athava vikrit shabdon ko apabhrnsh ki sngya di gee aur age chalakar yah sngya poori bhasha ke lie svikrit ho gee. dndi (satavin shati) ke kathan se is tathy ki pushti hoti hai. unhonne spasht likha hai ki shastr arthath‌ vyakaran shastr men snskrit se itar shabdon ko apabhrnsh kaha jata hai; is prakar pali-prakrit-apabhrnsh sabhi ke shabd 'apabhrnsh' sngya ke antargat a jate hain, phir bhi pali prakrit ko 'apabhrnsh' nam nahin diya gaya.

dndi ne is bat ko spasht karate hue age kaha hai ki kavy men abhir adi boliyon ko apabhrnsh nam se smaran kiya jata hai; isase yah nishkarsh nikala ja sakata hai ki apabhrnsh nam usi bhasha ke lie roodh hua jisake shabd snskritetar the aur sath hi jisaka vyakaran bhi mukhyat: abhiradi lok boliyon par adharit tha. isi arth men apabhrnsh pali-prakrit adi se vishesh bhinn thi.

apabhrnsh ke snbndh men prachin alnkaragrnthon men do prakar ke paraspar virodhi mat milate hain. ek or rudrat ke kavyalnkar (2-12) ke tikakar namisadhu (106 ee.) apabhrnsh ko prakrit kahate hain to doosari or bhamah (chhathi shati), dndi (satavin shati) adi achary apabhrnsh ka ullekh prakrit se bhinn svatntr kavyabhasha ke roop men karate hain. in virodhi maton ka samadhan karate hue yakogi (bhavissayatt kaha ki jarman bhoomika, angreji anuvad, badauda oriental instityoot jarnal, joon 1955) ne kaha hai ki shabdasamooh ki drishti se apabhrnsh prakrit ke nikat hai aur vyakaran ki drishti se prakrit se bhinn bhasha hai.

is prakar apabhrnsh ke shabdakosh ka adhikansh, yahan tak ki nabbe pratishat, prakrit se grihit hai aur vyakaranik gathan prakritik roopon se adhik vikasit tatha adhunik bhashaon ke nikat hai. prachin vyakaranon ke apabhrnsh snbndhi vicharon ke kramabaddh adhyayan se pata chalata hai ki chhah sau varshon men apabhrnsh ka kramash: vikas hua. bharat (tisari shart) ne ise shabar, abhir, gurjar adi ki bhasha bataya hai. chnd (chhathi shati) ne 'prakritalakshanam' men ise vibhasha kaha hai aur usi ke asapas balabhi ke raj dhruvasen dvitiy ne ek tamrapatt men apane pita ka gunagan karate hue unahen snskrit aur prakrit ke sath hi apabhrnsh prabndharachana men nipun bataya hai. apabhrnsh ke kavyasamarth bhasha hone ki pushti bhamah aur dndi jaise acharyon dvara age chalakar satavin shati men ho gee. kavyamimansakar rajashekhar (dasavin shati) ne apabhrnsh kaviyon ko rajasabha men sammanapoorn sthan dekar apabhrnsh ke rajasamman ki or snket kiya to tikakar purushottam (11vin shati) ne ise shishtavarg ki bhasha batalaya. isi samay achary hemachndr ne apabhrnsh ka vistrit aur sodaharan vyakaran likhakar apabhrnsh bhasha ke gauravapoorn pad ki pratishtha kar di. is prakar jo bhasha tisari shati men abhir adi jatiyon ki lokaboli thi vah chhathi shati se sahityik bhasha ban gee aur 11vin shati tak jate-jate shishtavarg ki bhasha tatha rajabhasha ho gee.

apabhrnsh ke kramash: bhaugolik vistarasoochak ullekh bhi prachin grnthon men milate hain. bharat ke samay (tisari shati) tak yah pashchimottar bharat ki boli thi, parntu rajashekhar ke samay (dasavin shati) tak pnjab, rajasthan aur gujarat arthath‌ samooche pashchimi bharat ki bhasha ho gee. sath hi svaynbhoo, pushpadnt, dhanapal, kanakamar, sarahapa, kanhapa adi ki apabhrnsh rachanaon se pramanit hota hai ki us samay yah samooche uttar bharat ki sahityik bhasha ho gee thi.

vaiyakaranon ne apabhrnsh ke bhedon ki bhi charcha ki hai. markndey (17vin shati) ke anusar isake nagar, upanagar aur brachad tin bhed the aur namisadhu (11vin shati) ke anusar upanagar, abhir aur gramy. in namon se kisi prakar ke kshetriy bhed ka pata nahin chalata. vidvanon ne abhiron ko vraty kaha hai, is prakar 'brachad' ka snbndh 'vraty' se mana ja sakata hai. aisi sthiti men abhiri aur brachad ek hi boli ke do nam hue. kramadishvar (13vin shati) ne nagar apabhrnsh aur shasak chhnd ka snbndh sthapit kiya hai. shasak chhndon ki rachana pray: pashchimi pradeshon men hi huee hai. is prakar apabhrnsh ke sabhi bhedopabhed pashchimi bharat se hi snbaddh dikhaee padate hain. vastut: sahityik apabhrnsh apane parinishthit roop men pashchimi bharat ki hi bhasha thi, parntu any pradeshon men prasar ke sath-sath usamen svabhavat: kshetriy visheshataen bhi jud geen. prapt rachanaon ke adhar par vidvanon ne poorvi aur dakshini do any kshetriy apabhrnshon ke prachalan ka anuman lagaya hai.

apabhrnsh bhasha ka dhancha lagabhag vahi hai jisaka vivaran hemachndr ke 'siddhahemashabadanushasanamh‌' ke athaven adhyay ke chaturth pad men milata hai. dhvaniparirvan ki jin pravrittiyon ke dvara snskrit shabdon ke tadbhav roop prakrit men prachalit the, vahi pravritiyan adhikanshat: apabhrnsh shabdasamooh men bhi dikhaee padati hai, jaise anadi aur asnyukt k,g,ch,j,t,d,p,y, aur v ka lop tatha inake sthan par udvrit svar a athava y shruti ka prayog. isi prakar prakrit ki tarah ('kt', 'kv', 'dv') adi snyukt vynjanon ke sthan par apabhrnsh men bhi 'kt', 'kk', 'dd' adi dvittavynjan hote the. parntu apabhrnsh men kramash: samitavarti udvrit svaron ko milakar ek svar karane aur dvittavynjan ko saral karake ek vynjan surakshit rakhane ki pravritti badhati gee. isi prakar apabhrnsh men prakrit se kuchh aur vishisht dhvaniparivartan hue. apabhrnsh karakarachana men vibhaktiyan prakrit ki apeksha adhik ghisi huee milati hain, jaise tritiya ekavachan men 'en' ki jagah 'en' aur shashthi ekavachan men 'ss' ke sthan par 'h'. isake atirikt apabhrnsh nirvibhaktik sngya roopon se bhi karakarachana ki gee. sahun, kehin, tehin, desi, tanen, kera,majjhi adi parasarg bhi prayukt hue. kridntaj kriyaon ke prayog ki pravritti badhi aur snyukt kriyaon ke nirman ka arnbh hua. snkshep men apabhrnsh ne ne subnton aur tinnton ki srishti ki. apabhrnsh sahity ki prapt rachanaon ka adhikansh jain kavy hai arthath‌ rachanakar jain the aur prabndh tatha muktak sabhi kavyon ki vastu jain darshan tatha puranon se prerit hai. sabase prachin aur shreshth kavi svaynbhoo (navin shati) hain jinhonne ram ki katha ko lekar 'pum-chariu' tatha 'mahabharat' ki rachana ki hai. doosare mahakavi pushpadnt (dasavin shati) hain jinhonne jain parnpara ke trishashthi shalakapurushon ka charit 'mahapuran' namak vishal kavy men chitrit kiya hai. isamen ram aur krishn ki bhi katha sammilit hai. isake atirikt pushpadnt ne 'nayakumarachariu' aur 'jasaharachariu' jaise chhote-chhote do charitakavyon ki bhi rachana ki hai. tisare lokapriy kavi dhanapal (dasavin shati) hain jinaki 'bhavissayatt kaha' shrutapnchami ke avasar par kahi janevali lokaprachalit prachin katha hai. kanakamar muni (11vin shati) ka 'karaknduchariu' bhi ullekhaniy charitakavy hai.

apabhrnsh ka apana dulara chhnd doha hai. jis prakar prakrit ko 'gatha' ke karan 'gahabndh' kaha jata hai, usi prakar apabhrnsh ko 'dohabndh'. phutakal dohon men anek lalit apabhrnsh rachanaen huee hain, jo indu (athavin shati) ka 'paramatmaprakash' aur 'yogasar', ramasinh (dasavin shati) ka 'pahud doha', devasen (dasavin shati) ka 'savayadhamm doha' adi jain muniyon ki gyanopadeshaparak rachanaen adhikashnt: doha men hain. prabndhachintamani tatha hemachndrarachit vyakaran ke apabhrnsh dohon se pata chalata hai ki shrringar aur shaury ke aihik muktak bhi kaphi snkhya men likhe ge hain. kuchh rasak kavy bhi likhe ge hain jinamen kuchh to 'upadesh rasayan ras' ki tarah nitant dharmik hain, parntu addahaman (13vin shati) ke sndesharasak ki tarah shrringar ke saras romans kavy bhi likhe ge hain.

jainon ke atirikt bauddh siddhon ne bhi apabhrnsh men rachana ki hai jinamen sarahapa, kanhapa adi ke dohakosh mahatvapoorn hain. apabhrnsh gady ke bhi namoone milate hain. gady ke tukade udyotan soori (satavin shati) ki 'kuvalayamal kaha' men yatratatr bikhare hue hain.

navin khojon se jo samagri samane a rahi hai, usase pata chalata hai ki apabhrnsh ka sahity atynt samriddh hai. dedh sau ke asapas apabhrnsh grnth prapt ho chuke hain jinamen se lagabhag pachas prakashit hain.[1]


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  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 135 |

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